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Overview of URRAP Performance
Performance of URRAP under RSDP IV
As major component of the RSDP-IV, Universal Rural Road Access Program (URRAP) was launched envisaging connecting all Kebeles by standard and affordable all-weather roads that provide year round access. Within the program implementation period, it was planned to construct 71,523 km of all-weather roads throughout the country at an estimated cost of more than ETB 26.4 billion. The fullfledged implementation of URRAP was supposed to ensure year round access to road for about 80% of the total rural population. The program has been designed to be fully financed by the Government of Ethiopia. The first year of implementation (2010/11), which was largely a year of preparation only 854 km of roads were constructed. Some of the preparation works were even extended to second quarters of the 2011/12 in some regions. Though it took more time than anticipated, it has laid the foundation for the success of the program and same is reflected by the promising performance being observed recently(ERA, 2016).
Table 1.1. SME development, training, and manual distribution
No Region SME Development Training provided
by ERA No. of LVR
Design Manuals
Distributed
Consultants Contractors RSDP
IV RSDP V
(First
Year
1 SNNRP 98 254 686 201 1546
2 Amhara 35 151 920 198 1345
3 Oromia 120 470 1436 301 2946
4 Tigray 11 34 1150 59 400
5 B/Gumuz 6 17 58 16 245
6 Dire Dawa 2 11 34 47 95
7 Harari 1 2 34 33 112
8 Gambella 2 6 72 22 154
9 Somali 40 39 382
10 Afar 22 13 216
Total 275 945 4452 929 7461

As can be seen from table 11; the following preparatory activities have been carried out to effectively implement URRAP.
•?More than 7461 Low Volume Roads Design Manuals were distributed to all Regions, Woredas, and consultants involving in URRAP.
•?More than 8000 small and medium capacity equipments; including tractors, trailers, towed rollers, towed graders, water tankers, fuel tankers, and pickups, were manufactured/assembled and distributed to Regions by Metal and Engineering Corporation.
•?More than 1220 medium Enterprises, consultants and contractors, were developed, trained, and are involving in the program.
On top of the above, during RSDP IV Regions managed to construct 46,810 km of
(by 6m wide) all weather roads, which is 65% of planned for the period of the 5
years. In addition, regions have also managed to maintain 535 km of the constructed URRAP roads. It is to be recalled that URRAP roads are planned to be constructed with the minimum standard of 4.5m wide surfacing. Due to some design and structural changes by the implementing regions; almost all roads are constructed by considering 6m wide. So it has its own implication on construction costs as well as on the physical accomplishments. If the whole roads were constructed by 4.5m wide, the physical accomplishment could have been 62,413 km which yields an accomplishment of 87% against the plan.
Table 1.2. URRAP Performance under RSDP IV
No Region 5 Years
Plan
(Km) Accomplishment
(by 6m wide surfacing) Accomplishment
(by 4.5m wide
surfacing) Community
Participation ( in man –
days*) Employ’t
Opportu’y
in number
In Km In Percent In Km In Percent
1 SNNRP 14,003 7,185 51 9,580 68 5,082,223 522,978
2 Amhara 18,003 9415 52 12,553 70 4,661,630 165,728
3 Oromia 30,007 27,158 91 36,211 100 18,339,648 663,903
4 Tigray 2,500 2,283 91 3,044 100 2,517,294 133,818
5 B/Gumuz 1,800 366 20 488 27 2,360 2,543
6 Dire Dawa 159 214 >100 285 100 645 3,326
7 Harari 50 144 >100 192 100 280 1,416
8 Gambella 200 45 23 60 30 573 428
9 Somali 3,001 0 0 0 0 – –
10 Afar 1800 0 0 0 0 – –
Total 71,523 46,810 65 62,413 87 30,604,653 1,494,140
Source: Ethiopian Roads Authority 2016
As a whole, more than 30 million man-days had been contributed as a free labor contribution during the implementation years of URRAP. The monetary value of this contribution plus the voluntary monetary contribution by those who can?t contribute their labor because of different reasons was well above ETB 2.7 million.
As far as the overall financial performance of URRAP is concerned, including the community contribution is about ETB 28 billion was expended during RSDP IV. This fairly substantiates the extent of low cost per km investment on URRAP roads. Including all direct (construction) and indirect (training, supervision, operational, etc) costs; the per km cost of roads under URRAP is around ETB 689,025.
Another important achievement of the program is the employment opportunity it was creating for the rural population. The program, reflecting the broad-based development strategy of the country, has created more than 1,494,140 thousand permanent and temporary job opportunities in the five years period.
It is to be recalled that with the limited road network coverage, many Kebeles of the country were remained inaccessible by motorized transport and several areas inhabited by relatively large rural populations were isolated from the rest of the country. URRAP was launched for the mission of connecting all these rural kebeles throughout the country, 15,602 in total, by all weather roads at the end of 2014/15. Detail of kebele connectivity before and after URRAP to the nearest main road is presented hereunder.
Table 1.3. level of Kebele Connectivity by All Weather Roads
No. Region Number
of rural
Woredas Number of
rural
Kebeles Kebeles connected by
all weather roads before
URRAP Kebeles connected by all
weather roads so far
In number In percent In number In percent
1 SNNPR 134 3,808 1555 41 2531 66
2 Amhara 129 3,217 1132 35 2030 63
3 Oromia 295 6,478 2714 42 6028 93
4 Tigray 35 714 383 54 565 79
5 B/Gumuz 20 377 95 25 252 67
6 Dire Dawa 1 38 19 50 38 100
7 Harari 3 – – – 25
8 Gambella 11 198 67 34 87 44
9 Somali 50 401 95 24 122 30
10 Afar 29 371 164 44 193 52
707 15,602 6222 40 11871 76
Source: Ethiopian Roads Authority 2016

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