URAYAI DOUGLAS J.
[email protected] / 0719098269
FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
THIRD YEAR RESEARCH PROJECT PROPOSAL
SUPERVISOR: MRS OLGA KUIPA
research project proposal
CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u CONTENTS PAGEREF _Toc528904425 h 1PROJECT TITLE PAGEREF _Toc528904426 h 1GENERAL OBJECTIVE PAGEREF _Toc528904427 h 1SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES PAGEREF _Toc528904428 h 1PROBLEM STATEMENT PAGEREF _Toc528904429 h 2PROJECT JUSTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc528904430 h 2REVIEW IN LITERATURE PAGEREF _Toc528904431 h 2Physical properties PAGEREF _Toc528904432 h 3Chemical Properties PAGEREF _Toc528904433 h 3METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc528904434 h 3Results analysis PAGEREF _Toc528904435 h 3Time line PAGEREF _Toc528904436 h 4REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc528904437 h 4
Aloe Vera Gel extraction
GENERAL OBJECTIVETo empirically determine the optimisation of the extraction process of the aloe vera gel recovery using centrifuge and acetone as the solvent
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESTo investigate the physical and chemical properties of aloe Vera gel.
To develop an efficient extraction procedure and ideal centrifuge speed rate, temperature and time for extracting the gel , and hence obtain optimum conditions that will cater for the optimum recovery of the gel
To study the physical and chemical properties of Aloe Vera leaves.
To assess the gel extraction processPROBLEM STATEMENTThe cultivation of Aloe Vera has acquired great commercial importance for medicinal products and cosmetics processing but information is scarce about processing of this crop1. As such there is not much scientific information available in Zimbabwe regarding extraction of the aloe Vera gel whilst there is vast information about its wide range of benefits globally.1 The expanding Aloe industry urgently needs to develop test procedures and a reliable database for the extraction process of the aloe Vera gel. There is no scientific literature available for the extraction process of the aloe Vera leaf gel available in the country and also there is no evidence production set up of an industry in Zimbabwe reasons being that there is no commercial cultivation of the plant done1. The only companies in Zimbabwe which make use of the leaf gel as an ingredient in one of their products is DATLABS Zim (Pvt) Ltd and it is used as an active ingredient in the production of Lanolin Milk7 which is used as a cosmetic and Kelshmar Dairies which uses the gel to make a drinks. Large amounts of foreign currency is being externalized in the form of importation of the aloe Vera gel therefore there being need to undertake this project.
PROJECT JUSTIFICATIONZimbabwe being resident in the tropical climate estate natures the ideal conditions favourable for the commercial cultivation of the Aloe Vera plant. The leaf gel is used in a wide variety of industrial applications namely the pharmaceutical industry, liquor industry, food industry7 and also in cosmetics and medicinal remedies thus a simple and efficient technique needs to be developed for the gel extraction process here in Zimbabwe.. With the current escalated cost of health related products, it is fundamental for the country to identify and establish industrial hubs that can sustain the health sector and hence the Aloe Vera gel extraction process should be developed. The gel extracted will act as an active ingredient in the production of pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics.9 If gel produced is more than enough, surplus can then be exported into the international grid at a good income therefore generating foreign currency reserves for the country thus enriching our economy. This also means that the cost of many pharmaceutical products production will be reduced. Extraction of aloe Vera gel is a clean industrial operation and the wholesome production process is environmentally.9 friendly as not much chemicals are used in both the cultivation and processing of the plant.
REVIEW IN LITERATUREAloe Vera is a perennial plant native to the warm dry regions especially in southern Europe, Asia and Africa1. It belongs to the Liliaceou family as it is a tropical climate thriving plant2. It is indigenous to eastern and southern Africa and has been spread throughout many of the warmer regions of the world1. Originally the plant resided in the Mediterranean habitat and thrives well in warm dry climate2. Its existence dates back to the times of the Biblical History as it was used as a sacred plant which was preserved as the healer remedy for a wide range of skin disorders1. The juice was used traditionally used as a medicinal juice for livestock and poultry as it was said to be a vaccine in most of the animal related health disorders2. Its nutrient deficiency status makes it less prone to predators. The gel is used for industrial production of a wide variety of products mainly targeting the pharmaceutical, food and traditional herb industries producing products such as cosmetics, lotions, nutrient supplement and as a beverage additive3. The global aloe Vera gel market was worth US$465 million in 2016, and of which is said is growing marginally every year attributing to the increased usage of the gel in food, health care and cosmetic industry.3
Physical propertiesAloe Vera has thick green leaves containing gel and latex with composition of 95% water and the rest includes nutrients, enzymes, minerals, sugars and hormones3. The leaf is spiky and the stem is very short.4The Aloe Juice is colorless, transparent water like juice obtained from fresh aloe leaves. It is tasteless and odorless.2 Aloe Vera Latex commonly known as aloin has a bitter taste and purgative quality.5
Chemical PropertiesThe gel has a weak acidic Ph which ranges from 4.47 -4.54 as referenced from Wang and Strong (1993).8 The amount of aloin in the gel ranges from 31 – 41 mg/L.8 The amount of soluble solids range from 0.708 – 0.586 %. The amount of sugars present in the gel range from 2555 to 1361 mg/L.8 Lastly but not least, the amount of fibre in the gel is also said to be ranging from 0.077 to 0.074 %. These composition figures were based on weight.8
METHODOLOGYDo a literature review on the investigations for the gel extraction and physio-chemical properties of the Aloe Vera gel
Develop an optimum technology or an improvement of an existing methodology approach that can be used to extract the gel from the basic raw material which is the Aloe vera leaf
Empirically determine the optimum conditions of a sample of leaf with the same composition as that which is expected to be obtained from the developed extraction system. An experiment is carried out in this empirical process.
Experiment is to be lab based.
Results analysisOn basis of the following parameters and using unit weight on every sample
Acetone percentage addition
Determine effect of each of the process parameters for extraction of gel from Aloe Vera leaves
Determine the combined effect of two process parameters on gel extraction process
Determine the combined effect of three process parameters on gel extraction process
Determine the overall effect of acetone, centrifuge temperature, speed and duration on gel extraction process
Finally formalize an improved process for extraction of gel from Aloe Vera leaf
ACTIVITY OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR.
REVIEW: Aloe Vera physio-chemical properties and gel extraction process DEVELOPMENT OF EXTRACTION SYSTEM AND MOBILISATION OF RESOURCES FOR USE OF EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT ANALYSIS OF RESULTS FINAL PROJECT DOCUMENTATION DISSERTATION REFERENCESJournals
Aloe vera: Development of gel extraction process for Aloe Vera leaves: Kumar Varshney and Dr. Vallabh ChandegaraAloe Vera L. processing and products (November 2013) : A review
NextWhatBusiness (2018c): How to Start Aloe Vera Gel Manufacturing BussinessSMEDA Aloe Vera Processing(June, 2006): Pre-Feasibility Study
www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/aloe/index.cfm : Accessed October 2018
Datlabs Pvt/Ltd, Zimbabwe. Aloe vera products
www.datlabs.co.zw/products/lanolinmilk : Accessed on October 2018
Effect of centrifuge speed on Gel Extraction from Aloe Vera Leaves
www.omisonline.org/open-access/effect-of-centrifuge-speed-on-gel-extraction-from-aloe-vera-leaves-2157-7110.1000295php?aid=22928 : Accessed October 2018
processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products : a review www.ncbi.nlm.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3551117/#Sec4title: Accessed October 2018