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THE IMPACTS OF VOLCANOES ON HUMANS AND ENVIROMENTS OF THE SECOND MILLINEEIUM
AIM
To evaluate the impacts of volcanoes on humans and the environment of the second millennium.
OBJECTIVES
To access the damage caused by volcanoes on humans.
To evaluate the economic importance of volcanoes on human.
To analyze the statistics of deaths caused by volcanoes
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

METHODOLOGY
OBJECTIVES METHODOLOGY
To access the damage caused by volcanoes
On humans Documentary Analysis
To evaluate the economic importance of volcanoes on humans Documentary Analysis
To analyze the statistics of deaths caused by
volcanoes Documentary Analysis

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INTRODUCTION
More than 80% of the Earth’s surface is of volcanic origin volcanos are openings on the earth’s crust where hot magma flows from the mantle. A volcano is a conical hill or mountain that built around a vent that joins reservoirs of molten rock called magma. This lava flow dries up and in turn form a mountain along with the ash from the eruption. The slope of the mountains formed can be different depending on the amount of ash and the viscosity of the lava, slope of the land ant the volume output (Tilling, 2014) Volcanoes are not randomly spread all over the Earth’s surface, volcanoes are located mainly on edges of continental plate boundaries or as some call them tectonic plates, some are located along on islands and some can be found under the sea, Most of the earth’s volcanoes are found on land around or encircling the Pacific ocean, this is commonly known as the ring of fire. Most of the earth volcanoes are formed when the tectonic plates move and slide past other plate and also when they collide. This movement often cause earthquakes which result in the production of most volcanoes found on earth. These tectonic plates have an average width of 80 km and are constantly separating, sliding past each other, or hitting each other on top of the Earth’s hot mantle (smith et al, 2009). Volcanos are formed by movements of tectonic plates, as these tectonic plates move they weaken the crust and form cracks known as faults. Due to the buoyancy and gas pressure in the mantle, the molten rock is forced to rise upward through those cracks making an explosion. Because of the force the magma is sprayed or projected to higher altitudes accompanied by gases and ash. The explosion and rising up of the magma and ash is called an eruption. There are different types of volcanic eruptions of which some can just be a cloud of gases and stream whereas some blast great clouds of gas-laden debris, eruptions are mostly labelled according to the characteristics similar to a well-known volcano for example “Strombolian,” “Vulcanian,” “Vesuvian,” “Peléan,” “Hawaiian,” and others (Tilling, 1992).
There are three main types of volcanoes, which are cinder cone volcano, stratovolcano and shield volcano. Chapman, C. R. (1977). Stratovolcano also known as composite volcano includes features like the composition of many layers which are volcanic ash and tephra amongst others. These layers are of hardened lava. This type of volcano is only found on earth and mars in the entire solar system. Harris, S. L. (1988). This type of volcano is formed along subduction zones, whereby two tectonic plates collide and one is forced to sink beneath the other. Steep slopes are common amongst them and they are the most abundant type of volcanoes on earth Press, F. ; Siever, R. (1974). Stratovolcanoes are accompanied with violent eruptions whereby lava is forced out with greater force hence explosive. The type of lava ejected by this type of volcano is intermediate in the sense that both basic lava found mostly in the oceanic plate and acidic lava which is found in the continental plate can both be ejected independently looking at the geographical location of the volcano. Tambora, Krakatoa, Vesuvius and Mount Helen are some examples of stratovolcanoes. Amongst these Mount Tambora holds a record of the most violent eruption in history, whereby the global dropped to 3.5°C for a period of a year. This eruption led to famine during this period. Scott, K. M. et.al (1992). The second type of cinder cone volcano is made up of accumulation of certain debris called tephra around a volcanic vent and it is different from stratovolcanoes in the sense that it does not have horizontal layers. The materials that form this mountain are loose pyroclastic materials. Fink, J.H., and Griffiths, R.W. (1998). They are usually located near shield volcano and stratovolcano. Cinder cone volcanoes are distinguished by the rate of eruptions they have or take place. But the most frequent cinder cone volcano is less violent as compared to stratovolcanoes. Pinkerton, H. and L. Wilson, (1994). The third type, shield volcanoes, is a type with features including composition of lava forming a gentle slope. Mauna Loa is the largest a shield volcano on the island of Hawaii in the world, it is about 30,000 miles above the earth’s surface , covering a width of about 100 miles on the earth’s surface. Effusive eruptions lead to the formation of this type of volcano as lava travels long distances. They are not accompanied by violent eruptions as compared to stratovolcanoes and cinder cone volcanoes. They mainly produce basic lava and hence the reason why the lava travels a long a distance. Furthermore this basic lava is of very high temperatures and low volatiles which then leads to the formation lava tubes or tunnels, these channels a visible in Madeira Portugal where a shield volcano has erupted . Scott, W.E., (1989)
Even though volcanoes can be very dangerous they have very important impacts on the environment and people living around them. One reason people are living around volcanoes is that they are a source of tourist attraction. The dramatic scenery created by volcanic eruptions attracts tourists. Every year millions of tourists around the world make active and dormant volcanic areas their preferred destination, either for recreational purpose including sightseeing, hiking, climbing, camping or perhaps as an adventure trip involving more extreme activities such as mountaineering, volcano boarding or taking a hot air balloon trip over volcanic landforms like in Capadoccia, Turkey (P.Erfurt-Cooper and M.Cooper, 2010). For instance, volcano tourism in Japan is popular, usually in combination with visits to nearby hot spring spas. The viewing platform on the crater rim of Mount Aso on the island of Kyushu is a must see destination for domestic and foreign visitors. Not many visitors leave without having their photo taken with the crater in the background. Tourism brought about by these volcanoes can help boast the small businesses for the residents around the area of the volcano. Businesses that offer accommodation such as hotels and guest houses can have a great market because tourists will need accommodation during their adventure time. As a result of this market, more hotels can be built, more people given employment therefore improving the lives of people and the economy at large. This tourism helps bring revenue into the country’s economy thus improving it.
Another positive impact brought about by volcanoes is that they help in soil enrichment. The lava, ashes and ciders coming from the volcano have very important nutrients for the soil. The lava coming down dries up and slowly breaks down forming fertile volcanic soils. The volcanic soils are rich in nutrients like zinc, chlorine, iron, cobalt, nitrogen, boron and many more. The ashes also have valuable nutrients that make the soil more fertile. One example of the effect of volcanoes on agricultural lands is in Italy. Except for the volcanic region around Naples, farming in southern Italy is exceedingly difficult because limestone forms the basement rock and the soil is generally quite poor. But the region around Naples, which includes Mount Vesuvius, is very rich mainly because of two large eruptions 35,000 and 12000 years ago that left the region blanketed with very thick deposits of tephra which has since weathered to rich soils. Part of this area includes Mount Vesuvius region (M.Williams, 2018). The region has been intensively cultivated for agricultural sector since before the birth of Christ. The land is planted with vines, vegetables, or flowers. Every square foot of this rich soil is used. For example, even a small vineyard will have, in addition to grapes and spring beans on the trellises, fava beans, cauliflower and onions between the trellis rows, and the vineyard margin rimmed with orange and lemon trees, herbs, and flowers. It also is a huge tomato growing region. According to (Molloy, L., 1993), the verdant splendor and fertility of many farmlands of the North Island of New Zealand are on volcanic soils of different ages. Volcanic loams have developed on older (4,000 and 40,000 years old) volcanic ash deposits of the Waikato and Bay of Plenty regions. Combined with ample rainfall, warm summers, and mild winters, these regions produce abundant crops, including the kiwifruit found around the world in modern recipes. The altered volcanic ashes are well-drained, yet hold water for plants, and are easily tilled. Deep volcanic loams are particularly good for pasture growth for animal feeds, horticulture, and maize farming.
Geothermal energy production is another positive impact of volcanic activity. According to (Williams 2016), in countries like Kenya, Iceland, New Zealand, the Philippines, Costa Rica and El Salvador, geothermal power is responsible for providing a significant portion of the country’s power supply – ranging from 14% in Costa Rica to 51% in Kenya. In all cases, this is due to the countries being in and around active volcanic regions that allow for the presence of abundant geothermal fields. This geothermal energy is produced using water from hot springs and geysers that occur due to volcanoes. Magma rises close to the surface of the crust and this heat the groundwater. This water is heated to well beyond boiling point (up to 200 degrees Celsius) and becomes “super-heated”. Wells are drilled into the rock and the hot water is pumped out. As this hot water reaches the surface it does so as steam due to the intense heat. This steam is then used to drive turbines and create electricity. The steam then cools slightly and becomes hot water, which is then piped to homes and offices in towns to heat them. Today, over 90% of homes in are heated through geothermal energy. Once the water is used to heat buildings, it is then used in green-houses as the still warm water is piped under the soil to allow the production of flowers and vegetables. If there is a lack of groundwater, cold water is pumped into the rock through specially drilled wells, which is then heated by the hot rock and pumped back up.
Mining has become a major economical factor for most countries so because of this some volcano eruptions are deemed significant as they unearth or expose ore deposits which contain important minerals. This minerals can then be mined and sold to by the government for revenue that can be used to develop the country and improve people’s standards of living (Sillitoe and Bonham, 1984). An example of this type of volcano mine is called the Emperor Mine which is located at Vatukoula in northern central Viti Levu and if the only operational mine in Fiji. This mine has an historic production of over 7Moz of gold and 2Moz of silver. The Emperor mine has also been an important source of employment for the last 50 years. The revenue is obtained from agreements that permitted the Emperor Mining Group Company Limited to earn profits with little contribution to government revenue (Anderson and Eaton, 1990). This various income of revenue obtained from volcano mines can be used to fund various projects such as building roads and infrastructure like schools and medical facilities. These facilities can prove to be significant to the well beings of people and the improvement of people’s standards of living.
According to Cronin,S.J and Sharp,D.S (2002) Volcanoes have led to the formation of lahars, lahars and excess sediment cause economic and environmental damage. Some volcanoes are covered in snow or ice and during volcanic eruptions some of the hot ash is deposited onto the sides of the volcano which causes the snow and ice to melt back into water. The water then mixes the left over ashes and mud to form a lahar (Deer, W et al (2001). The eruptions may eventually activate lahars by melting snow and ice or by expelling large amounts of water from a hollow depression. Large lahars can crush, roughen, bury or carry away nearly everything in their pathways. Constructions and valuable land may be incompletely or fully submerged with lahars.Lahars damage bridges and roads as it happened during a volcanic eruption in North Fork Toutle River on the 18th of May 1980, lahars can also trap people in areas vulnerable to other dangerous volcanic activities, this may lead to some people losing their lives and destruction of their valuable properties. After a period of weeks to years after a volcanic eruption, the erosion and transportation of loose sediment on steep slopes to produce lahars that travel onto flood plains and bury entire towns and valuable agricultural land (Johnston,Dand Becker,J (2001). This results in low production of food and might lead to starvation in some areas as people would not be able to practice their agricultural activities. These rainfall-induced lahars can wreak havoc on rivers and streams, sometimes depositing so much sediment that chronic flooding also becomes a problem (Lara,L.E (2009).

According to Garry, W. B. (2013), volcanoes lead to loss of life to due to eruption they cause. Due to active lava flow, most of the victims are those from those who life near active volcanoes. Volcanic activities has been proved to increase over time, the information has been reported in from a legal source, Journal of Geophysical Research. The eruption in Indonesia has recorded large amount of fatalities .It was observed that volcanoes have lead to total population increase over time. There are some factors which make people to become vulnerable to volcanic activities and end up resulting in loss of life. One of the factors is land use. In terms of land use, eruption has also caused drought and famine because where there are volcanoes, there is high level of nutrition which is good for agricultural practice. So when the volcanoes erupt the agricultural sector experiences loss which also lead to famine. Therefore this poses a threat, in areas where there is lower volcanic activity because mostly the area have an important land use for Agricultural purpose, mining and even development and also population increase for example the eruption that took place in 1885 in Colombia, Nevado Del Ruiz is one of the volcanoes that poses a threat to humans. In addition, volcanic activity also lead to increased in evacuation rate. This also puts people at risk and there even more loss of life because as people evacuate others experience panic attacks and as a results more people become injured but they most bad outcome is death. A good example of volcanic eruption that experienced high mortality rate is Mt. Pelee which has resulted to thousands of death in Martinique and also the 1985 eruption in Nevado Del Ruiz in Colombia which killed almost 45%.Neukum, G. (2008).

Another negative impact caused by volcanic eruption is air pollution. When volcanic eruption takes place, the emission of gases which is emitted in the air contains particles of which some have sulphur dioxide, ash and carbon dioxide. Gases such as carbon dioxide are part of greenhouse effect and also cause warming of the earth. The gases that are produced also affect climate change for example sulphur dioxide damage the environment because it causes acid rain. So chemicals from acid rain affect forests, development and the ecosystem but most importantly causing water become toxic. These effects affect lakes, streams, seas and dams. It has been proved by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), that most of the water bodies are alkaline having a pH of 6 and 8. The acids rain then changes the pH of the water making it more acidic hence the pH drops. In forests it has been observed by scientists that acid rain results in slow growth of some plant species. This because acid rain causes leeching in soil, even in plants and trees. Moreover, in developed areas where there are limestone buildings the edges erode away causing damage to infrastructure and also makes meals to corrode. In addition, as volcanoes erupt there is production massive ashes in the atmosphere which also contain bromine and chlorine in high concentration and the high concentration also lead to depletion of the ozone layer. Hauber, E. (2012)

The other negative impact is dealing with health hazard of individuals, especially geologists because most of their time they deal with the environment, So their work exposes them to many threats such as respiratory diseases, Gillian R. (2010) . Not only geologists get involved into health risks, even tourists and those who are doing documentary study of volcanoes. In addition, there are some related industries and villages which have large numbers of people and once they get exposed to the gases produced by volcanoes, they are likely to have respiratory diseases. Also when individuals are affected by acidic gases, some individual may develop asthma especially if they are exposed to high concentration. The other thing is that, most of the problems related to volcanoes are affect those who work in volcanic tourism and volcanic tourists for example reports involving death have announced in many volcanic areas. Sudden deaths occur when tourists are ignoring the rules and end up being held up where there are lava flows. Wood, C.A. (1979).

RECOMMENDATION
1.LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT

2.MONITORING BASELINE MEASUREMENT THAT ALLOW PRE-MONITORING CHANGES TO BE RECOGNIZED

3.CRISIS RESPONSE WHEN A VOLCANO IS ERUPTING

4.TOPICAL STUDIES OF GEOLOGIC PROCESS THAT ALLOW FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF VOLCANIC HAZARDS
5.COMMUNICATING WITH CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND ABOUT THE RESULTS OF THEIR STUDIES

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REFERENCES
Richard H. Sillitoe, H. F. B. J., 1984. Volcanic Landforms and Ore Deposits. Economic Ecology, 76(6), pp. 1286-1298.
Tilling, R. I., 1992. Volcanoes. 2nd ed. California: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.
William B.Anderson, P. C., 1990. Gold mineralisation at the Emperor Mine, Vatukoula, Fiji. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 36(1-3), pp. 267-296.
Robert I. Tilling, Introduction to Special Section on How Volcanoes Work: Part 3, 1989, How Volcanoes Work, (14757-14758), (2014).
Smith, J.G., Dehn, J., Hoblitt, R.P., LaHusen, R.G., Lowenstern, J.B., Moran, S.C., McClelland, L., McGee, K.A., Nathenson, M., Okubo, P.G., Pallister, J.S., Poland, M.P., Power, J.A., Schneider, D.J., and Sisson, T.W., , Volcano monitoring, in Young, R., and Norby, L., (2009) Geological Monitoring: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America,pp. 273–305,
Richard H. Sillitoe, H. F. B. J., 1984. Volcanic Landforms and Ore Deposits. Economic Ecology, 76(6), pp. 1286-1298.
Tilling, R. I., 1992. Volcanoes. 2nd ed. California: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.
William B.Anderson, P. C., 1990. Gold mineralisation at the Emperor Mine, Vatukoula, Fiji. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 36(1-3), pp. 267-296.
Molloy, L., 1993. Soils in the New Zealand Landscape-The Living Mantle. New Zealand Society of Soil Science, Canterbury
Matt Williams(2018), Universe Today; space and astronomy news
Cronin, S. J., Sharp, D. S. (2002). Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12 (2), 109-123.
Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., ; Zussman, J. (Eds.). (2001). Rock-forming Minerals: Feldspars, Volume 4A. Geological Society of London.
Johnston, D., Becker, J. (2001). Volcanic ash review-Part 1: impacts on lifelines services and collection/disposal issues: Auckland Regional Council Technical Publication No. 144, 50 p.
Lara, L. E. (2009). The 2008 eruption of the Chaitén Volcano, Chile: a preliminary report. Andean Geology, 36(1), 125-129.

Hauber, E. (2012)

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