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of sample 3 pollen grain types, with high levels of Picea and Erigonum. This indicates that the climate that this stratigraphic level was formed in was most possibly cold (Minckley et al. 2008). Picea has had a sharp increase in its percentage compared to that of sample 6. Picea has the highest percentage from all of the samples (see figure 2). Finally, the palynological data of sample 8 displays a distinct rise in the percentage of Ambrosia, Sacrobatus, Quercus and Juniperus from that of sample 7. This indicates that these pollen grains were formed in a warmer climate (Minckley et al. 2008). The highest percentage of sample 8 is that of Ambrosia (see table 3). Juniperus has had a sharp increase in percentage compared to that of it in sample 7, whereas Erigonum has a null percentage (see figure 2). The palynological data samples that were taken from the core have been useful in reconstructing the climatic conditions of the time period. The plant life surrounding the Lake was helpful in enlightening the facts.
The pollen grains dated to the modern era, grains such as Pinus and Poaceae from sample 2 mostly preferred cold climates, whereas grains such as Ambrosia and Sarcobatus from sample 1 preferred warmer climate conditions. The time taken for the stratigraphic layers to be made are based on the climate conditions. The trend as to how the stratigraphic layers were built, allows us to identify the 8 samples respectively. The Vostok, Antarctica Ice Core graph (see figure 3), demonstrates how the climate readings of the palynological data draw a parallel with the glacial – interglacial cycles. Table 4 divulges the data of the 8 pollen samples of the cycles of glacial – interglacial changes. Each of these cycles lasted for around 100, 000 years. The Vostok Ice Core data (Petit 1992) has observed the 100, 000 year cycle from the late Quaternary period where there seemed to have been a large scale of glacial – interglacial changes. This has allowed us to give an estimated time period for the undated pollen samples (see figure 4). According to Lisiecki and Raymo (2005), the 100, 000 year cycles have been contemporary since the middle Quaternary period. Precession, ice albedo and obliquity are the main factors that contribute to cause the glacial – interglacial cycles (Maslin and Brierley 2015). The temperature measurements that you can see in the Vostok Ice Core graph (see figure 3) supports the data from the samples. For instance, the climate that the stratigraphic layer of sample 2, was fashioned as cold. The purple point at 240, 000 years ago, depicts the warm point between the dates of sample 6 and 8, on the Vostok Ice Core graph (see figure 4).
Pollen is transported by wind, animals and insects. Pollen can travel a great distance from where they were actually germinated (Moore et al. 1991). It is possible that the pollen grains that were identified in the samples may not essentially be from the flora surrounding the Great Salt Lake. Even though the pollen were not from the surrounding of the Lake, the interpreted data of the samples might essentially be correct as the climate must have been similar to the ones in the Vostok Ice Core data. This is a limitation to studying pollen data (Minckley et al. 2008). The constant fluctuation of the water level of the Great Salt Lake is both seasonal and yearly as we go through the wet and dry periods. Figure 5 shows the July 2015 NASA photograph of the lake at near record?low levels, exposing half of the lake bed (Pemberton 2016). The white line shows the lake margin at its average natural elevation of 4,207 feet (see figure 5).
According to Craig Miller, an engineer with the Utah Division of Water Resources, the blue line (see figure 6) shows the natural water level, from the year 1847, that should have been in the lake if not for the depletion created by human beings (Pemberton 2016). The blue line shows a typical lake’s elevation in the absence of destructive water usage. The water use has lowered the lake 11 feet averagely over the years, and has reduced its volume by 48 percent.
The unscathed Great Salt Lake is 11 feet higher than that of the actual level that is shown by the red line (see figure 6). The volume of the lake is 9 million acre feet, when it should have been over 19 million acre feet (White 2015). According to climate reconstructions there has not been an intense decrease in the natural water supply to Great Salt Lake over the past century and a half. The lake is half the size solely because the humans exploit the water from the lake (Pemberton 2016). According to the palynological data that were given, it is positive that the cold climatic conditions were mostly favoured. It is proven by the Vostok Ice Core graph, that the samples that were taken from the stratigraphic layer belonged to much colder climatic conditions than warmer climatic conditions. According to the Vostok records, the climate has always been changing during the Quaternary period, within established boundaries (Petit 1999).
Dry conditions have massively stepped into the 21st century due to human activities such as the release of greenhouse gases, chemicals and many more harmful activities (White 2015). For example the use of nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are not eco-friendly. A major decline in the water level of the Great Salt Lake appears to be from the 20th century as the world became more industrialised. As of 2000, the Great Salt Lake is at a record low level.

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