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Question 1
Dead Poets Society
Dead Poets Society is a 1989 American drama film directed by Peter Weir, written by Tom Schulman and set in the year of 1959 at the fictional elite conservative Vermont boarding school Welton Academy (Canby, 1989). It reveals the story of an English teacher, John Keating, played by Robin Williams, inspires his students via his teaching of poetry. Neil Perry, played by Robert Sean Leonard, is a hard-working honors student who has a dream of following his heart to become an actor despites his father insists firmly that he go to Harvard to study medicine for his future while Todd Anderson, played by Ethan Hawke is an extremely shy person that he will freeze with his fear when he is required to speak in front of the class and Charlie Dalton, played by Gale Hansen, has the makings of a true rebel and poet (Canby, 1989).
The Dead Poets Society represents a variety of moral and philosophical issues by the term ‘Carpe Diem’ which comes from Latin for ‘seize the day’ and has the meaning of taking chances that may come our way. It is shown through the bravery of the students for standing up in favor of something and doing their own things. In this movie, it is the ability to become a free thinker and enjoy poetry in life. This can be linked to an ethical issue that was raised in the film, including justice, law and punishment. The students don’t go as far as to break the law, but they are certainly going against the rules of the school, and so is their English teacher, who is pursuing this forward-thinking set of mind.
According to consequentialist theories, the moral rightness of an action is determined solely by its results (William H. Shaw ; Vincent Barry, 2010). If its consequences are good, then the act is right; if they are bad, the act is wrong. Consequentialism is a normative ethical principle, which means, it’s far a theory about ethical action and a proposed method for figuring out how one have to pick the proper ethical act.
The consequentialist theory is shown through the action of Charlie when he publishes an article in the name of Dead Poets Society in the school newspaper demanding that girls be admitted to Welton. Mr. Gale Nolan, played by Norman Lloyd, the headmaster of Welton, uses physical punishment to force Charlie into revealing the members of the Dead Poets Society, but even so Charlie is unwilling to corporate. Mr. Nolan then speaks to Mr. Keating, warning him that he should discourage his students from questioning the authority. Hence, in his own manners, Mr. Keating earnestly advises his students, that one must assess all consequences.
Non-consequentialist (or deontological) theories contend that right and wrong are determined by more than the likely consequences of an action. Non-consequentialist theories do not necessarily deny that consequences are morally significant, but they believe that other factors are also relevant to the moral assessment of an action (William H. Shaw & Vincent Barry, 2010).
This can be shown via the following incidences. Neil’s father discovers Neil play a main role in the play through other people and forcefully urges him to quit on the eve of the opening performance. Neil is devastated and goes to Mr. Keating, who then advises him to talk to his father of his love towards acting and that he takes acting seriously. Neil’s father unexpectedly shows up at the performance. After the performance, he takes Neil home and informs Neil that he has been withdrawn from Welton and enrolled in a military academy to prepare him for Harvard. Neil is unable to stand up to his father and no help comes from his mother, he becomes shattered and ends his own life with a gun.
Mr. Nolan investigates Neil’s death at the request of his parents. Richard Cameron, played by Dylan Kussman, blames Neil’s death on Mr. Keating to avoid punishment for his participation in the Dead Poets Society, and he also provides the name of other members. Cameron urges the rest of the members to let Mr. Keating take the fall when he is confronted by Charlie. Charlie punches Cameron and is expelled as a result of that action. Each of the boys is called to Mr. Nolan’s office to sign a letter to declare Cameron’s allegations, even though they know this isn’t right. When it is Todd’s turn, he is disinclined to sign, but did sign eventually under his parents’ pressure and seeing others’ signatures on the paper.
In the end of the movie, Mr. Keating is fired and Mr. Nolan takes over teaching the class. Mr. Keating interrupts the class to collect his personal things; before he departs, Todd shouts that all of them were forced to sign the letter that resulted in his dismissal and that Neil’s death was not his fault. Todd stands on his desk and salutes Keating with the words “O Captain! My Captain” and over half of the class do the same, ignoring Mr. Nolan’s orders to sit down. Mr. Keating is deeply touched by their gestures. He thanks the boys and leaves.
Good Will Hunting
Good Will Hunting is a 1997 American drama film, directed by Gus Van Sant and written by Ben Affleck and Matt Damon, the movie is revolving about the main character, Will Hunting, played by Matt Damon, who is a genius but he chooses to work solely as a janitor at MIT without fully using his ability and capacity. With an unhappy upbringing as an abused foster child, he subconsciously blames himself and turns his self-loathing into a form of self-sabotage in both his professional and emotional lives. Hence, he is unable to sustain either a steady job or a steady romantic relationship. One day, Will’s talents are discovered by Professor Gerald Lambeau, played by Stellan Skarsgard, after he solves a difficult graduate-level mathematic problem. Professor Lambeau then decides to help the misguided youth to reach his potential. Meanwhile, Will hangs out with his buddies in Southie, including Ben Affleck played as Chuckie, and Will attacks a man who had bullied him years before in kindergarten, and he is arrested after attacking a police officer who was responding to the fight, but Professor Lambeau makes a deal to get clemency for Will only if he agrees to use his abilities in the mathematics field under Lambeau’s supervision and participate in the therapy sessions. Sean Maguire, played by Robin Williams, gains some credibility with Will when he admits that he had also being abused as a child and they hugged.
Consequentialism says that the results of motion are all that rely while taking a moral selection to act. There is important purpose for the foundation phrase. The phrase effect is chosen cautiously and it is possible to make a difference among the phrase itself and synonyms which include, results or effects. This can be explained by Will’s realization makes possible a much more positive self-image and a whole new vision of life. He decides to stop denying his talents and to recognize that he might be good enough after all for brilliant, charming and independently wealthy Harvard student, Skylar, played by Minnie Driver, who said she loves him, and whom he finally leaves Southie to follow her as she heads west for graduate school.

Question 2
Egoism is a view that equates morality with self-interest. An egoist contends that an act is morally right if and only if it best promotes an agent’s interests (William H. Shaw & Vincent Barry, 2010). Personal egoists claim they should pursue their own best interests, but they do not say what others should do while impersonal egoists claim that everyone should let self-interest guide his or her conduct (William H. Shaw & Vincent Barry, 2010).
In the Dead Poets Society, Richard Cameron blames Neil’s death on Mr. Keating to avoid punishment for his own involvement in the Dead Poets Society, and provides the name of other members to Mr. Nolan. Cameron then urges the rest of the members to let Mr. Keating take the fall. This is clearly an example of impersonal egoists.
Utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of business actions and corporate decisions rather than on notions of intrinsic rightness, it encourages us to evaluate the amount of good and harm that those actions and decisions bring about. Hence, utilitarianism offers an alternative way of thinking about business ethics to rights theory and other non-consequentialist theories. Moreover, although identifying precisely what is ‘good’ and ‘bad’ for people is no simple matter, it seems to make intuitive sense to think about business ethics in terms of maximizing the good (Fryer, 2014).
Human service practitioners will have no preference but to make choices with possible moral outcomes at some point of their career. Will Hunting is a mathematical genius, an orphan, living in South Boston, works as a janitor and surrounded with buddy like Chuck who is loyal to him but they are every so often unemployed and drinking beers at night. Others may be extra hard due to the fact the recommendations or circumstances are doubtful and the wrong selection could deliver results for others or yourself. Every occasionally a difficulty of tremendous proportions may additionally surface that impacts you directly. Contrary to Kant’s ethic, Bernard Williams argues that when judging human movements the outcomes of human actions should be taken into consideration. Secondly, good fortune performs a major function in morality. Thirdly, ethical values are not ultimate over different values. Fourthly, ethical sentiments can’t be modeled on a view of the world wherein each happening and anyone is on the identical distance.
In the movie, Will Hunting explain why he doesn’t want to work for National Security Agency (NSA), if someone puts a code that no one else except him can break on his desk, he did his job well but maybe that code was the location of some rebel army in North Africa or Middle East, once they have that location, they bomb the village where the rebels are hiding, fifteen hundred people that Will never met, never had no problem with, get killed, the politicians then say send in the Marines to secure the area, because they don’t care, it won’t be politicians’ kids over there getting shot, just like it wasn’t them when their number got called ’cause they were in the National Guard, it will be some kids from Southie over there taking shrapnel in the ass, then they comes back to find the plant they used to work at got exported to the country they got back from, and the guy who put the shrapnel in his ass got his old job ’cause he’ll work for 12 cents a day and no bathroom breaks, meanwhile he realizes the only reason he was there in the first place was so the government could install a government that would sell oil to the country at a good price, of course the oil companies used a skirmish over there to scare up domestic oil prices, a little ancillary benefit for them, but it didn’t help a person at 2.50 a gallon, they are taking their sweet time bringing the oil, of course, maybe they even took the liberty to hire an alcoholic skipper, who likes to drink martinis and play slalom with the icebergs, it didn’t take too long till he hits one, spills the oil and kills all the sea life at the North Atlantic, so now the person is out of work, he can’t afford to drive, so he is walking to the job interviews which sucks because the shrapnel in his ass is giving him chronic hemorrhoids, meanwhile he is starving because every time he tries to get a bite to eat, the only blue plate special they are serving is North Atlantic scrod with Quaker State.
Universalism is developed by Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher who lived in the 18th century (1724–1804) and is considered a deontological or duty-based approach. Kant believed that moral reasoning is not based on factual knowledge and that the results of our actions do not determine whether they are right or wrong (William H. Shaw & Vincent Barry, 2010). Kant’s theory is an important example of a purely non-consequentialist approach to ethics and Kant held that only we act from duty does our action have moral worth (William H. Shaw ; Vincent Barry, 2010). Good will is the only thing that is good in itself.
The resultant theory, “Justice as Fairness”, from which John Rawls derives his two principles of justice. The first principle is everyone have an equal right to the most extensive total system of equal basic liberties compatible with a similar system of liberty for all and the second principle is social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged, consistent with the just savings principle, and attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity (Rawls, 1999).
Virtue ethics names a type of moral principle that takes virtues of person, rather than character moves or regulations, because the most essential moral concepts. Moral virtues like honesty, courage, integrity, temperance and generosity are taken to be inherently good first, then moves are evaluated based totally on whether or not they express the ones virtues. That is, do the moves match what a virtuous man or woman would do in those occasions. Virtue ethics may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism). Suppose it is obvious that someone in need should be helped, a utilitarian will point to the fact that the consequences of doing so will maximize well-being, a deontologist to the fact that, in doing so the agent will be acting in accordance with a moral rule such as “Do unto others as you would be done by” and a virtue ethicist to the fact that helping the person would be charitable or benevolent (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2003).

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