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PERCEPTIONS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ON THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM
A Thesis Presented To the Faculty of College of Teachers Educations, Arts and Sciences
Saint Columban College
Pagadian City
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of Research in Social Studies
By:
Arnie Marie B. Alido
Jaife Jay Catalan
Elleomar R. Dubduban
Mico G. Gandalon
Date: October 2018
Chapter 1
The Problem
Introduction
Alcoholism is a disease that produces both physical and psychological addiction. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that reduces anxiety, inhibition, and feelings of guilt. It lowers alertness and impairs perception, judgment, and motor coordination. In high doses it can cause loss of consciousness and even death.
In reality alcohol intake had been consumed badly though some express that alcohol offers a stress relieve feeling. People involve in excessive drinking states that alcohol provides relaxation and able to lessen the feeling of stress such as problems can fade. However, alcohol intake allows drinkers to feel relax at first consumption but the more intake a person consume the harder they could refrain themselves from drinking that would lead to alcoholism or alcohol addiction.

Nearly 14 million mature person in the United States abuse alcohol and most have alcoholism problem. In addition, several million more engage themselves in life-risking alcohol intake that might lead to addiction and most teenagers aging from 14 – 17 above alcohol addiction problems. Though there are some cases of decrease in this situation because of some imposition of regulations from the government concern officials the fact remains that alcoholism is a widespread problem within youngsters in the United States.

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A Drug Observatory in Spain had reports that almost 50% of adolescents aged 14 – 18 years old engage in alcohol drinks particularly in public places such as in parks and squares especially on weekends that causes disturbances and a large number of garbage after the event. Almost 20% of these young adults become involved in conflict while in the influence of alcohol, an estimate of 23.3% ride cars with drunk drivers, while 5.3% drives vehicle intoxicated and 7% needs medical treatment due to road accidents (Ministerio del Interior, 2012).

Alcohol problem is no exception in Africa. Alcohol was the leading risk factor for disability in according to the study in 2004. The adjusted life years (DALYs) have lost among African male young adults age ranging from 15 – 24 years old. In Saharan Africa, an acute chronic problem on alcohol pre-dominates unexpected accidents lead to injuries or even hospitalization. This occurs because of high intoxication and a large quantity of alcohol consumption and on a daily basis, in a short amount of time and outside meals could soar the risk for some disease and even lead to injury or permanent disability.

A data from the World Health Organization indicates that 9% of the Philippine population under the age of 15 above roughly estimated at 86 million have an alcohol indicator problem. About 25% of males and 8.3% of females are occasionally heavy drinkers. In Philippines the legal age to drink is at 18 but even at a young age almost 60 percent have tried drinking. Young boys are more engaged than young girls, but it seems that females nowadays have almost the same level with the males. This matter is very alarming particularly to young people because this might lead to physical or even mental health problem and some could lead to the usage of the prohibited drugs. On the side of the female too much intoxication could lead to unconscious interaction with the opposite sex that could result to early pregnancy or even unintended sexually transmitted disease.

Alcoholism is very rampant nowadays, not just within the Philippine context but even in other foreign countries. The downside of the situation though there are many warnings and advertisement with regards to abuse consumption, teenagers tend to neglect those warnings. The researchers of this study aim to know what are the perception of college students with regards to the effects of too much alcohol intake to the physical and mental development as there are a lot of programs, warnings, campaign to the outcome of this habit.

Perspective of the Researchers
There are four researchers on this study and all of them are residents of Zamboanga del Sur and undergraduate students of Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education with an area of concentration in Social Studies at Saint Columban College.

The first researcher is Arnie Marie B. Alido. Married with two sons, she is currently residing at Barangay Santo Nino, Pagadian City. She finished her elementary years at Santo Nino Elementary School still here in Pagadian and completed her secondary years at Zamboanga del Sur National High School (Main Campus) located at Santa Maria District, Pagadian City. She had graduated a three-year course in Information Technology at Eastern Mindanao College of Technology. After she graduated she began working as Office Clerk in a company here in Pagadian City. She continued her studies last 2016 at Saint Columban College taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies with a new goal and that is to become a teacher and be an inspiration to her future learners.

The second researcher is Elleomar R. Dubduban, only child in the family. He was born on November 9, 1997. He is currently residing at Barangay Dumagoc, Pagadian City. He is a working student for almost eight years and it is not a hindrance to his study. He finished his elementary and secondary education with a prestigious recognition awards at Dumagoc Elementary School and Santa Lucia National High School, Pagadian City. He is taking up the course of Secondary education major in Social Studies at Saint Columban College. Choosing Social Studies as his field of education because he wanted to encourage individual to be cognizant and interested about the world they live in, and also, he wanted to help students to understand developments that are taking place in society and the world, as well as their roles in shaping the future of the nation and even the world. Teaching is his passion to be able to educate not just the mind but also the emotional and spiritual aspects of individuals especially the young generation. He believed to himself that good teaching is a way on molding the mind of individuals and is the key for the success of everyone.

The third researcher is Mico Ganaton Gandalon, currently residing at Brgy. Manga, Pagadian City. His permanent residence is at Poblacion Sominot, Zamboanga del Sur. His religion is Bible Baptist and still single. He graduated his elementary education at Eastern Sominot Elementary School which is situated in Brgy. Eastern Sominot, Zamboanga del Sur. He finished his secondary education at Sominot National High School and he is also a NSPC qualifier in Editorial Cartooning. His currently taking his tertiary education at Saint Columban College and is taking the course of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies.

The fourth researcher is Ms. Jaife Jay Catalan, 19 years of age and is currently residing at Corner Alano – Sagun Street, San Francisco District, City, Zamboanga del Sur. She graduated her elementary education as an honor student at Singapod Elementary School situated at Barangay Singapod, Midsalip, Zamboanga del Sur and completed her secondary education at Midsalip National High School for which she received a recognition award for being excellent in her studies. She is currently taking up the course of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies at Saint Columban College.
The researchers of this study aim to know the perception of the college students as to what are the implications of too much alcohol intake in the physical and mental development of an individual if he/she engages in this kind of vices.

2152650405130FACTORS ON ALCOHOLISM
FACTORS ON ALCOHOLISM
Conceptual Framework
2952750300990
2152650134620PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM
PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM

29540206350000
2150624117164PROGRAM /AWARENESS
ON ALCOHOLISM
00PROGRAM /AWARENESS
ON ALCOHOLISM

Figure1. The research paradigm illustrating the researcher’s conceptual framework.
The conceptual framework of this study is shown in model presented as Figure 1. This study focused on the perception of college students on the effects of alcoholism in the physical and mental development of an individual.

This study is postulated to give an outlook with regards on the effects of alcoholism to the physical and mental development. The independent variable is the Alcoholism while the dependent variables are the Perception of College Students and the effects on Physical and Mental development.

Statement of Problem
This study focuses on the perception of college students on the effects to the physical and mental development of individual who are engage in too much alcohol consumption. This study was conducted within the area of Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur. The duration of this study was from the first semester of this school year 2018 – 2019.

Specifically, this study hopefully answered the following questions:
What factors urged college students to indulge in alcoholism?
What are the perceptions of college students on the effects of alcohol in terms of:
Physical Development
Mental Development
Based on the findings, what program or action can be crafted to promote awareness on the effects of alcoholism?
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study was concern with what are the perceptions of college students to a person who are engage in alcoholism with regards to the physical and mental effects. It focused only on the views and opinions of college students.

This study was conducted within the community of Saint Columban College during the first semester of 2018. Further information from the participants about alcoholism that surpass the focus of study which are the perceptions about physical and mental effects of alcoholism on development are not included in this study.
Significance of the Study
This study will be most beneficial to the following group of persons or individual.

College Students. The outcome of this study will be able to help or give awareness to students as to what effects or the result to their development if they are going to indulge themselves in too much alcohol intake.

Parents and Guardians. The findings of this study will be able to help the parents gain knowledge as to what process and actions they needed to partake in guiding their children on how to deal with problems, that will not trigger them to sort in teen drinking that might affect them for rest of their lives.

School Administration. The outcome of this study will give ideas to administration to act on how to conduct program that will influence students not to engage in alcoholism.

Government. It could give information that would create action in disciplining individuals through giving them different good activities that may help their self-fend off vices.

Other Researchers: This study would be able give idea or information for those who would undergo related research study.

Definition of Terms
The following terms shall be defined according to how this study is being understood.

Alcoholism. A medical condition in which someone frequently drinks too much alcohol and becomes less functional without drinking.

Physical Development. Is the process that starts in human infancy and continues into late adolescent concentrating on gross and fine motor skills as well as puberty.

Mental Development. Refers to age related cognitive development that maybe employed in specific domains such as alcoholism.

Structure of Thesis
This study is consists of five chapters: In chapter 1 it includes the introduction, perspective of the researchers, conceptual framework, statement of the problem, scope and limitations, significance of the study, definition of terms, and structure of thesis. Chapter 2 tackles about the related literature on the perceptions of individuals on alcoholism and about alcoholism. Chapter 3 specifically discussed the research methods such as the research design, research environment, research participants, sampling techniques, research instruments, data analysis and ethical consideration in research. Chapter 4 discussed the presentation and analysis of the data that had gathered for the study of Perceptions of college students on the physical and mental effects of alcoholism. Chapter 5 presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations gathered from the conducted study.

Chapter 2
Review Related Literature
This chapter discussed the concepts, frameworks and related literature that will be helpful to the ongoing study conducted and so with the studies that has related reviews on the present study.

Alcoholism
Alcohol intoxication is one of the important elements that contributed to the ongoing criminal acts and juvenile delinquency. It is also leads a married couple to argue or fight, particularly if the husband is a drunkard and often neglects the needs of their children (K. Singh, 2001).

According to Kumar (2001), alcohol intoxication shows harmful effects to the development of every individual in a society particularly the youth. It is harmful as much as it offers goodness in the intellectual and spiritual development of a person.

Alcoholism is often the direct outlet of some individual who have problems in terms of family, monetary side, failure of employment that leads to misery, family discord, illness, and the most disastrous is criminal offense that may result to imprisonment. Being a drunkard does not imprisoned a person but the acts that he or she committed because of intoxication such as rape, burglary, theft and the worst is murder. Alcoholism is one of the many reasons of highway accident and thousands of death because of illness such as liver failure (Ahuja, 2003).

In Ireland, the recent national survey on alcohol shows that half of adult (18-75 years old) in population are categorize as harmful drinkers and they are more common among men than in women. The results are similar to conducted study in the SLAN survey in 2007 using the WHO AUDIT-C screening tool. Though the alcohol involvement problems decline in 2007, it still remains as high and dominance in harmful drinking in Ireland and even in Europe and it is a major problem. (Long ; Mongan 2013).
Research by Hope (2014) states that in Ireland most of the survey participants reported that they had experienced harm in the past year due to the other person’s intoxication in alcohol. These problems occur in family, even monetary involvement, vandalizing property and riding with a drunk driver that leads to vehicle accidents.
Henderson (2013) studied young people aged from 11 to 15 years old out from 7,589 students in various schools (254) in England and discovered that younger students often drinks inside their home than most older students. Most 15 years old and older usually drinks at parties or a friend’s house. Study shows 55% of older student’s drinks outside compare to 28% 11-12 years old.

Alcoholism or alcohol dependence is considered a disease with symptoms such as craving or a strong urge to drink; losing control or not to be able to stop once intoxication has started; physical dependence such nausea, sweating, shakiness and anxiety; and tolerance or drinking greater amounts of alcohol to “get high”. People believe that drinking alcohol will and may ease their problems regarding their family, work and society. In reality acquiring alcohol may lead to more serious complications and illness that would cause death (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’, 2006).

Califano (2000) stated that alcohol intoxication and alcohol dependency is not just an adult problem but even the young adults and adolescents aging from 12 to 20. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that young adult who begins to drink before the age of 15 are four times to develop alcohol dependency over those who begins at the age of 21. Another one is that early engagement in alcohol can lead to alcohol-related violence caused by young adults aging 21 and above. This shows that alcohol-related violence mostly occurred when there is less controlled in intoxication.

Hallgren, Holberg ; Andreasson, 2009 states that 70-80% of European adults consume alcoholic drinks such as wine and beer and that it’s over consumption had been neglected. In Finland, study shows that the highest level of alcohol intoxication rates among the elderly. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (2006), the rate totality of alcohol consumption among older adults has tripled over the past four decades in Finland.

Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor that increased the mortality and morbidity among elder people. In America, too much alcohol consumption are accounting to 21,000 death per year among adults aged 65 and over. (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013).

According to World Health Organization (2013), the periodic consumption of chronic continual drinking of alcohol is known as alcoholism or alcohol dependence. If alcohol is consumed excessively, it may lead to illness or disorders such as dependency that is known as alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Intoxication is a major risk factor and underlying that causes health problems, chronic disease and injuries.

Institute of Alcohol Studies (2013) expressed the three major types of alcohol dependent users. The early onset or aging alcoholic has generally encountered problems with alcohol intermittently throughout life, with a regular pattern of alcohol abused starts at late middle age or later. The late-onset or elderly problem drinker has no history of alcohol related but alongside of aging and struggles in life develops alcohol dependency to cope with losses or pain. Occasional binge drinkers but excessive consumption might lead to health problems.

Abuse alcohol intake has resulted in an innate disease that increasingly worsens and leads to difficulty to control. Individuals consuming too much amount of alcohol are considered diseased according to the disease of theory of alcoholism. Most medical professional believes that addiction of more than 40 years is primary, chronic, progressive, incurable, physical disease that could be fatal. Persons in this situation cannot control their alcohol intake since the disease is activated when they first drink; causing them to intoxicate more. The physical, emotional and spiritual damage result from uncontrolled alcohol consumption. The disease has no cure, but its effects would cease if the person stops drinking. Modern alcohol organizations including the support groups and treatment centers apply this concept in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Though alcohol dependency may not be viewed disease entirely, the idea that it might be a disease may be useful in giving awareness to the society that people with alcohol problem is a serious matter that needs to be dealt seriously or they may opt to seek help (Korhonen, 2004).

According to West (2005) the presumption is that the brain abnormality that led to the addiction has normalized. The model of addiction proposes alcohol dependency fits to the definition of a medical disorder and it involves a structural or functional abnormality in the central nervous system. The abnormality results in the impairment which requires treatment. Addictions, such as alcohol addiction involves changes in the movement of the brain pathologically which resulted in uncontrolled urge. It has been observed in addicts that a loss of control is leading them to consume excessive over a period of time that would run from hours due to the irresistible desire to consume alcohol. The disease theory also includes the concept of self-cure. Alcoholics may suddenly stop engaging in alcohol intoxication after many years of compulsive drinking.

Meleis (2011) stresses that human relationships assist people to cope with suffering. The main role of a nurse is to ease suffering and pain. Human relationships were conceptualized to advance in stages. These phases include phase of original encounter, phase of emerging identities, phase of empathy, and the phase of rapport. Communication is good between a patient and a nurse in order to deduce pain and suffering. There are methods applied by nurses to retain the channels of communication. There are methods such as reflecting alone or with the patient, providing open-ended comments to obtain information from patients. Furthermore, active listening and reflection, avoiding interruptions, providing automatic responses and avoiding same flow of communication. Communication is the key factor stresses in this study to be able to establish good nurse-patient relationship.

Bedford (2006) states that alcohol was one of the major factors of all road accidents that led to fatal accidents. Alcohol related accidents can result to life loss, sufferings, medical costs and even pains from accidents. It can also lead to damage of property, insurance, administration and even court costs. The standard method used to estimate road accident costs is the “willingness to pay” method which puts statistical value on life by considering how many people are willing to pay for the less result of accidents or even the risk of death. The willingness of a person to cover the expenses to save lives, pain and suffering and medical cost are being used by the National Roads Authority as the basis for calculating the cost of road accidents due to alcohol involvement.

According to Brady (2006) there is evidence that alcohol problem can be used to suicidal behavior due to depressive situation and incapacity of an individual to face the challenges of life, inability to solve problems and impulse personality traits.

A survey conducted by the National Institute for Health and Welfare (2009) on the consumption, harm and policies related to alcohol, and some drugs to healthcare providers. Alcohol problems increase or worsened as the person gets older and there are hidden or tolerated problems developed or turned up to be more evident as they get older. The survey concluded that dependence on alcohol typically declined after the age of 18.
Bowman and Gerber (2006) conducted a study on binge drinking and psychological distresses among older drinkers. Study concludes that alcohol dependence can be a symptom of normal ageing process. In addition, alcohol was considered to complicate the normal process of aging. Therefore, difficulty in memory and cognition, social impairment and mental health concerns such as anxiety and depression developed.
Alcohol health benefits and harmful results affects among elderly in America. The study concluded that dependency on alcohol among older people emerged as a silent epidemic condition and the study states that more or less two thirds of older people were observed to abuse alcohol at any given time (Bowman and Gerber, 2006).

Ritson (2011) describe the millennial drinking culture in United Kingdom as an ‘alcohol nation’. In his study he describes youths within United Kingdom are more likely to consume alcohol same as with other youths around the world. In addition, the alcohol consumption among youngsters within United Kingdom had been increased than in the other part of the world. Most researchers believe that there are not enough boundaries for children, which could lead to harmful drinking habits within a group. The study acknowledges that within United Kingdom as adults are drinking more and more, this will influence children to indulge into drinking habits and it makes it simple for children to depend on alcohol. So, in order to prevent this kind of scenarios and to prevent children against harmful dependency on alcohol drinking, it is important for the parents to be the responsible model and to be more aware of the consequences of indulging into drinking. Nowadays, alcohol consumption is easily done even by the young ones because it became lesser in price and had been used as entertainment for teenagers. The study specifically states the effects of alcohol not just physically but even psychological consequences, such as too much alcohol consumption related to depression. It is vital that the young people know that though they picture alcohol as mood lifter it is also the reason of the low mood.
Ahlström and Österberg, (2005) reviewed and pointed out two main factors that affect young people’s drinking behavior, namely internal factors and external factors. Internal factors referred to characteristics such as gender, personality factors, and biological traits. Age and gender were significant issues influencing drinking behavior. During youth, girls might drink more often than boys since they tend to mature faster than boys and do not have family and responsibilities. However, when they reached young adulthood, young males tended to drink more alcohol and more often than young females. Concerning external factors referred to social norms or culture, physical availability, and price of alcohol: for social norms, the most reliable predictor for young people drinking is their friends’ drinking behaviour and siblings’ drinking. Moreover, the parent-child relationship, communication and practices also influence young people’s alcohol consumption. Culture influenced how much teenagers drink. For instance, adolescents were more likely to drink alcohol more frequently in Mediterranean cultures than adolescents in other regions.

Filipinos were introduced to Roman Catholicism not just as a religious institution, but also as a culture of “collective joyous festivities and celebrations,” accompanied by dining, drinking, and merrymaking, which is still felt and practiced to this day. It is observable in the modern period that fiestas, birthdays, and parties are often deemed as incomplete without beer and/or other alcoholic beverages available during the occasion. Given these, people can determine various reasons which may explain why drinking have become such an integral facet of the Filipino society (Labajo, 2010).

Kuntsche (2005) reviewed the evidence of young people and young adults and their drinking motives through a computer-assisted search of relevant articles. The findings revealed that most young people age group of 10 to 25-year old’s indicated that drinking was due to social motives; some of them reported that they drank for enhancement motives and only a few of them described drinking for coping motives. In general, most young people drink for a social reason or for a sense of enjoyment.

According to (McClatchy, 2011) in Thailand, alcohol use has increased dramatically as a result of intense marketing and the manufacture of a sweet fruit beverage promoted for sale to adolescents. Alcoholic products can generally be produced in local communities and young people have easy access to alcohol. This section aims to present the history of alcohol in Thailand using data extracted from research papers, official statistics, and policy documents that focused on the issues of alcohol consumption in Thailand. Finally, the drinking pattern of young people in Thailand is reviewed as well as the factors behind drinking.

Chamratrithirong (2010) specifically mentioned the impact of parental guidance to the spirituality and religious beliefs of the children’s development. The findings revealed that spirituality of parents and teenagers within the family can be a factor to prevent adolescent health risk behavior.
Young et al. (2006) showed that the widely recognized leading policy concern and public health problem in many countries throughout the world is the young’s people drinking ad as a cause of accidental death among young people. High volume alcohol consumption is often the cause of injury and personal negative consequences, such as academic failure, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, property damage, and criminal involvement.

Filipinos were introduced to Roman Catholicism not just as a religious institution, but also as a culture of “collective joyous festivities and celebrations,” accompanied by dining, drinking, and merrymaking, which is still felt and practiced to this day. According to Labajo (2010) it is observable in the modern period that fiestas, birthdays, and parties are often deemed as incomplete without beer and/or other alcoholic beverages available during the occasion. Given these, people can determine various reasons which may explain why drinking have become such an integral facet of the Filipino society.

Alcohol was one of the most commonly abused substances among the elderly. Alcohol was the common abused drug after nicotine and caffeine and often remained misdiagnosed or untreated. The number of individuals aged 65 and above suffering from alcohol related problems was significantly increasing. There was increasing research in this area due to growing recognition of alcohol use disorders among the elderly. Alcohol consumptions limits and recommendations were commonly set for whole general populations and were age specific. Corresponding to the study conducted by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2010), statistics revealed that nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and above consumed alcohol. (Donatelli ; Somes 2014).

Everyone should be an element of the solution, providing paramount efforts in proving to each and every country of the world that the Philippines is a growing, drug and alcohol-free nation that inhabited by responsible population. And that as Filipinos, a one solid republic are firmly against all activities concerning abuse of alcohol that brought about these alarming addiction problems.

Chapter 3
Research Methods
This chapter states and describes the research design, research environment, research participants, sampling techniques, research instrument, research ethics and the appendices related to this study.

Research Design
The study will conduct a qualitative type of research that focused on the individual interviews as the instrument to use in gathering the needed data. A qualitative research is based on methods of data generation which are both flexible and sensitive to the social context in which data are produced. It also based methods of analysis, explanation and argument building which involved understandings of complexity, detail and context. Qualitative research aims to produce rounded and contextual understandings on the basis of rich, nuanced and detailed data. (Mason, 2002).

Research Environment
This study was focused on the perceptions of college students on the physical and mental effects of Alcoholism within Saint Columban College where the researchers are recently enrolled in Bachelor of Secondary Education with the area of specialization in Social Studies.
Saint Columban College can be located within the city of Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur in Mindanao. Saint Columban College is a Catholic school that was established way back in 1957 by Fr. Sean Nolan of the Missionary Society of St. Columban (MSSC); Jesus Reyes, Isabel of the Angels Narciso, Marie Odille Cayetano and Anne Bacomo of the Sisters of Saint Paul de Chartres (SPC). Under the leadership of Fr. Partick Campion of the MSSC, SCS earned “full operation status.”
Pagadian City is a city located in the province of Zamboanga del Sur where Saint Columban College is established. It is found in the island of Mindanao and it is the capital city and so is the regional center of the entire Zamboanga Peninsula. It is subdivided politically into 54 barangays which other are classified as urban. Its position is on the North Eastern side of Western Mindanao bordering the Iliana Bay. About 45% of the entire city area is steeply sloping terrain hills and mountains on the northwestern portion that covers an estimated 15,090 hectares.
1905015684500
Figure2. Photo of Saint Columban College
Research Participants
Table 1
Research participants of the study
Research Participants Sample Size
College Students of Saint Columban 20
The table 1 shows the estimated population of college students that have been interviewed. The researchers got 20 participants to interviewed; they divide this population by department. In the College of Business Education, a total of 5 participants, from the College of Teachers Education, Arts ; Sciences a total of 10 participants then from the College of Computer Studies a total of 5 participants was purposely chosen to be interviewed.

Sampling Technique
The researchers used the method of Purposive Sampling Technique in gathering the participants of their study. Purposive Sampling Technique is where the researchers select the participants purposively.

In this study the participants were chosen purposely by each department with respective total numbers to be selected. By way of homogenous sampling which the researchers chooses the 3rd to 4th year levels of participants. The researchers picked the participants by their year level in the college department.

In choosing the participants the researchers subdivide the students through their respective department. In CTEAS, the researchers chooses 10 participants from the 3rd – 4th year students, from CBE a total of 5 participants, and from CCS also 5 participants from 3rd – 4th year level.

Research Instruments
The Researchers utilized an individual interview to acquire the needed data pertaining to the purpose of the study. The guide questions survey made by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (U.S.) were adapted by the researchers in formulating their interview guide questions. The formulated questions were answered by the participants with the consideration of allowing them to choose whether they will reveal their identity or not.

Data Analysis
The data that had been gathered out from the interview conducted were organized by the researchers and summarize the result out of the perspectives of selected college students. In one hand, the data gathered are organized through the different perspectives of students by every college department. On other hand, they summarized the data through gathering the most common perspectives of the selected college students.
Ethical Considerations in Research
The researchers of this study observe ethical action in gathering their data particularly in interacting with the participants and the result of the interview.
With the use of consent letter, the researchers will know if the research participants are willing to be interviewed. The researchers assure that the identities of the participants remained confidential.
Participants. The participants were given the right to let their identity be hidden or not.

Chapter IV
Presentation and Analysis of Data
This chapter presented the data analyzed of the qualitative study conducted on the perceptions of college students on the physical and mental effects of alcoholism. This includes the suggestions provided by the participants of the study.

Participant’s Perception on Alcoholism
Based on the participant’s perception on Alcoholism, these are the following response came from the different department of college in Saint Columban:
Table 2. Perception on Alcoholism
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurence
With regards to alcoholism it is then negative sign because in similar way also positive but when it comes to an event, it can be a stress reliever but can affect the mentality, because when you are drunk, you don’t know what you are doing. Alcoholism can be positive or negative and it all depends on the person who drinks and the environment he/she dwells. Both positive and negative Stress Reliever 5
Sa amoa, sa Islam Religion, Alcoholism is ‘Haram’, and sa ako negative ang tan-aw nako sa Alcoholism.
Ang alcoholism ang rason nga naguba ang among pamilya tungod sa akong uncle nga palahubog. Alcoholism is negative for some of the participants because it had ruined their family and bad for their religion. Negative outlook Distracter of relationship within the family 4
For me, Alcoholism is positive, kay gi-try nako engage sa alcohol ug naa ra sa tawo kung palabian niya ang iyang pag-inom.

-87549-821400Alcoholism, kay positive ug negative sa ako depende lang sa pag-inom ug alcohol sa tawo if macontrol niya ang effect afterwards. Nabantayan nko nga ang alcohol makadugang ug confidence.
Alcoholism imposed a positive view for some participants because when a person drinks it is always up to the person how to control their selves to limit their drinks.

Alcoholism can either effect positively or negatively but, it is up to the people who consume alcohol if he/she can control the effects afterwards. Some people felt that alcohol boosted their self-esteem. Positive View
Both positive and negative Imposing self-control on alcohol consumption
Good and Bad effect 1
5
Factors urged a person to drink
With regards to the factors that urge the person to drink here are some of the responses from the participants:
Table 3. Factors Urged a Person
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurrence
Factors nag-urge nako kay sometimes just for friendship or kanang na-heart broken ka or nay conflict sa mga friends. The factors that urge a person to drink is because of conflict between friends and broken relations. Broken Hearted Engage more friends 3
Because of problems and alcohol ang ilang nakita nga way para makalimot sila sa ila mga problema. The participants implies that because of problems, a person are urge to engage in alcoholic activity to forget the pains they feel. Problems Lack of concerns from family 4
I think kanang atong mga desperation ug mga melancholy feeling ug mga sorrow ang rason mao musulod ang tawo ug inom. The feeling of sorrow and desperation and also the melancholic feeling that push a person to drink. Sadness Overcoming the odds 7
For enjoyment ang uban pangtanggal stress then ang uban kay bisyo jud nila. Some response says that a person indulge in alcoholism because it can be a stress reliever, for enjoyment and the most common is vices. Enjoyment Stress Reliever 6
Effects in Physical and Mental Development
Based on the effects of physical and mental developments, the following are the response of the participants
Table 4. Effects on Physical and Mental Development
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurrence
Mostly akong nabantayan sa akong mga uyoan dagko jud sila ug tiyan, dayon mostly sa ilaha kay mga maoy. Dayon sa mental kung mahubog ka dika makahuna-huna ug tarong. Kung makainom ka wala naka sa imong self. Bisan unsa nalang imong mga lihok. Wala naka kahibawo nga nahimo diay tu nimo. The participant describes that whenever a person indulge into alcoholic drinks, mostly of the consequence is in physical. Because they gain belly instead. In mental aspect the person who indulge in alcoholic drinks sometimes became hysterical mostly the male drinkers and unconsciously do things that affects others. Harmful Changing in Physical Body Ang effect kay positive ug negative, sa positive kay makatambok daw kung mag-inom dayon makapa.active sa utok labi na sa mga batan-on pero ang negative effect pod sa inom kay makadaot sa internal part sa body particular sa atay.

Ang alcoholism kay makamature ug physical feature dayon makawalag tarong panghuna-huna. The effect of alcoholism to mental development is it makes the person active and the lightweight ones could gain some kilos. But the negative effect results in the internal part of the body particular the liver.

Alcoholism do made man’ physical features matured, such as; skin, weight and also parts of the internal organs. It also made people out of their natural state of mind. Good and Bad effect Excessive drinking of alcoholism 9
Awareness Programs on Alcoholism
Based on the response of the participants on programs for alcoholism here are the following suggestions:
Table 5. Awareness Programs on Alcoholism
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurrence
Implementing ug sports program nga mo-fit sa imoha example kung mahilig ka ug basketball. Puwede mag-conduct ug Basketball Clinic within lang sa barangay para pud ma-involve ang mga kabatan-unan sa sports. Ug dili lang diay sa mga kabatan-unan utro pod sa mga hamtong. The participants want to have a sports clinic in each barangay. Just to avoid the involvement of the youth in indulging alcoholic drinks. Not just for the youth but also for the mature individuals. Sports Program Sports Oriented 13
Dapat mag start jud sa barangay ang disiplina. Dayon mag conduct ug awareness symposium. Para ma aware ang mga katawhan kung unsa ang negatibong epekto sa alcohol sa lawas. Most especially the youth, kay sila man ang pinakaapektado ani nga bisyo.

Barangay officials should involve in imposing awareness on the effects of alcoholism through symposium program especially for the youth. Symposiums Awareness Program by Barangay 7
Chapter 5
Summary of Findings, Conclusion, Recommendations
This chapter presented the summary of findings on the concept investigated, conclusions reached by the researcher, and the recommendations proposed to the awareness of the effects of Alcoholism on the physical and Mental Development.

Summary of Findings
The following were the summary of the findings generated through the data gathered, presented, interpreted and analyzed.

What are the students’ perception about alcoholism, is it positive or negative and why?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College perceived alcohol as both positive and negative. Students viewed alcohol as positive due to its effect that it will boost self-esteem, when they had events they take alcohol to boost their confidence. Alcohol relieved the stresses of few students that are why they viewed alcoholism positively. Though alcoholism is positive to them, they clarified that it is up to the people if they can control the effect afterwards.
Alcoholism did affect students negatively because when they got drunk they are unconscious of what they are doing. Some students put the blame to alcoholism why their family got ruined because of alcoholic beverages intake of their father or uncle. To some students, alcoholism is prohibited in their religion that is why they perceived alcoholism negatively. These experiences and observations of students lead them viewed alcoholism as negative.

What factors urged the students to drink alcohols?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College revealed the factors that urged them to drink alcohols. They drink alcohols to forget problems, to unwind, and to relieve their stresses. Some students drink alcohol when they are broken hearted because they thought alcohols will heal their broken heart, some is for camaraderie and some is just for fun.

What students have observed on the effects of alcoholism on the physical and mental development of man?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College gave their observation on the effects of alcoholism. On physical development, alcohols make people fatter and on the other students, alcohols ruined their internal organ particularly their liver. Alcohol mostly fastens the physical maturity of some students.
On the mental development, the effects of alcohols made students out of their natural state of thinking, the students usually observed that when their uncle, father or brother are drunk they got wasted. Some students also stated that alcoholism made their brain more active. Either the physicality or mentality of students, alcohol contributes to their development once they indulge on drinking.
What program/programs will the students implement to promote awareness on the effects of alcoholism?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College proposed some programs that they thought could promote awareness on the effects of alcoholism. The students proposed to implement sports clinic in each barangay to stop the mature individuals in drinking and to avoid the youth on indulging alcohols consumption. There are few also who proposed that the imposition of such awareness should also involve the Barangay Officials for better implementation through symposium and they targeted mostly the youth.
Conclusions
The following conclusions were reached by the researcher based on the strength of the findings on Saint Columban College students’ perceptions on the effects of alcoholism on the physical and mental development.

Most students of Saint Columban College perceived alcoholism that can only give negative effects on one’s development. They reasoned out the negativities like; it will only leave people unconscious when they got drunk, it will tempt a person to rely on drinking which is a reason of family problem and it is also being prohibited on some religion. The negative effect of alcoholism on the physical and mental development also leads some students to refrain from drinking and made them proposed programs that will give awareness to its effect particularly their concern are of the youth.
Some students viewed alcoholism on the positive side. Positive as it is their stress-reliever and a boosting factor of their self-esteem, though there is positive outlook students can never reject the idea that excessive alcohol intake can possibly make a person mental and physical features put at risk.
Recommendations
Based on the findings, the researchers endorses the following recommendations:
The researchers suggest making a resolution or an act imposing a limitation on liquor buying on small establishments in municipalities and its barangays. They also suggest to totally banning the availability of liquors to the considered minors according to the Philippine Law which is aged 18 and below. If possible, the researchers asked the Philippine authorities to give sanctions or penalty directly to the minors who avail the liquors. The researchers saw the never-ending effect of alcohols in the Philippine country particularly in Pagadian City where the College of Saint Columban located. They witnessed the messiness of drunken people and how these drunken people can possibly harm others that is why they are eager to make these propositions be heard.

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