The main gods of Ancient Egypt
In ancient Egypt there were a very large number of gods. Each city had its own pantheon or ennead – the 9 main deities that people worshiped. However, for the first time such an ennead appeared in the city of Heliopolis (Heliopolis). It has been known since the time of the Early Kingdom, that is, from the sources of Egyptian civilization.
The priests who lived in this city were considered the most influential and powerful. They called the very first nine deities. Therefore, it is believed that the main gods of Ancient Egypt were born in Heliopolis, and the pantheon itself was called Heliopolis or the great Ennead . Below is a list of the supreme deities and gives a brief description of them.
The Image of the Gods
This is the supreme ancient Egyptian deity. It represented the sun. After the creation of the world, Ra began to reign over him, and this was the most gracious time for people. The power of God was in his mysterious name. Other celestials wanted to know this name in order to obtain the same strength, but the sun god did not tell anyone.
It took a very long time, and Ra grew old. He lost his vigilance and called his mysterious name the great-granddaughter of Isis. After this came the period of chaos, and people ceased to obey the supreme deity. Then the sun god decided to leave the earth and go to heaven.
But he did not forget the people and continued to take care of them. Every morning he sat in a boat called Atet, and above his head shone a solar disk. In this boat Ra floated across the sky and lit the earth from dawn to noon. Then between noon and twilight he was transplanted to another boat called Seket and went to the underground kingdom to illuminate the troubles of the afterlife.
In this mournful place, the sun god every night met the great serpent Apop, personifying evil and darkness. Between Ra and the serpent, the battle began, and the god of the sun was always the winner. But the evil and gloom to the next night again revived, and the battle was repeated again.
The ancient Egyptians portrayed the god Ra with the human body and the head of the falcon, which was crowned by the solar disk. On it lay the goddess Uajjit in the form of a cobra. She was considered the patroness of Lower Egypt and his pharaohs. This god had separate names in some religious centers. In Thebes he was called Amon-Ra, in Elephantine, Khnum Ra. But this did not change the main essence of the solar deity, who had the status of the main god of Ancient Egypt.
This deity personified an air space illuminated by the sun. Shu was the son of Ra, and when he ascended into heaven, he began to reign instead of him. He ruled the sky, the earth, the mountains, the winds, the seas. After a thousand years, Shu also ascended to heaven. According to its status, it was considered the second after Ra.
On some images it was shown in the form of a man with a lion’s head. He was sitting on the throne carried by the lions. But there are many more images of the god of air in the form of an ordinary man with a feather in his head. It symbolized the goddess of truth Maat.
This deity also belonged to the main gods of Ancient Egypt. Tefnut – the goddess of heat and moisture. I had a daughter to the god Ra and was the wife of my brother Shu. The husband and wife were twins. But even before marriage, the god Ra removed his daughter to Nubia, having quarreled with her, and in Egypt a drought occurred. Then the sun god returned her daughter, and she married with Shu.
The return of Tefnut and her marriage became a symbol of the flowering of nature. Most often, the goddess was portrayed as a man with a lioness’s head and a fire disk above her head. The disc indicated her connection with Ra’s father, since the daughter was considered his fiery eye. When the sun god appeared early in the morning on the horizon, a fiery eye shone in his forehead and burned all enemies and ill-wishers.
the god Geb
Geb is the god of the earth, son of Shu and Tefnut. He married his own sister Nut – the goddess of heaven – and this couple had children: Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys. It is noteworthy that Geb constantly quarreled with Nut, who before dawn ate their children – the heavenly bodies, but again gave birth to them on the eve of twilight.
These quarrels tired Father Shu, and he separated the couple. He raised the whale high into the sky, and Geba left on the ground. He reigned after his father, and then transferred his power to son Osiris. He was portrayed most often in the form of a green man sitting on a throne with a royal crown on his head.
Nut – goddess of heaven, daughter of Shu and Tefnut, sister and wife of Hebe. She was the mother of Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys. In the morning, the goddess of the sky swallowed the stars, and in the late evening gave birth to them, symbolizing thereby the change of day and night. She had an indissoluble connection with the world of the dead.
She lifted the dead into the sky and guarded the tombs of the dead. It was portrayed as a woman with a curved body. It extended over the horizon and touched the ground with the tips of the fingers and toes. Often under the curved body, Nut depicted Geb lying on the ground.
I must say that the main gods of Ancient Egypt would have lost much without Osiris . He was a great-grandson of the god Ra and ruled the earth after his father Geb. During his reign, he taught people many useful things. He married his own sister Isis, and Seth and Nephthys were his brother and sister. But Seth, who lived in the south of Egypt in the desert, began to envy a successful brother, killed him and appropriated royal power.
Seth did not just kill, but dismembered the body of Osiris for 14 pieces and scattered them through the lands of Egypt. But the faithful wife of Isis found all the pieces, put them together and called the guide to the underground kingdom of Anubis. He from the body of Osiris made a mummy, which was the first in Egypt. After this, Isis turned into a female vulture, spread out over the body of her husband and brother and became pregnant with him. Thus Gore was born, who became the last of the gods who ruled the earth. After him, the power passed to the pharaohs.
Gore defeated Seth, sent him back to the south into the desert, and revived his father with his left eye. After that, he remained to rule on the earth, and Osiris began to reign in the next world. They portrayed God as a man in white robes and with a green face. He held a chain and a scepter in his hands, and crown crowned his head.
The Goddess Isis
The Goddess Isis
Isis (Isis) was extremely popular in ancient Egypt, was considered the goddess of fertility, symbolized motherhood and femininity. She was the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus. The Egyptians believed that the Nile flooded when Isis crying, mourning Osiris, who left her and left to rule the kingdom of the dead.
The significance of this goddess increased significantly during the Middle Kingdom, when not only pharaohs and members of their families, but also all other inhabitants of Egypt, became the funerary texts. They portrayed Isis as a man with a throne on his head, which personified the power of the pharaohs.
Set (Seth) – the younger son of Hebe and Nut, brother of Osiris, Isis and Nephthys. At the last he married. He was born on the third New Year’s day, jumped out of his mother’s side. This day the ancient Egyptians considered unhappy, therefore, until the day was over, did not do any deeds. Seth was considered the god of war, chaos and sandstorms. He embodied evil, than it is similar to Satan. After killing Osiris, he reigned for a short time on earth until he was deposed by Horus. After that he was in the desert in the south of Egypt, from where he sent sandstorms to the fertile lands.
They depicted Seth as a man with a head of a pipe-pipe or an ass. He had long ears and on many images a red mane. Sometimes this god made red eyes. This color symbolized desert sand and death. The sacred animal of the god of sandstorms was a pig. Therefore, the pigs were classified as unclean animals.
The youngest of the children of Hebe and Nut named Nephthys also belonged to the main gods of Ancient Egypt. She appeared on the light on the last day of the year. The ancient Egyptians regarded this goddess as an addition to Isis. She was considered the goddess of creation, which pervades the whole world. Nephthys was dominated by all the ephemeral, which could not be seen, felt or smelled. She had a connection with the world of the dead, and at night accompanied Ra in his voyage through the underworld.
She was considered the wife of Seth, but did not have pronounced negative features peculiar to her husband. Represented this goddess in the human female image. Her head was crowned with a hieroglyph symbolizing the name of the goddess. On the sarcophagi depicted in the form of a woman with wings, symbolizing the defender of the deceased.