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Spetzger, U., Schilling, A. V., Winkler, G., Wahrburg, J., & König, A. (2013). The past, present, and future of minimally invasive spine surgery: A review and speculative outlook. Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, 22(4), 227-241. doi:10.3109/13645706.2013.821414.
U. Spetzger, Professor at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Neurosurgeon and Chairman of Klinikum Karlsruhe, Germany together with his colleagues authored an article titled “The past, present and future of minimally invasive spine surgery: A review and speculative outlook”. Their research emphasized on the development of surgical technologies and how it has enhanced the techniques in the treatment of certain diseases in the field of neurology likewise the advancement in the training of neurosurgeons (spine surgeons) promoting precision in spine surgeries. The text focuses and gives an overview and furthermore draws the connections between surgical methods practiced decades ago, techniques in place today, and projections for the future of spine surgery. According to Spetzger et al, looking at the surgical procedures performed in the past 25 years and today’s age techniques and methods, shows major advances within the specialty of neurosurgery and this is more prominent in North America and Europe. But as these surgical techniques and procedures are introduced, they don’t remain in practice for long as they are abandoned after a short time of practice. This emphasizes the fact that, technology keeps changing and advancing as time goes on, which eventually gave rise to the era of robotic surgery like the “Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery” technique that has advantages like reduced muscle split and limited trauma also referred to as scar-free surgery. This will contribute massively in my essay in the way that, it gives me a fair idea of how surgeries were in the past, what it looks now in the present and how it is expected to change and advance over the years ahead with these new techniques being introduced. But also, according to Lanfranco, a medical doctor who authored an article Robotic Surgery published by the US National Library of Medicine, the robotic surgery technique has some disadvantages if not same, almost as many as its advantages of which some are their huge size, cost of purchase and maintenance and moreover, robotic surgery is a new technology where it feasibility and efficacy have not yet been well established.

Ghaly, R. (2014). Do neurosurgeons need neuroanesthesiologists? should every neurosurgical case be done by a neuroanesthesiologist? Surgical Neurology International, 5, 76. Retrieved from
In a journal article by Ramsis Ghaly, “Professor of Neurological Surgery and Anesthesiology at the University of Illinois, Chicago”, shows that the subspecialty neuroanesthesia will play a major role and contribute massively to the field of neurosurgery if needed recognition is and less restriction but more exposure is given to it in neuroscience care. Ghaly, as a neurosurgeon and a neuroanesthesiologist by profession, in his experience highlighted in his research paper what contributing factors neuroanesthesioogists bring to the field, especially during surgery as they have in-depth knowledge and understanding of what it takes to put a patient under anesthesia during a neuro-related surgery of which is mostly currently done by general anesthesiologists in many medical facilities within the United States and Europe giving neuroanesthesiologists less recognition. Although a general anesthesiologist may have a fair idea of how to put a patient under anesthesia for surgical procedures, they may equally have less or relatively limited skills and experience when it comes to the neuro specialty as it constituents critical care and it is an intricate and a demandingly high dexterous medical and surgical discipline. And that is a major advantage neuroanesthesiologists have over general practicing anesthesiologists. He mentioned the fact that, neuroanesthesiologists have almost the same expertise and level of dexterity as neurosurgeons in that, most of the training and teachings, and schedules a neuroanesthesiologist goes through during residency is more than likely to be the same as neurosurgeons also do. Making the line between these two specialties very thin. But according to Ghaly, this is one fact that most medical institutions, medical facilities, and medical boards and associations fail to recognize. This journal, however, is related to my research because provides me with an idea on how the job scope of neurosurgeons is going to change in the future.

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Seifert, V. (2003). Intraoperative MRI in neurosurgery: Technical overkill or the future of brain surgery? Neurology India, 51(3), 329-332.
V. Seifert, of the Department of Neurosurgery, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Germany emphasized on his research work “Intraoperative MRI in neurosurgery: Technical overkill or the future of brain surgery?” the various medical imaging procedures and their enormous contributions to medicine. Seifert stated that “The development of image-guided neurosurgery represents a substantial improvement in the microsurgical treatment of neuro-related diseases”. Unlike the past when neurosurgeons have to perform all surgical procedures like the removal of tumors without any high-tech systems, but are just left with the information they get with their aided eyes using a surgical microscope as well as their experience, now with the advancement in medical based technology, the system of image-guided surgery like the introduction and advancement of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) has made and proved neuro-related surgery to be much easier and pleasant to perform. MRI is a medical imaging technique used to form anatomical images of the body. According to Seifert, there have been developments in high-tech tools over the years for neurosurgical procedures, tools like intraoperative CT units and intraoperative ultrasound, but because of the excellent imaging qualities of the MRI, experts in the field support that, MRI is currently and will definitely in the future be the prime of intraoperative image guidance. This will support my essay because it elaborates major medical advancements I should expect to come across in neurosurgery in the future. But according to Gasco, “the advent of new technologies is making our specialty far more complex than it was a century ago” which seems to contradict the point of advanced medical technology improving medicine and making it easier.
NPS MedicineWise. (2018). “Imaging explained”. Risks and Factors. Retrieved April 02, 2018, from
In an academic writing by NPS MedicineWise, a medical organization of the Department of Health of Australia highlighted an evidence-based information on the risks and effects of medical imaging, which is one major advancement in medicine. Although imaging is an improvement and a breakthrough in technology and an advancement in medicine and does stand a chance of supporting and improving the enhancement of medicine, likewise does it have a number of crucial risks and side effects it does come with. These risks are given less or adequately no spotlights during the operation of these technologies. As said by NPS, “no type of imaging is always better, but also has different potential disadvantages”. These imaging procedures like the X-ray and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have significant side effects such as exposure to radiation, cost of the procedure, emotional stress, etc. What is most critical about that is doctors, wanting to see accuracy and precision in treatment tend to come across incidental findings that conceivably lead to unnecessary treatments and testing. This relates to my essay because I’m writing on the future effects of medical advancements. In a research work by Seifert V, on Interoperative MRA in Neurosurgery, stated that medical imaging might be the future of brain surgery, but in other words, it can also be a technical overkill. “no technique in neurosurgery could be too refined, particularly in reference to the ability to localize lesions” Lars Leksell.

GASCO, J. (2014). Present and Future of Neurosurgery Training and Education. Malaysian Journal Of Medical Sciences, 21(1), 1-3.
Lanfranco, A. R., Castellanos, A. E., Desai, J. P., ; Meyers, W. C. (2004). Robotic Surgery: A Current Perspective. Annals of Surgery, 239(1), 14–21.

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