Moraxella catarrhalis, causes upper respiratory tract infection, Pneumonia, and ear infection. It’s mostly cause infection in infant, adult, and sometimes older, this bacteria mainly cause an ear infection, the recent studies showed that 15% to 20% of the ear infections are caused by Moraxella catarrhalis (Verduin, Hol, Fleer, van Dijk, ; van Belkum, 2002). Moraxella catarrhalis, causes an ear infection in babies during winter days. Chances of Moraxella catarrhalis, infection increased if few prevention won’t made such as house cleaning personal hygiene, smoking in the home. Moraxella catarrhalis infection can spread in people by close contact with respiratory secretion. The symptoms of Moraxella catarrhalis infection may be same as common clod infection, the symptoms may last more than 10 days and then it is essential for go to diagnosis and treatments from medical professional expert once symptom persist more than 10 days (R. F. Jacobs, 2000).
Moraxella catarrhalis is the 3rd most common bacteria. Which causes ear infection, acute chronic bronchitis and bronchopneumonia in an immunocompromised patient. In older people, this bacteria colonizes the nasopharynx (Murphy, 1996).
Moraxella catarrhalis infection can be controlled with special antibiotics. Some strains are highly resistance to a number of common antibiotics which can be used in the treatment of such infections include Cephalosporins, Co-amoxiclaive, Azitromycin, Moxifloxacin, Claritromycin, Trimethoprin-sulfhamethoxazole, Fluroquinolones and Erythromycin. (Goldstein, Murphy, & Parameswaran, 2009).
1.4.2 HAEMOPHILUS SPECIES: –
Haemophilus species are gram-negative coccobacillary (Kilian, 1976). Generally Haemophilus species doesn’t produce any toxins, or some other extracellular products, which accounts for causing infection (Biberstein ; White, 1969). Haemophilus influenza named after the death of an individual, who died in the influenza epidemic. Haemophilus influenza are most common spices, required hemin factor X, and factor V for growth. Haemophilus parainfluenzae requires only factor V for their growth, thus, they can grow on blood agar. All Haemophilus species grows rapidly in CO2 enriched atmosphere (Sottnek, Biddle, Kraus, Weaver, ; Stewart, 1980). H influenzae generally exist in the nasopharynx of healthy individuals. Its frequency and intensity depends on previously uncolonized children have increased risk of infection in their early years (Oliveira ; Pijoan, 2004).