The fundamental frameworks for developing the AELTMs for the 2ndYME students refer to the ideas of Tomlinson

The fundamental frameworks for developing the AELTMs for the 2ndYME students refer to the ideas of Tomlinson (2003, p.108); Rozul (1995, p.213) and Hutchinson & Water (1984). These ideas briefly put in plain words the key components of developing the teaching materials. The keys are starter (strategies used by the lecturers ahead of coming into the learning activities (whilst-teaching) such as Q&A, asking the students to list ideas or brainstorming, etc); input (what knowledge, or skills the students will receive, learn); general information (what general information the lecturer should have to include or deliver or the students should have to know); language focus (what language skills should be prioritised to learn) and tasks (activities or pieces of works which the students have to either do or complete at school or at home).
c. Principles of Developing the AELTMs for the 2ndYME students
The processes of articulating the principles of developing the AELTMs for the 2ndYME students are theoretically guided by Bell & Gower’s (1998, p.122-5) ideas (Tomlinson, 1998, p.122-125). The principles are as follows.
1. Flexibility ? the developed AELTMs can be made as classroom resources for English lecturers and self-study book for the the 2ndYME students.
2. From text to language ? the developed AELTMs contain examples of language used in field of mechanical engineering. These materials can enable the students to learn the real language; facilitate them to augment their reading, speaking, listening and writing skills, develop their knowledge of vocabulary, and improve their rules of English language. More importantly, the developed AELTMs allow them to orally communicate their ideas in English.
3. Engaging contents ? the developed AELTMs contain the mechanical engineering’s themes to personally engage them in improving their spoken and written performances and other required skills.
4. Natural language ? the developed AELTMs can expose real language, or bring the 2ndYME students closer to their target language culture (Al Azri & Al-Rashdi, 2014, p.249). As a result, the can authentically and naturally communicate their ideas in English.
5. Analytic approaches ? teaching, learning and mastering the rules of language (grammar) are the most important session in developing the AELTMs. It therefore requires various strategies, method and approaches to teaching grammar so that the students can discriminate between a few/few and a little/little, for instances.
6. Emphasis on review ? the developed AELTMs prefer ‘reviewing’ to ‘teaching’ a lot of grammar because the students had known the rules though they rarely use them. Reviewing means to consider the rules carefully to see what are wrong with them or how they can be improved.
7. Personalised practice ? the developed AELTMs provide a lot of opportunities to practice the language skills in and outside the classroom. Practising makes perfect as saying goes.
8. Integrated skills ? there are no skills are taught in isolation. Language use (receptive and productive skills) extremely depends on each other. Productive skills should have to come out of works on listening and reading texts.
9. Balances of approaches ? the developed AELTMs balance on using deductive (deductive approach (rule-driven) starts with the presentation (presentation, practice and production) of rules of language and is followed by examples in which the rules are applied, students become passive) and inductive (An inductive approach (rules-discovery) starts with some examples from which rules are inferred, students become active) approaches to teaching grammar (Thornbury, 1999, p. 29).
10. Students’ development ? the developed AELTMs underscore the masteries of vocabulary and rules of language. These masteries allow the students to easily enhance their receptive and productive skills. Without these masteries, they fall short to enhance their language skills.
11. Professional respect ? the developed AELTMs can affect the students’ professionalism and or academic subject matters plus language skills.
Furthermore, the other principles of developing the ELT materials elucidated by Nunan (1998, p. 1-24) are (1) materials should be obviously linked to curriculum demands and stakeholders’ needs; (2) materials should be authentic in terms of texts and tasks; (3) materials should actively engage students’ in learning interactions; (4) materials should enable the students to learn formal aspects of the language; (5) materials should motivate the students to enhance their receptive and productive skills, and vocabulary and (6) materials should encourage the students apply their language skills to the real-world settings. The development of the AELTMs underpins the needs to communicate, long-term goals, authenticity and student-centred (Hidalgo, et al, 1995, p.8).
2. Authentic Learning (AL)
a. What is Authentic Learning?
The today’s university challenges are how to prepare the graduates who are capable of solving the global issues. Most of the graduates, however, failed to meet the global demands because of the graduates’ lacks of knowledge and skills related to its demands. They are, according to Christmas (2014, p.51), incapable of practically transferring the learnt knowledge and skills mostly used in real-world relevance. In responding to the facts, the educational experts, Brophy (1991, p.9-23); Herrington & Oliver (2000, p.23-48); Christmas (2014, p.51), strongly called in questions the existences of the schools and colleges’ teaching traditional methods and principles being applied today. The methods and principles are not being retrievable in real-world life; the segregation between ‘knowing and ‘doing and the uses of generic, commercially and well-defined teaching materials keep the students away from their real lives (Christmas, 2014) and of course become irrelevant to the global demands (Hui ; Koplin, 2011 in Christmas, 2014). For this reason, Howard Gardner in Christmas (2014, p.51) claims that “education is nothing more than attending the class; teaching, learning and memorising concepts and rules; doing the concocted assigned tasks; evaluating; the students’ learning, do testing, etc. These imply the irrelevant teaching materials break (get critical cracks) the students’ expectation of being able to respond to the current global demands.”
Even though the time-honoured teaching methods and concocted materials are not totally blamed as sources of students’ weaknesses of being unable to apply the learnt knowledge and skills to the real-world settings, the accesses access to failure already exists and this should be seriously taken into account (Christmas, 2014, p.51). Therefore, the universities are required to review the teaching policies that are less responsive to the global issues or that do not support the global demands. The educational paradigm of behaviourism, which has been used for centuries, forces the lecturers to lecture the subject matters and intend the students to be more passive recipients of knowledge. Further, the constructivists define “learning,” according to Christmas (2014, p.51), as active and meaningful activities of gaining knowledge and skill and intend the students of being capable of associating and even unifying between the new knowledge and prior knowledge. The learning activities of linking between the new and prior knowledge can create effective and meaningful learning where the real-world contexts are really present in the classroom (Brown, Collins & Dudguid (1989, p.9-33; Hui & Koplin (2011, p.59-72); Christmas, 2014, p.51-52).
As an alternative, the 21st-century educational experts offered a new teaching/learning approach as a solution to the traditional teaching methods and principles. The new teaching/learning approach was “authentic learning.” The following is the definition of the authentic learning.
“Authentic Learning is an instructional or pedagogical approach which enables the students to investigate, examine thrash out, and evocatively build the concepts and relationships in contexts that have real-world problems and projects that are relevant to the students’ needs (Donavan, Bransford, ; Pellegrino, 1999; Christmas, 2014, p.52). Authentic Learning, therefore, refers to the real, genuine, bona fida, pure learning which can be meaningfully used to solve the real-life problems (Mishan, 2005, p.x; Christmas, 2014, p.52)”


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