The study of angles and of the angular relationships of planar and three-dimensional figures is known as trigonometry. The trigonometric functions (also called the circular functions) comprising trigonometry are the cosecant , cosine , cotangent , secant , sine , and tangent . The inverses of these functions are denoted , , , , , and . Note that the notation here means inverse function, not to the power. The trigonometric functions are most simply defined using the unit circle. Let be an angle measured counterclockwise from the x-axis along an arc of the circle. Then is the horizontal coordinate of the arc endpoint, and is the vertical component. Theratio is defined as . As a result of this definition, the trigonometric functions are periodic with period , so