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New media within our society helps diversify and educate societies, however due to personalisation of the media, we are blindsided by what we want to know instead of the reality and serious news. Through discussing the advantages and disadvantages between traditional and new media we gain insight to the public sphere and public circulation found in our society. Analysis of Hindman’s (2013) work provides understanding of traditional media and it’s preservation of conservative values and beliefs, Cinque (2015) analyses how the media has certain needs. Other sources such as Andrejevic (2013) and Fuchs (2017) discuss how the utilisation of social media moulds our perspective of the world. Similarly, Thompson (1999) and Yang (2016) analyse the changing nature of information circulation and the evolution of the public sphere, referencing political and tabloid utilisation. By drawing comparison between internet and print media, many authors are in consensus that today’s society has blurred the lines between what information is pertinent for public knowledge and what is irrelevant, inundating us with a flurry of information, using social and online mediums as a scapegoat to remove blame from themselves. The focus on internet communications with print media we can compare several different ideas (Gerhards and Schäfer, 2010), also on the online media being used as scapegoats (Atlani-Duault et al., 2014). The works of Flew (2008) and Sinclair (2014) both analyse the media in today’s society.

Traditional Media, such as newspaper and radio, are defined as such due to their limited reach to audiences and relativity slow output of information to its viewers. However, with the progression of technological media, we have observed the influx of content frequently disregarding privacy concerns. Invented in the 1890’s radio revolutionised the way people received information, but as technology advanced and peoples’ live became fast-paced, radio’s relevance gradually diminished because it couldn’t keep up with the demands of it’s ever changing environment. Today many people have turned to music streaming services such as Spotify or … to facilitate their immediate need for answers, compared to listening to the radio or reading a newspaper. Hindman (2013) analyses traditional media today as unable to live up to the role it has created for itself. On the other hand, Cinque (2015) analyses how traditional media serves four main needs: personal identity, relationships, surveillance; information about issues and events and finally diversion created to give people an escape. Through newspapers and radio broadcasting shows slow output of information however, traditional media forms brought families together which new technology cannot provide for example, when the radio was first invented families would gather around to hear the news reports, listen to narratives or enjoy music being played in their homes. Hindman (2013) reinforces “what information is safe for public consumption.” (Hindman, 2013 p. 547) as traditional media has filters to what is available for the public’s ears and eyes, whereas new media allows people to view private documents due to the accessibility we hold currently (Hindman, 2013). Thompson (1999) focuses on the new media and how everything is pre-recorded for views to enjoy every night. As traditional media has been criticised for its ability to live up to the role it has created for itself, we can question how new media is becoming more public with decreased concern for others’ privacy.

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New media diversifies our connection to the world and helps us see the media in a public light. Instagram and twitter are the main platforms for facilitating consumption in the public sphere, perpetuating a materialistic desire to replicate others’ lives. Through Cinque (2015) expresses how new media forms consumed audiences and reduce community communication, as people are consumed by what they post and the number of likes they receive, constantly seeking validation. Social media has changed the way we look at the world, we see the publicization of people’s privacy, wanting to become popular and have a huge fan base. “The biggest threat of the internet to commercial online content providers is file sharing which is a benefit for public service media.” (Andrejevic, 2013 p.125). The capitalist media within the public sphere sheds light on its problems such as boundaries to private information which is explored by Fuchs (2017). Exploring the commercialized and tabloidized content and power inequality of the media, we witness the negative side of new media circulation via its’ lack of privacy found within social media. Sinclair (2014) discusses the idea of not belonging to a geographical territory or shorthand’s to contrast and classify the main differences we find in media studies and how this effects the public/privacy. Privacy within new media forms is very difficult due to the way our society needs to update and view people’s lives through social media. Commercial media landscapes enforce media concentrated mechanisms of the advertising-circulation spiral (Fuchs, 2017). Even though new media’s leads to more audiences it doesn’t allow for these audiences to be educated on real topics such as History, current affairs and government agendas (Fuchs, 2017). Comparing new media to traditional media we can see that certain aspects of both are needed in our society today as people have become obsessed with fabricating their own life. Andrejevic (2013) explores the implications of treating commercial media as though it is a public utility to the realm of digital media in broadcasting applications. New media opens the doors to invasion of privacy and the circulation through the public audience.

Public circulation of information to a wider audience weakens the privacy we have. Hindman (2013) compare traditional journalism to Wikileaks as it “positions old media as the true stewards of the public interest.” (Hindman, 2013 p.546). Wikileaks receives their information from the public, compared to traditional journalism emphasising responsibility and good judgement through individual investigation. Thompson (1999) explains how traditional media provided limited content with small audiences but large engagement compared to new media which bombards individuals with “news” compromising audience engagement to keep them up-to-date. However, Thompson (1999) later discusses that mass communication allows more people to see and use information. Even though there is a break between what is private, we continuously see active engagement by audiences due to fan bases of celebrities knowing everything about the celebrity, due to privacy breeches. Public circulation with the wider audience becomes engrossed and obsessed with celebrities’ personal lives, breaking down the walls between public and private. (Atlani-Duault et al., 2014) analyses how the media offers a large audience to readers who write comments, these comments are usually quite high however, the amount of comments which are actually read are quite low and only focus on the most interesting comments for the reader. Hindman (2013) analyses the lack of privacy within Wikileaks which is accused of leaking private government documents, which wouldn’t happen within traditional media as it would be difficult to spread the information. “The availability of mass communication has an important implication for the ways we think about the distinction between the public and private domains.” (Thompson, 1999 p. 18). The privacy of celebrities has become none existent as people strive to follow their every move which leads to robberies and home invasions, for example the Kardashian Paris robbery. Public circulation found within new media forms helps provide a new understanding for the public sphere, through advancements in social media.

The public sphere helps connect us to the rest of the world, allowing the spread of information and privacy to be diminished as media broadcasting channels feed audience’s false information. Flew (2008) discusses the many approaches to new media sounded by hype are the internet, and cyberspace generated counter-hype, or a debunking of how reality does not match claims of the cyberspace advocates. Traditional media couldn’t allow the spread of information due to the lack of internet connection and the invention of the television which are the foundations of new media today. The existence of the public sphere analyses the mediated communications through ownership, Censorship, exclusion and political content production. “we call events and occasions ‘public’ when they are open to all, in contrast to close or exclusive affairs.” (Habermas 1989, cited in Fuchs 2017, p.218) the expansion of the media publicising information diminishes due to social media. Yang (2016) explores the changes in the public sphere through social media platforms especially twitter, because the internet has advanced within the public sphere through the circulation of information, ideas and public opinion. Social media has also progressed within the public sphere, as it has become the main resource of gaining “news” as people lose sight of the “real” news. Fuchs (2017) further analyses how twitter has contributed towards the creation of the public sphere, twitter has become a mobilizing activist on the streets and how tweets cannot provide a conclusive result for the role of social media within a revolution. Twitter has become the topic of the public sphere and has thus far been rather neglected. Yang (2016) also examines how twitter could function as part of this alternative form of public sphere in which information, ideas and debates can diffuse fast and in an unfettered way. Through comparing the difference of new and traditional media through internet communication with print media, we see it take two levels of offline and online publics into account as they are situated on different structural levels (Gerhards and Schäfer, 2010). Through the advantages and disadvantages between new and old media formats we can see the constant debate between which is better.

New media technologies do lead to active audiences and informed societies as the world is coming together, with some learning more about countries in crisis and others focused on social media. However, media consumes and publicises personal information and diminishes traditional media forms. Due to the advancement of information and public distribution there has been a large amount of information based around Hollywood culture and media, even though more audiences now pay attention to new media forms we cannot give a concrete answer to whether or not it has provided informed societies, as they are more informed and concerned about what Kim Kardashian is doing rather than what the policies or actions of their own government on a daily basis.

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