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Term paper
Diversity in handwritings
Submitted to

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree
BSc (H) forensic science
By Anchal Saini
SK Shukla
Under the guidance of
Dr. Neha Tomar
Amity institute of forensic science

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I Anchal Saini, student of BSc (H) FS hereby declare that the project titled ”diversity in handwriting” which is submitted by me to department of forensic science. Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the Bachelor of Science honors in forensic science, has not been previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, or other similar title or recognition.
The author attests that permission has been obtained for the use of any copyrighted material appearing in the project report other than brief excerpts requiring only proper acknowledgement in scholarly writing and all such use is acknowledged.
Anchal Saini
BSc (H) FS


This to certify that the Miss Anchal Saini student of BSc (H) FS has carried out work presented in the project of the term paper entitle ”diversity inn handwriting” as a part of first year program of bachelor of science in forensic science Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida under my supervision.

Dr. Neha Tomar
Department of forensic science
AIFS, Noida


The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success. I would like to thank Prof Dr. SK Shukla, head of department AIFS, faculty guide Dr. Neha Tomar, and Amity University for giving me the opportunity to undertake this project. I would like to thank my batch mates who guided me, helped me and gave ideas and motivation at each steps.

Anchal Saini

Table of contents

• Declaration
• Certificate
• Acknowledgement
• Abstract
• Table of contents
• Introduction
• The process of comparison
• Review
• Discussion

The most important and general misunderstanding is that ”I never write twice exactly same”. This phase of the subject always receive a careful attention while comparing the questioned writing because the genuine writing by the same writer does vary. The arm, hand and fingers do not work as a printing machine or these are not accurately reproduce the same word or letter in a same way as done before like a printing process. Real signatures done by the same writer differ from each other within certain well defined limits with a group of signatures certain natural divergences in size, lateral spacing and proportions actually indicts genuineness, the important and unappreciated fact is that ”the variations in handwriting are themselves habitual.
This paper discusses the extent of natural variations in genuine signatures and outlines that constitutes a NATURAL VARIATIONS and what is FUNDAMENTAL DIFFRENCES. The conclusion that writing is not genuine it is only properly reached when it contains divergences in amount and quality beyond the range of variations in the standard writing that cannot reasonably accounted for by changed conditions in the writer or the surroundings the writer, it is true that genuine writing or signatures does vary and in any examination of questioned 01 signature or writing this phase of the subject should always receive a careful attention, the arm, hand and fingers do not reproduce the same order of letter as done before as done by printing machine, i.e. certain natural divergences are inevitable. Investigations disclosed the even variations in writing are habitual and personal and any writer is astonished when his own peculiar and persistent writing habits are shown by classified and grouped specimens.
Besides the extent of variations in the standard signatures and the differences found in the disputed signatures. A method has been discussed in the process of examination of documents with the particular reference to signatures which will enhance the evidentiary value the expert opinion in handwriting.
The most important and general misapprehensions is ”I never write twice exactly alike” It is true that genuine signatures or writing by the same writer does vary and in examination of questioned documents this phase of the subject should always receive careful attention. The arm, finger and hand do not reproduce the same letter and word again as done before like an printing process and certain divergences are inevitable. Genuine signatures written by the same writer differ from each other within certain well defined limits, with a group of signatures certain normal divergences in size, lateral spacing and proportions indicates genuineness. This paper discuss the extent of natural variations in genuine signatures and outlines what constitute a ” natural variations” and what is a ”fundamental differences”. Investigation disclosed that even peculiar and persistent writing and habitual and personal and any writer is astonished when his own careful or careless, like speech but methods of human expression finally come to be settled habits of the individual acquired by the thousands of repetitions of the same act.
It is true that speech and writing may both the disguised and unnatural and may imitate a style very different from the usually, followed but average unconscious speech since both finally are simply products of unconscious habits. The characteristics in one handwriting may have a special significance which in another may have little force, all depending upon the writing upon the writing habits of the one whose writing is under examination and these facts in each case must be made to apply only to the case. The qualities, characteristics, features and elements of a particular writing as carefully analyzed and classified are:
• Permanent or invariable
• Habitual or usual
• Occasional
• Exceptional or rare
• Accidental
Genuine signatures written by the same writer differ from each other within certain well defined limits. The same damaging similarities may also appear in several simulated forgeries all carefully made from one genuine signature, writing varies as speech varies, it may be large or small as speech is low or loud, it may be careful or careless, less speech but methods of normal expression finally come to be settled habits of the individual acquired by the thousands of repetitions of the same act.
The process of comparison
• NO TWO PEOPLE WRITE EVERY LETTER EXACTLY ALIKE. The latest research in handwriting supports this fundamental principle. This principle was established because, based on experience of FDEs over many years we have not been any reported instances of two writings, by different writers, being exactly alike. This process is no different than any another scientific field. Two people do not write exactly the same but on the basis of the collective experience of all examiners who have ever practiced, there have been no confirmed reports of the writings of two individuals being exactly alike in every respect.
• No one writer writes the same way twice. In every person’s writing, the FDE expects to find some normal variation that must be accounted for when doing a side-by-side comparison. No case has been reported of one writer writing exactly the same way twice.

? The scissor shape ”I” in the questioned, and specimen are not identical, but there is a slight pictorial similarity between them in -box 1.
? The ”fs” are very different however there is a good deal of pictorial similarity between the ”f” in the questioned writing here and the similar style of ”f” found in the specimen writing.
? The use of two different styles of ”r” in box 2. The tent shape ”r” after the ”u” and the sped ”r” after ”p”. The fact that both styles of ”r” are used and in exactly the same location has some significance for identification.
? The wider spacing between ”by” and ”old” than between ”old” and ”fashioned” in box 3. Further the use of the same style of ”f” as the first letter in the word ”fashioned” and the relative placement of the in-dot with the respect to the staff of the letter.
? The use again, of a speed ”r’ as the first letter in the word ”respect” in box 4.
The process of comparison consists of examining both the questioned and specimen writings for their pictorial impression and the use of similar forms and patterns and then in detail nothing all of the similarities and differences between the writings. Due notice being taken of the two significance is attached to each quality and feature of the writing important for identification purposes and then evaluated to determine which has the greater weight. When describing a writer’s quality or its features the FDE should use easy to understand words-counter clockwise, clockwise, staff, oval or circle, retraced etc. to describe what he sees.
Hence from the discussion made herein before the extent of variations of the handwriting characteristics in formation of letters, size and proportions, lateral spacing, slant, etc. has to be studied in order to a definite conclusion of the natural variations of such characteristic to distinguish them from the grain from the chaff i.e. what should accounted for ”natural variation” and what should be for ”fundamental divergence notwithstanding the general misapprehension that a person does not write exactly.
Natural variation is important in the context that all variations are attacked as ”fundamental differences” for which it is absolutely necessary for any examiner to have a thorough insight into this aspect of identification of handwriting and detection of forgery.

Crane. (1999). Does the amount of hand writting on a cheque constitute a reasonable amount of sample? Canadian society of forensic science journal,32(1).
Harrison, w. R. (1966). Suspect documents their scientific examination. London: sweet ; maxwell limited.

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