Site Loader
Get a Quote
Rock Street, San Francisco

NAME: MUHAMMAD IQBAL
ROLL NO: 36
CLASS: M. Phil (Applied linguistics)
SEMESTER: 2nd
TOPIC
USE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT TO IMPROVE NARRATIVE WRITING SKILLS OF STUDENTS AT MIDDLE LEVEL
CONTENTS
CHAPTER #1
INTRODUCTION
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
NARRATIVE WRITING AND FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
AIM OF THE STUDY
HYPOTHESIS
RESEARCH BENEFITS
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER# 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
FEEDBACK
STUDENT MOTIVATION
SELF-REGULATION
CHAPTER#3
EXAMPLES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR THE TEACHERS
TECHNIQUES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
DEBATES
ROLE PLAY
MINI CASES
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
MINUTE PAPERS
FORMATIVE QUIZZES
CHAPTER#4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE SCHEDULE
RESEARCH TOOLS
POPULATION
SAMPLE
CHAPTER# 5
DATA ANALSYS
INSTRUCTIONS
WRITING TASKS
TOPIC
NARRATIVE WRITING PROGRESS CHART
CHAT REPRESENTING THE PROGRESS
TABLE 1
RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS AFTER PRETEST
POST TEST RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS
CHAPTER# 6
CONCLUSIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS
WRAPPING UP
REFERENCES
CHAPETER# 1
INTRODUCTION
Traditionally, summative assessment was the tool for the assessment of the students. So assessments in the class were done to make decisions of the performance of the students to reward them on the bases of measuring, testing and counting.
As a result, the learning of the students was based on getting good grades or marks in the exams. This method of assessing the students was not helpful for the learners as it provided no means of improvement in the course that they were undertaking to improve the English language. They could complete the course but they had no idea how well they have done it during the course.

Formative assessment therefore can be of great importance if it is part of the learning and teaching process for the teachers and the students to enhance the performance.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

In this research I will provide a definition for the term formative assessment and its application before- during and after instruction of students at middle level.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
The term formative assessment has been defined by many researchers as Irons (2008) and Clark (2008) as the ongoing process that continuously gathers information about learning abilities and teaching effectiveness. It is, also, described by Greenstein (2010) as a “systematic way for teachers and students to gather evidence of learning, engage students in assessment, and use data to improve teaching and learning”.

Formative assessment is often referred to as assessment for learning to mean the process by which both students and teachers are engaged in. Thus, it is all about collecting data about students’ learning in order to identify their development of skills, needs, and abilities as their strengths and weaknesses before, during and after the instructional course for the purpose of improving student’s achievement and learning.
Furthermore, the term has been described by Bloxham and Boyd (2007) as “any activity during a module which provides information to students and tutors on their progress” (p.52). In other words, formative assessment is used to provide feedback to students on how well they are progressing and learning. Consequently, formative assessment is used to inform both teachers and students about the successfulness of teaching and learning processes.

NARRATIVE WRITING AND FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Language skill can be improved efficiently by doing writing practice. As we know that checking and marking the papers is very much time taking process, so it is not easy to provide rapid and proper feedback to the students in time who are involved in learning.
This research article will explain the development it use and the results that will be drawn from the students of middle school level after the implementation of formative assessment by the teachers to improve the narrative writing skills of the learners for English essays. The teacher will assess the students and his teaching techniques for narrative writing skills and will provide the feedback to the learners about grammar, content, and organization of the topic that the learner is undertaking. The students will also be provided with the support to plan the lesson and revision also with some writing tasks that are shown to the students. Narrative writing can be improved after doing a lot of practice of reading and writing skills of English language and proper feedback given in time is very important. Any written task that is completed in time shows good performance. Few researches have been done that show that formative writing practices have been improved by the help of formative assessment.
Reading Next (Biancarosa and Snow, 2004), Writing Next (Graham and Perin, 2007), Writing to Read (Graham and Hebert, 2010), and Informing Writing (Graham, Harris & Hebert, 2011), these show some practices which were applied in formative writing to improve the learning of the students. A number practices are done to improve the narrative writing of the students. They include:
Teaching the students learning strategies
Planning, revise and editing the composition by the teacher

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As formative assessment is the input of the teachers on everyday bases and its student’s everyday out as well. The role of the teachers is to provide a positive feedback to the students which is very much important for the students to improve the narrative skills and also to control the mistakes they do and to over them. As for as students are concerned, narrative writing task is very difficult for them to represent because narrative writing needs a lot of practice and techniques to get fully command in it. So the teachers must guide the students to give full attention to the feedback that is given to them and they must have record of it in order to improve the narrative writing tasks and to overcome the deficiencies.

So in this research article i will show the importance of formative assessment on the student’s progress but main emphasis will be on enhancing narrative skills of the students. On the other hand I will also show that the role of the teachers is very much important in developing the narrative writing skills of the students by different approaches and strategies by which the students will give effective response and results.

For this reason my research work will be based on these research questions:
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Does formative assessment have positive effect in enhancing student’s narrative writing skill at middle level?
What is the teacher’s role in developing students’ narrative writing proficiency?
AIM OF THE STUDY
The most important objective of this research is to find out the effectiveness of the formative assessment on the narrative writing skills of the students. In this research I will also show the important role of the teacher which is very important for the narrative writing process and for the help of the students to develop their narrative writing skills.

More important is that this research will provide good approach and knowledge about the importance of formative assessment and feedback that can be helpful in their teaching.

HYPOTHESIS
To find out the answer of my research questions I have hypostasized:
The narrative writing skills of the students at middle level can be improved if the teachers provide them with efficient formative assessment with proper feedback.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research article is to equip the teachers and students at middle level a comprehensive theory and the practice that based on the effects which are positive and very effective after the implementation of the formative assessment in the process improving of narrative writing skills.
This research article will be benefited by two groups
Firstly it will help the teachers to get deeper understanding of their students and their needs during the learning process and the mistakes they make while learning. It will also help the teachers to know the learning styles of their students.

In this way the teachers will be able have comprehensible methodological adjustments for the effectiveness of the teaching process and they will be able to guide the students about the narrative writing tasks in order to achieve the required goals and good performance in the designed course for the students.

Secondly, it will be helpful the students who have interest in the improvement of the narrative writing skills. This research will help the students to know their capabilities about the narrative writing skills and the deficiencies and the abilities that they have for the improvement.

Research benefits
 
If the formative assessment is implemented properly at middle level it will bring some benefits:
Learning goals will be defined
Firmness in the learning process
Academic achievement will be improved
Students motivation level will be increased
There will be an increase in the students engagement with the process of learning
Learning from the personal experiences will be improved
The students will become self regulated
Decisions will be made on the bases of the data that is drawn

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The best example of formative assessment is given by Wiliam(2011) who thinks that the objective of formative assessment is to mention the formative nature of the learning and teaching.

The achievement of the students will be elicited, interpreted, and used by the students or with their fellows then an assessment will function formatively to make the further decisions and the steps to make for the betterment of the learners and students.

Basically formative assessment is not formative by design. It depends how formative assessment is used for the learners and the teachers.

The basic practice is that teachers use summative assessment to assess the performance of the students and they make guidelines on the bases of the grades or marks that the learner has achieved in the tests.

A study in summative assessments has revealed that a modest and self regulated learning can be enhanced with the help of summative tests and practices in the preparation of the tests (Ricky Lam 2012)
The teacher may have to change the results that he gets in formative assessment after the discussion or the evidence that he gathers from the informal data from the class discussions with the learners. Even he can have a one to one detailed briefing with the student about his or her homework.
Formative assessment can also be used by the teachers even the learners because it inform the teachers that how to make improvement in the strategies and planning of teaching and it also informs the learners how to make improvement in the understanding of the concepts and knowledge.

In the documents like the growing success has mentioned that the data or the information which is gathered from the assessment is used for learning so the teachers can plan the guidelines and instructions for the assessment for the students to set the objectives and goals for learning and teaching (OMET, 2010, p.31).

The main purpose of formative assessment is that the teachers provide proper feedback and guidnace for the improvement in the learning process (OMET, 2010).

Intricately connected with effective formative assessment practices is the need to establish clear learning goals. Research on goal-setting suggests that students need to be made aware of the learning goals and success criteria for a particular task in order to effectively attain them (Locke, 2000; Sadler, 1989; Shepard, 2006). Shepard (2006) argues that a focus on learning goals and success criteria in the classroom will not only help students but it will also help teachers design better instructional and assessment practices. Currently, educational administrators have adopted policies that promote instructional practices that explicitly help students clarify and understand learning goals and success criteria (OMET, 2011;WECDSB, 2010).

FEEDBACK
It has already been noted that Wiliam’s (2011) definition of formative assessment suggests that evidence elicited from an assessment must be interpreted and used by the learners as well as their teachers. Feedback plays an important role in this process. Ramaprasad (1983) defined feedback as information about the gap between actual level and the desired level of performance, which in turn leads to corrective action to minimize the gap. He identified a dual role for feedback as well; he referred to the “feedback loop” between teaching and learning. In a four-year development and research project conducted in England, Learning How to Learn, Black, James, McCormick, Pedder and Wiliam (2006) verified that feedback provided to students by their teachers was among five of the most effective formative assessment strategies in improving student achievement. Similarly, Hattie and Timperley (2007), in their synthesis of over 134 meta-analyses, provide quantitative evidence (using effect sizes as a common measure to allow valid comparisons) that feedback was one of the most powerful influences on student achievement.
STUDENT MOTIVATION
Some researchers suggest that the assessment and evaluation system that is currently so prevalent in our education system may, in fact, be a disservice to students. Early researchers such as Deci (1971) and Lepper and Green (1973) conducted experiments to support the notion that extrinsic incentives undermine children’s intrinsic interest in an activity: children in the studies were found to be less likely to repeat an activity if they had previously been rewarded for participating in it and those incentives were then no longer provided. In later studies, where Lepper, Henderlong and Iyengar (2005) examined the correlation between the age of a student in a US classroom and intrinsic motivation, the authors found that, for students from grades 3 to 8, intrinsic motivation appeared to decrease as age increased. Thus, teachers in the intermediate and senior grades are faced with a greater challenge when attempting to provide feedback that will elicit student response. Natriello (1982) found that student disengagement from high school is related to an environment where evaluations are contradictory, uncontrollable by the student, unpredictable, or unattainable. He observed that students who experienced high levels of incompatibilities in authority and evaluations systems for academic work set their goals lower and engaged in fewer tasks that required effort. These students would experience significant variation among teachers in their approaches to the evaluation of students – some teachers have well-defined systems for assigning and evaluating tasks and others may have no system at all. Ironically, such students perceived themselves to be working harder and putting forth more effort! Kohn (2011), a strong critic against rewarding students with extrinsic rewards such as gold stars, praise, and grades, insists that, when it comes to formative assessment, no grades should be assigned. The intention is to help students develop the motivation to learn rather than achieve high grades. Other research suggests that praise may be an effective motivator for learning if it is used correctly. After numerous studies on motivation, Dweck (2007) concluded that students who had a growth mind-set (i.e., who believed that intelligence could be altered through effort and education) were more likely to put forth effort to improve learning, whereas students with a fixed mind-set (i.e., who viewed intelligence as a fixed trait) sought tasks that served to prove their intelligence and avoided those that might not. More importantly, when considering feedback practices, if students were praised for their intelligence, they were more likely to adopt a fixed mind-set, whereas if they were praised for their effort, they would adopt a growth mind-set. Thus, it seems that praise that addresses process skills such as the learning skills identified by the Ontario Ministry of Education (i.e., good work habits, organization, collaboration, initiative, independence and self-regulation) may have an important role in feedback practices since it may help to foster a growth mind-set in students. In general, research on motivation highlights that the classroom assessment environment has an impact on student learning. Good formative assessment practices not only provide students with cognitive information about where they are in their learning, they also help to develop in students a feeling that they are in control of their own learning (Brookhart, 2008). In other words, effective feedback not only should address where students are at and where they should go to next, it also should aim to create a classroom environment that promotes learning and growth.
SELF-REGULATION
As mentioned earlier, the ultimate goal of feedback should be to foster students to become the owners of their own learning (Wiliam, 2011). This has been an important theme in formative assessment research (Boekaerts, 2006; Sadler, 1989, 2010; Shepard, 2006; Wiliam, 2011). Thus, understanding the nature of self-regulation is another critical factor to consider when tailoring feedback to student needs. Boekaerts and Corno (2005) propose that, depending on the self-regulation “track” a student is on, response to feedback may vary. Students whose self-regulation processes (SR) maintain a “growth” perspective (top-down SR) have a strong focus on learning goals while those that maintain a “well-being” perspective (bottom-up SR) are more concerned with maintaining or restoring positive feelings. Most teachers of applied level students would agree that these students typically demonstrate behaviour that suggests they are primarily in the “well-being” regulation mode as they often will choose not to do a task that may make them feel incompetent. Boekaerts and Corno (2005) suggest that it is important for students to acquire meta-cognitive knowledge that will help them interpret failure and address it in a positive way – they refer to this as volitional strategies. Positive volitional strategies will help students stay on the growth track rather than resort to the well-being track. This gives teachers important insight into student responses to feedback; the challenge is to provide a classroom environment that helps low-achieving students to develop positive volitional strategies to transition them from the well-being track to the growth track permanently.

CHAPTER 3
EXAMPLES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR THE TEACHERS
In today’s world of teaching what we call a modern teaching innovative formative assessment is part of teaching and learning process. The formative assessment provides very important information about the learning of the students what they have learnt. Students get very valuable guidance from the ungraded assessments. These formative assessments will help them to improve their performance. It will also help the teachers to improve or change the introductions for the student on the bases of the problems if the students will be facing in the process of learning.

When formative assessment if consistently used, it remove the barriers and the problems that are faced by the learners and it will continuously help them to improve the grades and performance in the tests.  “… a parent teaching a child to cook would never say, “That was 74 percent.” Instead, the parent would watch, demonstrate, and allow the child a chance to get better. These acts of mindful nurturing and guidance are examples of natural learning, and we perform them instinctively.”Having this thing in mind, in formative assessment we are concerned about opportunities that help to improve the performance of the students instead it is not just concerned about just identifying what is done well and correctly  
TECHNIQUES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
There are few assessment mentioned below that are used for the sake of formative assessment for checking how well the students understands the topic which has been taught to him by the teacher in the class. These assessment can also become part of the course for the sake of short measurement which will some importance to judge the performance of the students.
The teacher can modify the planning on the bases of the formative assessment to help the students to improve the grades.

One example can be of random grading, the teacher will ask the entire class to complete a short assignment and he will randomly collect and give grades to the students. In this activity all the students will be asked to participate in the class. The teachers will grade the assignments and then return the assignment to the students with feedback. It will help a lot to the students to know about their mistakes and correct them and not to repeat in the next assignment.

DEBATES 
The teacher will give different examples to resolve a problem. Debates are one of the best ways to resolve the issues with higher order think. In this process the seats of the students will not be moved .the teacher will divide the class into different parts according to the issues or the problems that the students will be having.

The teacher will ask the one group to think about the problem and they have to come up with their own way of thinking and suggestions. Students will be given 5 minutes to think about the problem while sitting in the groups or pairs.

The teacher will ask the students to regroup themselves and students will give their feedback about the problem. The pros and cons can be explored with the help of this sort of debating technique.

The teacher can make another group who has to come up with the reasons to solve the issue or problem.

Role play
Role plays are very important in history, literature and bio chemistry classes.

In this technique the students are divided into many sections on the bases of the needs of the teacher.

The teacher will ask them to prepare the arguments for the roles to play. The students can adopt different characters to behave in front of the class which the teacher will assign them. The teacher will establish a context and will ask the students to discus in groups or pairs briefly that how their roles will react or perform.

In the end the teacher will ask the representatives from each section to come forward and give descriptions about the roles that they will play. The students will draw their attention towards the possible unanticipated behaviors.

MINI CASES
Mini cases will be used at the start of the lectures or even they can be used in the middle of the lesson when the teacher will feel that the lectures have become too long and the teacher will make the students to understand the topic through different examples from daily life.

The teacher will ask the students to make pairs or small groups with students who are seating nearby.
Ask students to pair-up or form small groups by turning around to colleagues seated in proximity. One group presents the case to the entire class then pairs or small groups work for several minutes to develop responses by directly applying the lecture content to the case example.

6. THINK-PAIR-SHARE
Think pair share is another useful change-up in a long lecture. After 15-20 minutes of lecturing, ask a question. Ask students to write down responses to the question, and then turn to the next neighbor and discuss their responses. Spend no more than 5 minutes. Then ask several pairs to share their responses and, before moving on, conclude the exercise with a correct response.

MINUTE PAPERS
Minute papers are very useful method to assess the level of learning of the students about the topic and the concepts that the teachers has covered in the class. 
The task should not be allowed to take more than 5 minutes of class time. If it is used in the middle of the lecture, then some questions might be: “Briefly explain the main concept discussed in this part of the lecture,” “Give an example of this concept or principle.” “How could this concept apply to a possible next topic in the same lecture?” “How does this idea relate to your experience with…?” When used at the end of the class period, the one-minute paper questions might be: “What are the most important things you learned in today’s lecture?” “What is the question on today’s topic that remains in your mind after this lecture?” Collect the responses. This is also a good way to take attendance if you request names. Requiring names might limit the honesty of students’ responses, however. Collected responses can be the basis of the first five minutes of the next class: you may need to revise a concept, give some examples, or clarify some topics. You may also wish to feature smart questions or share otherwise excellent examples.

FORMATIVE QUIZZES 
Formative quizzes are not the graded quizzes. They are used to evaluate the students and their understanding of the topic. The teacher will use the same questions that the students will find on the question paper in exams. The questions will be provided with the help of PowerPoint or slides or overhead. Responses can be taken by the low raising of the hands by the students.

CHAPTER 4
4.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The formative assessment is a quantitative assessment and I analyzed the students on the bases of prior knowledge of the students that they had earlier about the subject.

Students were judged on the bases of the pretests and post tests of narrative writing.

4.2 OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE SCHEDULE
WEEK .1
In the 1st week I introduced the course, objectives and small group work on brainstorming and analyzing a piece of narrative writing of the students.
WEEK .2
In the 2nd week I introduced the formative assessment with a short written assessment.
WEEK.3
An essay to write of 250 pages on the topic “unforgettable incident of my life ”
WEEK .4
Lesson plan for the improvement of narrative writing skills of the students by using formative assessment
WEEK 5
An essay on the topic “most important event of life which changed the life completely
4.3 RESEARCH TOOLS
The research tools of my research will be:
Pretest
Post tests
Interviews
POPULATION
The population of my research was the students of middle school of my area Sialkot
4.5 SAMPLE
Sample is usually drawn from the population when it is difficult to gather information from the whole of it or when it’s difficult to investigate the whole population sample is actually the representation of the population under observation.

I selected 20 students from two middle schools of my area to help them improve narrative writing by using formative assessment

CHAPTER 5
5.1 DATA ANALSYS
The ?nal thing of this study was concerned with the data of four weeks of the students of Work or tests keeping in view their narrative writing skill. To mark the papers of the students is very tough job. It is not that easy to just make the multiple choice questions or true false to have answers of the learners rather it is bit tough because each students work is checked properly.

When the students are given their own feedback, they learn quickly. More over when the teachers are reading the works of the students they need to read it two, three times to make sure that the students will be given the proper feedback. A lot of time can be taken in giving this feedback as it is a time taking process. So it is important that a teacher has to be very careful. So I marked the essays of students and recorded the scores and the students were also asked to record their scores to have record of their performance.

The scores were tabulated and analyzed to have a better understanding of the performance of students individually and collectively on the foundations of their scores their enhancement was judged that whether formative assessment if helpful for the English language learners or not. To have individual record of their own performance students were given charts to have a record of their improvement. Students were given topics to write in this form each week and their scores were recorded after marking the written works.

5.2 WRITING TASKS
Name………………………………….class………………………………………..

Date…………………………………….ID………………………………………..

INSTRUCTIONS
Write your response on a lined paper
Include your ID and date
Be neat in writing
No cutting and over writing is allowed
TOPIC
Narrate any unforgettable incident of your life that you could never forget.

5.3 NARRATIVE WRITING PROGRESS CHART
Name ………………………………class…….. …………………..

Learning objective………………………………… . .

My score at the beginning………………..

My goal is to achieve …………………………………….Speci?c thing that I am going to apply to improve my narrative writing……………………………………………..
CHAT REPRESENTING THE PROGRESS
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
1′ with the help of this chart students recorded their own personal performance on the bases of the scores they obtained in the narrative writing tasks given each week,
Score of the1st ten students for the four weeks is given below.

Students were assigned numbers instead of names for identification
TOTAL MARKS; 10
5.4 TABLE 1
Students roll# Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
1 4.5 5 5 7
2 2.5 4 4.5 6
3 6 6.5 6.5 8
4 5 5.5 6 6.5
5 7 7.5 7.5 8
6 5 5 4 6.5
7 7.5 7 6 8
8 7 5 6 7
9 4 4.5 5 6
10 2 2.5 4 6
total 50.5 52.5 54.5 69
The total scores of the four weeks show that how the improvement increased from 1st week till 4th week.

There is a considerable change in the progress of. Gradually students started improving their scores with the help of formative assessment
5.5 RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS AFTER PRETEST
TABLE 2
No of students Spelling mistakes Command over grammar Use of language Expression
1-5 20% 40% 55% 60%
6-10 20-25% 35% 60% 55%
10 30% 45% 45% 45%
1. These results show that the students made a lot of mistakes in their narrative writing essays.

2. The students made most of the mistakes in grammar and spellings. There were few students who had not been able to produce good expression.

5.6 POST TEST RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS
No of students Spelling mistakes Command over grammar Use of language Expression
1-5 10% 55% 65% 70%
6-10 15-20% 45% 55% 60%
1 20% 60% 70% 55%

TABLE 4
1 below standard 2 approaching standard 3 meets standard 4 exceeds standard
1 week 50% 40% 5% 0%
2 week 40% 45% 7% 2%
3 week 35% 55% 10% 4%
These results show clearly that there was improvement in the performance of the students. As we can see that students made less spelling mistakes and compared to previous results. It proves the fact that formative assessments helps in learning process.
It helps the students to improve their learning during the learning process. On the other hand it also helps the teachers to improve their teaching as well.

TABLE 4
This table provides the Information about the overall performance of the Students of advance diploma class. It shows students showed gradual improvement in their narrative writing skills with the passage of time. And in me last week we can see that students had learnt much which is very important to note because it proves that formative assessment certainly helps in the learning process
I mentioned in my question earlier: What is the in?uence of formative assessments on Advance Diploma students’writing?
From the data that I gathered, I observed that the students were below the average and they were not scoring good scores in the tests, it showed that the students of advance diploma did not produce intellectual answers in the paper. So the results of the Advance Diploma students used that their performance was very poor, But if we analyst the next assessments of the students we find a great improvement in the Performance.

Overall performance of the students in the narrative writing task was getting better
Students had gradual improvement in their scores and they kept improving with the help of the formative assessment. It gives me a strong position to say that formative assessments helped the students to improve their narrative writing skills. There were few students who have not been able to improve much but they could do more by putting efforts in the process of learning.

So the learners of the Ad Vance Diploma students reached the desired destination by achieving the goal with the help of formative assessment
Now I will have concern on my next question of the research and the question was: what can be the level to which formative assessments increase or decline Advance Diploma students ‘performance on writing skills?
S0 I gathered the data to answer this question. If we compare the overall Performance of the students it is clear that there is a great improvement in the performance 0f the students.

There was no student who could meet the standard in the 1st week but in 4th week the 10% of the students met the standard.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
On the bases of formative assessment I have analyzed after this research which is dealing with the formative assessment and the feedbacks and its methodologies as well as the requirements for the traditional teaching and so I have confirmed the applicability and validity of the formative assessment. My research was based on the new sort of data for formative assessment but I also focused on the prevailing educational techniques and new trends in education to get the best results.

Resultantly I found that some requirements and situations for the feedback and formative assessment for the betterment of the students and engaging them in learning process are applicable in the process of learning for the students and teachers.

Moreover, I have made and given fourteen recommendations which are very good practices that are based on the feedback given by the students who were part of the course and practically took part in it during the process.

So by this I can conclude by giving some very good findings especially for the teachers and it can also give benefit to the students process of learning the activities that they are involved in which are based on the problems that they face during the course. The students appreciated the process in which they were given the feedback about their learning during the ongoing process of course because it helped them to remove the barriers if they had on the way of their learning.

RECOMMENDATIONS
On the bases of my conceptual and theoretical assessment I can easily conclude with some recommendations for the betterment of students and teachers in the process of learning and teaching:
The course work which is selected must fulfill the needs of the learners and it must base on the needs of the learners for the self assessment.

The course work must be designed in a way that it must engage peer work and group activities must be encouraged to increase the process of learning.

The course work must be according to the capabilities of the learners and their capacity.

The students must be guided in advance about the good performance that they have to achieve during the learning process and at the end of the course work.

The students must know the actions in advance what to do and what not to, to get the good performance.
Students must be given feedback about good performance and the prevailing performance that they are exhibiting during learning process.

Students and the teachers must have dialogue to implement the formative assessment with proper feedback from the students.

Motivation and self esteem should be created in the learners with the help of practices of formative assessment and feedback.

Students must be encouraged to have better steps or action on the bases of formative assessment and feedback.

Teacher can improve their approach or methodology on the bases of formative assessment and feedback.

The tasks which are given to the students must be sufficient to require the proper study time that they need.

It is very important for the learner to give proper time and proper effort to fulfill assessment course.

Students must be involved in assessment with the help of productive learning activities.

Regular and sufficient feedback should be provided to the learners.
The feedback should be given on focusing the performance of the learners.

The feedback should be given in time so that it is well received and the students can get benefit from it in proper time.

The teachers should give feedback that is related to the objective and assignment so that it helps in learning for the future.

WRAPPING UP
The research that I have done shows that it is important for the teachers and for the students as well. The formative assessment can be used for teaching and learning both. Teacher must prepare lessons for these both aspects.
Research shows that those school teachers who use formative assessment are more efficient in teaching process. The effectiveness of the formative assessment to improve the narrative writing skills can be seen through this research article, and it has shown the problems and their solution for the improvement of learning process.
Time is very important in the process of learning for the students and teachers. so students wants to save time with better learning, formative assessment helps in saving time and quick learning process.
When the things were discussed with students about time, it resulted that if the proper time and quality is provided then the learning process can be enhanced properly. Students revealed that when they were given proper feedback their learning process and concepts were clearer and their learning process increased.
Students are involved in the process to ask questions about the problems that they face during the process of formative assessment. Peer and self assessment are encouraged to enhance the ability of learning of the learners.

Students are involved in the whole process of formative assessment for getting the effectiveness and efficiency in the results. They will get help from it and will understand the things which are involved in the learning and the objectives of the topic that they are undertaking. This process will start from the beginning of the formative assessment and till the end of the course or the project work so that they keep getting the proper assistance and guidance in that field.

Formative assessment and feedback cannot be separated from each other. A constructive and positive feedback with reinforcements must be provided to the learners to enhance their capabilities. The teachers must keep it mind that the feedback motivate the students and encourages them to do the things properly. Formative assessment is to improve the performance of the learners and it is done by the teachers with the proper feedback.

The ultimate goal or objective of the assessment is to develop self performance of the students by using formative assessment. It helped them to improve themselves and assess their own performance. Students cannot learn self learning or self assessment from the very beginning, it happens with the passage of the time when teachers assists them by giving them proper feedback.

The role of the teachers is very crucial in implementing the formative assessment as it requires proper planning. The teacher must not hesitate to implement new ideas and strategies for the implementation of formative assessment. It is important for the teachers to know when the ideas are not working properly, he must change the strategies.

The teachers must involve the learners in peer assessments and the group work must be encouraged by the teacher so that the learning process is enhanced. Here we cannot ignore the role of course which is selected for the students. Formative assessment helps to make sure that the programme or the course work best suits the learners at secondary level. When there is any encounter with problems or issues regarding course work, formative assessment is the best instrument to make it more effective and efficient

REFERENCES
Gibbs, G. & Simpson, C. (2004). Conditions under which assessment supports students’ learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1, 3-31. Hadrill, R. (1995). The NCVQ model of assessment at higher levels. in Knight, P. (Ed.) Assessment for learning in higher education. London: Kogan Page, 167-179. Handley, K., Price, M. & Millar, J. (2008) Engaging students with assessment feedback. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Harvey, J. (Ed.) (1998) Evaluation cookbook. Edinburgh: Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative, HeriotWatt University. Hornby, W. (2003). Case studies on streamlining assessment. Aberdeen: Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching, The Robert Gordon University. Hornby, W. (2005). Dogs, stars, rolls royces and old double-decker buses: efficiency and effectiveness in assessment. in Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (Ed.) Reflections on assessment volume 1. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency, 15-28. Hutchison, S. (2005). Streamlining assessment: some options for assessment in class. in Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (Ed.) Reflections on assessment volume 1. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency, 41-48. Juwah, C., Macfarlane-Dick, D., Matthew, B., Nicol, D., Ross, D. & Smith, B. (2004) Enhancing student learning through effective formative feedback. York: Higher Education Academy. Knight, P. (2002). Being a teacher in higher education. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press. Land, R. (2005). Streamlining assessment: making assessment more efficient and more effective. in Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (Ed.) Reflections on assessment volume 1. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency, 29-40. Leach, L., Neutze, G. & Zepke, N. (1998). Motivation in assessment. In Brown, S., Armstrong, S. & Thompson, G. (Eds.) Motivating students. London: Kogan Page, 201-209. Lines, D. & Mason, C. (2005). Enhancing practice: assessment. Gloucester: Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Loacker, G., Cromwell, L. & O’Brien, K. (1986). Assessment in higher education: to serve the learner. In Adelman, C. (Ed.) Assessment in American higher education. Washington D.C.: US Department of Education, 47-62. MacFarlane Report (1992). Teaching and learning in an expanding higher education system. Edinburgh: Committee of Scottish University Principals. Moore, I. (1995). Staff and educational development for assessment reform: a case study. in Knight, P. (Ed.) Assessment for learning in higher education. London: Kogan Page, 95-109. Morgan, C. & O’Reilly, M. (1999). Assessing Open and Distance Learners. London: Kogan Page. Mortimer, J. (1998). Motivating student learning through facilitating independence: self and peer assessment of reflective practice – an action research project. In Brown, S., Armstrong, S. & Thompson, G. (Eds.) Motivating students. London: Kogan Page, 173-187. Mutch, A. & Brown, G. (2001). Assessment: a guide for heads of departments. York: LTSN Generic Centre. Nicol, D. (2009). Quality enhancement themes: the first year experience – Transforming assessment and feedback: enhancing integration and empowerment in the first year. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency.

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Lillian

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out
x

Hi!
I'm Camille!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out