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Rock Street, San Francisco

QUEENSTOWN CAMPUS
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
SURNAME & INITIALS MDUBEKI T.

STUDENT NO 215 237 838
QUALIFICATION BACHELOR OF EDUCATION
MODULE research topic

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MODULE CODE rsp40Q2

Supervisor Mr. madalambana
Level 4
YEAR 2018
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………
Background of The Study………………………………………………………

Statement of The Problem…………………………………………………….

Relevance of The Study……………………………………………………….

CHAPTER TWO
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
2.1 Main Aim…………………………………………………………………………………
2.2 Objectives……………………………………………………………………………….

MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION
2.3 Main Research Question………………………………………………………….

2.4 Sub Questions………………………………………………………………………..

CHAPTER THREE
LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Related Studies……………………………………………………………………..

3.2 Key Findings………………………………………………………………………….

CHAPTER FOUR
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
4.1 Qualitative/Quantitative…………………………………………………………
4.2 Context………………………………………………………………………………..

4.3 Sample………………………………………………………………………………..

4.4 Data Collection Strategies……………………………………………………..

4.5 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………….

4.6 Ethical Issues………………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Presentation Of Findings From The Data………………………………..

CHAPTER SIX
6.1 List Of References…………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER ONE
TopicEffective use of the narrative method in teaching Geography in classrooms of Thabazi S.S.

Introduction
This research is aimed at interrogating the question of the effectiveness of teaching Geography with the narrative method. The main focus will be on the effectiveness of the narrative method, the teachers and also learners. It is believed that the narrative method is not as effective because it is teacher centered, which results to the breeding of a generation full of learners who are containers, that act as depositories in way that they do not learn with clear comprehension but they learn though memorizing. However, this will create the context where teachers fully engage learners in any lesson, specifically, a Geography lesson. A qualitative approach has been adopted for the study to an extent that the research or the data will be collected in a form of interviews, tape recordings, apart from the desk research.

1.2 BackgroundEducation was mostly informal, but there was deliberate teaching and criticism at certain times. In pre-literate societies, the only way of preserving the history, religions, ideas and values was by general sharing of knowledge in the form of stories, songs and dances. This folklore had always been handed down across the centuries from one generation to the other. The methods of instruction were varied but effective and they were complemented through thorough discipline and punishment. Being told(Lectured), the set of questions asked, setting of both informal and formal tasks and self-experience were methods commonly applied throughout the child’s life (Steyn, Bisschoff, Behr and Vos, 1984).

It is speculated that the popularity of this method was because of the lack of resources to carry out lessons, more especially geography lessons (Hagen, 1996). This method is well -known in the traditional school and was, for centuries, the chief activity in the classroom. However, the revolutionary changes have taken place in the educational field and the time (Duminy, 1975).

The narrative method emerged as the discipline from the broader field of qualitative research in the 20th century (David, 2001). According to Bruner (2004), he argues that this method contributes little to the learning process and it promotes passive learning in Geography lessons. After the changes were made in our education system, various curriculums were introduced and some of them were for and others against the use of narrative method. Outcomes based education (OBE) and curriculum assessment policy statement (CAPS) represented a shift away from the teacher and became more learner centered.

1.3 Statement of The Problem
The discovered research problem is that we as the student teachers, are using the narrative method ineffectively when teaching Geography lessons. We fail to engage leaners to be part of the lesson.

Paulo Freire provides evidence in his book, the pedagogy of the oppressed. He argues that “Narration (with the teacher as a narrator) leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated content. Worse yet, it turns them into “containers,” into “receptacles” to be “filled by the teacher. Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat. This is the banking concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposits.”
Therefore, the purpose of this research is to bridge the gap by identifying the disadvantages and attempt to rectify the injustices of this method.

1.4 Relevance of The Study
The research will be of much relevance to teachers in general, but especially those who are inducting Geography. The research will assist the student teachers, together with the rest of the qualified Geography teachers to know the relevance of this teaching method and what responsibilities are expected, before choosing this particular method of instruction.
CHAPTER TWO
AIMS AND OBJECTIVESMAIN AIM
How can teachers in Geography classrooms use the narrative method effectively?
OBJECTIVES
How can the narrative method be used effectively when delivering content?
After using the narrative method, how effective has it proved to be?
Which resources can be used to enable the effectiveness of the narrative method as a teaching strategy?
MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION
MAIN RESEARCH QUESTIONS
How does the narrative method assist, when facilitating teaching and learning in Geography lessons?
What challenges are normally encountered when using this method?
SUB QUESTIONS
How does one make sure that the learners benefit most when using the narrative method?
What suggestions would one give, in order to enhance the effective use of the narrative method?
CHAPTER THREE
LITERATURE REVIEW3.1 IntroductionLiterature review is a summary of a subject field that supports the identification of specific research questions. Literature review assists to focus on a topic or research question, select appropriate methodology and structure the discussions and the final writing up (Koshy, 2009). The purpose of conducting literature review is to convey to the reader previous knowledge, facts established on a topic, and their strengths and weaknesses. It also helps to develop research investigative tools and to improve research methodologies (Suresh, 2014). Literature review may be structured or organised in three different ways; conceptually, thematically, and temporally (Maylor , Blackmon and Huemann , 2016).

3.2 Textbooks SummariesAccording to Curzon (2003), Lecturing involves a continuous oral form of teaching and according to this book, lecturing is said to be formal. It is defined as an expository technique as it is a one-way communication method since it is teacher centred. It is said that lecturing is mostly used in colleges of further education to obtain different objectives such as higher order cognitive and lower order cognitive and it involves a lot of presentation. According to this book, lecture must always be planned. The resources and constraints must be taken into account.

According to Duminy (1975), the telling method is viewed as compulsory but yet unwanted way of teaching. He supported himself by saying that at the end, the teacher is supposed to tell learners what they should know, learn and how to do it even though the learners will carry it on their own.

3.3 Journals Articles3.3.1 Problems triggering researchAccording to the study conducted by Waugh and Waugh (1999) the problem that prompted research is that narrative method of teaching is seen as not that much productive due to the way teachers use it in class. The authors seek to improve the process of lecturing through few suggestions of how to improve lecturing, learning from lectures and ways of evaluating lectures and to make lectures more interesting to learners.
3.3.2 Key findingsThe findings that I have discovered from the authors’ journals, especially as a student teacher, is that the narrative or the lecture method will always be effective to an extent that it is the platform where a teacher or a lecturer can use stories and experiences to broaden the learners’ understanding. The narrative method is also found to be the most dominant method during an instruction of a lesson, although it has its disadvantages, it has to be enhanced and be more learner-centred. By making the narrative method a more learner centred method, it will fully engage learners, decrease the chances of them being bored in a lesson and memorizing without comprehension.
chapter four
RESEARCH design and METHODOLOGYIntroductionThe main aim of this section is to thoroughly portray how I came to bring about the findings that I have come up with and how I went through the processes. Its layout will clearly outline how the research has been conducted. It will act as a guide to assist me on making sure that I am active and I am on track of things. The methods such as data collection strategies and data analysis will be briefly explained.

Context
According to Kuhn, (1970) a context is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods postulates, and standards for what constitute legitimate contributions to a field. My action research will be located on the type of context that is called anti positivism. This type of context focuses on the subjectivist approach to studying social phenomena that attaches the importance to a range of research techniques focusing on qualitative analysis such as personal interviews, participant observations, account of individuals, personal constructs etc. (Kuhn,1962).
Sample
At the school level, I have decided to choose haphazard sampling because it is a non-random sampling, as the research is directed towards the individuals that are relevant for that research and not just any person (Neuman, 2006). This sampling supports my research, as I am to go to the schools and interview people that are relevant to my research, that is the geography teachers and learners. I have to also choose the purposely sampling at the respondents’ level because it selects cases with a specific purpose in mind. This relates to my issue as I have the purpose of finding out how the narrative method can be used effectively in geography lessons.
There will be a number of 18 learners and it will be me, the Geography student teacher and 6 learners in each class. The reason for six leaners is that in most of the schools, the Geography classes are usually three, divided by the grading (grade 10, 11 and 12). Therefore, in each class I may take at least 6 leaners.

I will provide the principal, teacher and the learners to be sampled with the written document that has the Walter Sisulu University, Queenstown stamp that shows evidence for including them in my action research. If one of them is uncertain, then we have no choice than to refer the participant to our research coordinators, for further explanation.

Data Collection Strategies
The data collection strategy I found useful and suitable for me is the one on one semi structured interview, which will give me the flexibility to do group interviews and record them in my journals. This strategy is a qualitative method of enquiry that combines a pre-determined set of open questions (questions that triggers discussions) with the opportunity for the interviewer to explore particular themes or responses further (Strydom, Fouche and Delport, 2005). The strategy will assist me in gaining the participants trust and openness.

Data Analysis I have decided to use the transcribed data analysis because according to (Koshy, 2009), transcription is the process of using the recording device to capture the words of the participants in interviews and observations. As for me, I will do this in the form of interviews with my participants (teachers and learners) by transcribing all what was said by the participants during the interviews. I find this type of data analysis suitable for both me and the participants because, I will be conducting the research in the same school I will be practicing as a student teacher at. The resources that I will be using are my book to dot down important information and my cellphone to record tapes, so that I can be able to integrate the information properly, when recording down the findings.

Ethical issues
According to (Babbie, 2007), Research ethics are specifically the thorough analysis of ethical issues that are brought about when people are involved as participants in a specific research. These ethics involve human subjects or participants that raise unique and complex ethical, legal, social and political issues.

Informed consent –I will begin everything by letting the participants know who I am, what I am about to do and what is the main purpose of it all. Then I will hand over the consent form to each participant, and will give them enough time to go through it, so that if they carry on with the interview, they do it willingly.

Privacy – It will be my main duty to ensure that the participants’ privacy is protected and that the environment in which the interviews will be taking place, will be private and the participant has every right to anonymity.

Confidentiality – I will make it a point that no participants identity will be revealed against their will, for example, the participants’ name; physical characteristics and orientation.

CHAPTER FIVE
PRESENTATION OF THE FINDINGS FROM THE DATA
Education is the most crucial part of the learning curve, where one learns through personal experiences, storytelling and song. The narrative method revolves around teaching and learning, since it is the most dominant and classical method to ever come across, in this method- The learner learns through being told or being instructed.

In all the data collected, I have discovered that as much as the narrative method is the most dominant and classic one, I have come across that it is not fully effective because it is mostly teacher centered. With the narrative method being teacher centered, instead of being learner centered, it has created learners who are containers, learners who are depositories- Creating a generation where memorizing is the main aspect of learning, of which is wrong.
However, the main purpose of conducting this research, was to specifically find the effectiveness of using the narrative method when teaching Geography as a teacher. With having to discover that the method is not as effective as it is supposed to be, it was then that proper actions were taken to make the method more effective. The actions taken, came up with solutions on how to make the method effective, for instance, it seemed proper to engage learners more in a Geography lesson and make learning to be about them more than it has to be for teachers.

All in all, through the main conduct of the research, it has been discovered that there is no learning without learners and there is no teaching without teachers, which proves that the narrative method is the glue that keeps the two together-For these two aspects to work hand in glove. When effective teaching (or using the narrative method effectively) supports proper learning, it is when the learning environment will groom the generation which learns with proper comprehension, allowing the learners to gain an ability to use their own critical thinking or abstract thinking, relating it to the concrete evidence.

CHAPTER SIX
LIST OF REFERENCESBajracharya, H., & Brouwer, W. (1997). A narrative approach to science teaching in Nepal: International Journal of Science Education, 19(4), 429-446, DOI:10.1080/095006997019040
Boje, D.M. (2001). Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. CA: Sage
Duminy, P.A. (1975). General Teaching Method. Cape Town: Longman.
Rowley, J., & Slack F. (2004) Conducting a literature review: Management Research News, 27(6) ,31-39. doi: 10.1108/01409170410784185
Rubenstein, J.M. (2003). The cultural land escape. An introduction to human geography. Upper Saddle River: Pearson education.

Strydom, H, Fouche, C. B & Delport, C.S. L (2005). Research at grass roots. Pretoria: van schaik. Publishers
Waugh, G. H., & Waugh, R. F. (1999). The Value of Lectures in Teacher Education, the group perspective: Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 24(1). Retrieved fromhttp://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.1999v24n1.3Appendix A
Consent formConsent to Participate in a Research Study
Title of the research: The effective use of narrative method in teaching Agricultural sciences lessons.

Investigator: Miss T. Mdubeki, Geography student teacher
Faculty Advisor: N. Marongwe, Walter Sisulu University, Queenstown campus.

Invitation to Participate in a Research Study
We/I invite you to be part of a research study about the effective use of narrative method in teaching Geography lessons. The purpose of the research is to investigate the effective use of narrative method in teaching Geography lessons.
Description of Your Involvement
If you agree to be part of the research study, we/I will ask you to tell us about;
The period you have been in the teaching field.

The challenges that you have experienced in teaching Geography in this school.

The teaching method that you mostly use and reason behind using this method of instruction more than the other methods.

The learner’s responses towards using this method.

Benefits of Participation
You may directly benefit from being in this study because this session will develop
your dialogue skills. It will help you to develop skills of tackling an interview. This
study will help you to be aware of the teaching methods that your learners prefer the
most and the reasons behind that.

Risks and Discomforts of Participation
There may be some risk or discomfort from your participation in this study. The information that we are collecting may be viewed by the other people and be publicized. We will ensure that we minimize this risk by not asking you the confidential information. We will also ensure that the relevant people view the information.

Confidentiality
We/I plan to publish the results of this study. We/I will not include any information that would identify you. Your privacy will be protected and your research records will be confidential.

Storage and Future Use of Data
I/We will store your data/specimens for future readings and references by the other people. It will be kept in the hands of our Lecture. He is the one who will determine the period of keeping that data. The data may be accessible to me as a Geography pre-service teacher, education research advisors and the other education lecturers.

Voluntary Nature of the Study
Participating in this study is completely voluntary. Even if you decide to participate now, you may change your mind and stop at any time. You do not have to answer a question you do not want to answer. Just tell me/us and I/we will go to the next question. If you decide to withdraw before this study is completed.

Contact Information for the Study Team
If you have questions about this research, including questions about scheduling or your compensation for participating, you may contact T. Mdubeki (student teacher) and N. Marongwe (faculty advisor).

Consent
By signing this document, you are agreeing to be in the study. I/we will give you a copy of this document for your records. I/we will keep one copy with the study records. Be sure that I/we have answered any questions you have about the study and that you understand what you are being asked to do. You may contact the researcher if you think of a question later.

I agree to participate in the study.

_________________________________________________
Printed Name
_________________________________________________
Signature Date
Consent to be Audio/video Recorded
I agree to be audio/video recorded.YES_________NO_________
_____________________________________
Signature
I agree that my data may be used in future research.YES_________NO_________
_____________________________________
Signature
Consent to be contacted for Participation in Future Research
I agree to be contacted for participation in future research.YES_________NO_________
_____________________________________
Signature
Consent to Use Genetic Information for Future Research
My genetic information may be used for future research.YES_________NO_________
_____________________________________
Signature
Contact Information for Questions about Your Rights as a Research Participant
If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, or wish to obtain information, ask questions or discuss any concerns about this study with someone other than the researcher(s), please contact the:
Walter Sisulu University
Queenstown Campus
56 Grey Street
Queenstown
5320.

Appendix B
Interview Guide for the MentorIntroductionI am Mdubeki Tina, a fourth year student doing Bachelor’s degree in education at the Walter Sisulu University. Based on some of the courses that we do, I am expected to undertake a research where we are required to collect data about our different subjects that we are to teach in schools. In this research, we are expected to consult our mentor teachers and learners to get information that is more detailed on what we need in the form of interviews. The purpose of carrying out this research is to find more about how are we expected to teach our subjects of speciality, where and what to improve, which approaches and methods should we use that you have been using and found effective. Therefore, with all due respect I am seeking for your permission to allow me to continue with the interview by responding to the questions that I will pose to you. Before we continue, I would like you to introduce yourself.

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
Do you use the narrative method in your Geography lessons?
Why do you choose the narrative method as a teaching strategy?
How do you make sure that your learners benefit it most when you use the narrative method?
Are there other alternative teaching strategies to the narrative method?
Do learners engage effectively on the lesson when using this approach?
How does the narrative method assist you when facilitating teaching and learning in a Geography lesson?
What challenges do you normally encounter when using this method? (Advantages and disadvantages).

What suggestions could you give that would enhance the effective use of narrative method?
Would you recommend this method to other teachers and new teachers?
Appendix C
Interview guide for learnersIntroduction
As you already know me from our Geography class, I am Miss Mdubeki . I am still a student teacher; since this is the case, I am conducting a research from one of my modules. The research I am conducting requires me to interview a group of learners regarding Narrative method as a teaching approach. Narrative method is nothing else but the story telling method. The research I want to conduct with you now is in the form of an interview. Now I am here seeking for your permission to allow me to pose some few questions that I am having with me, then you reply to each one of them according to your own perspective. Be free to talk openly as much as you want to as I promise to keep this information confidential.
QUESTIONS
Narrative teaching method is when the teacher delivers information to the learners and the learners contribute merely by listening.

Group discussion method is when the teacher divides learners into groups and give them a task to work on with each other on their own.

1.Which of the two teaching methods do you find interesting or rather prefer?
2.Why is it interesting to you?
3.When the teacher uses the above mentioned teaching approaches which role do you play in each of them?
4.During tests and examinations, which teaching method would you say assists and benefits you the most in terms of recalling the subject content taught in class?
5. From the above question based on the method that makes you recall things easily, what do you think is the reason behind that or makes it easier for you to recall information?
6. Which teaching method would you prefer your teacher to use more often?
Well, I thank you for the time you took to listen to me and answer all my questions, this will surely make a difference and it is a great contribution. Thank you so much for cooperating. Wish you all the best in your studies and know that you are capable of achieving anything you want.

Appendix D
Research Journal GuideDate:
Grade:
Duration:
Key question:
How can teachers in the Geography classrooms use the narrative method effectively?
Sub-questions:
How can the narrative method be used effectively when delivering content?
What went right when teaching the lesson using the narrative method?
What went wrong when teaching the lesson using narrative method?
What improvements need to be done?
How effective is the narrative method when assessing learners during Geography lessons?
Is there any positive response when assessing the learners after teaching them using the narrative method?
Obstacles encountered when assessing learners after using the narrative method?
What needs to be done to improve assessment using narrative method?
How can the narrative method be used advantageous when using various teaching resources such as a projector?
What are the positive effects of applying the narrative method when using different teaching aids?
What are the negative effects?
What needs to be done in order to improve the use of the narrative method with various teaching aids?
Appendix E
Interview Guide for LearnerGood day learners. Today there is no lesson that is going to be conducted. We will use this period to chat and nothing else. As you all know that I am still a pre-service teacher, I am conducting an action research and I need your assistance to complete it. There are interesting questions that I am going to ask you and you will respond by indicating by raising your hand up. I hope everything is clear. If so, we can start now.
Questions to the focus group of learners.

Are you aware that your teachers are using different methods for teaching?
Now that you are aware, in which way of teaching will you place your Geography lessons?
You as learners which (method) way of teaching do you enjoy the most?
Can you share or tell me the reasons why do you like this way of teaching?
After I have taught you using the narrative method, have you felt the lesson leaving you behind or it was good?
Does the narrative method improve your understanding of the content?
Good people it was a great honour to work with you. Thank you for giving me your valuable time and it was great working with you. Good luck with your studies, thank you.

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