Guided by Dr Samuel Ekundayo
Oksana BelaiaNayana PatilChangze Yang
Apple, Google, Amazon and windows these leading companies are innovating amazing smart devices which are contributing to mobile computing. The mobile applications can do so many things like sharing, e-commerce, banking, emails, chatting and many more thus organizations such as business, entertainment, commercials, enterprises are integrating mobile computing. As an end user point of view, this is choice of convenience and easy accessibility to the information and computational activities. Organizations are making strategic plans to attract users to their services, IT plans for application development, investments by offering anytime, anywhere accessibility of the information so that the user are also considering mobile computing as a choice of comfort. Global companies like Amazon, Google, Microsoft, Apple, IBM are leading in mobile computing plus New Zealand based companies such as ANZ bank Auckland traveler are also influenced by mobile computing.
Contents TOC h u z Contents PAGEREF _Toc526275574 h 3Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc526275575 h 42. History of mobile computing PAGEREF _Toc526275576 h 43 Use of mobile computing PAGEREF _Toc526275577 h 53.1 Integration PAGEREF _Toc526275578 h 53.2 Key points PAGEREF _Toc526275579 h 64. Global Example PAGEREF _Toc526275580 h 64.1 Characteristics of organizations PAGEREF _Toc526275581 h 64.2 Strategic plan of company PAGEREF _Toc526275582 h 74.3 Advantages of using mobile computing PAGEREF _Toc526275583 h 74.4 Security PAGEREF _Toc526275584 h 75. IT strategic plan PAGEREF _Toc526275585 h 95.1 Theoretical background PAGEREF _Toc526275586 h 95.2 Critiques of WSSC IT Strategic plan PAGEREF _Toc526275587 h 106 Examples of mobile computing in New Zealand Company PAGEREF _Toc526275588 h 116.1 Characteristics of Auckland Transport mobile application PAGEREF _Toc526275589 h 116.2 Characteristics of Kiwi Bank mobile computing PAGEREF _Toc526275590 h 126.3 Influence of mobile technology on New Zealand organization PAGEREF _Toc526275591 h 137. The CIO role in mobile computing PAGEREF _Toc526275592 h 157.1 Ethical challenges PAGEREF _Toc526275593 h 157.2 Corporate governance PAGEREF _Toc526275594 h 167.3 Security policy PAGEREF _Toc526275595 h 16Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc526275596 h 18References PAGEREF _Toc526275597 h 19
Introduction:Mobile computing is evolving nowadays. companies are getting confused with mobile technology to use, How the technology will help them grow their business? The evolution of information technology, cloud computing and the progress of innovative smartphones in the information technology world (Weng, 2015), mobile computing is being trendy. Advanced smartphones and tablets have been innovated by well-known companies such as Apple, Amazon, Google and that broaden mobile software market. Basically, companies are adopting mobile technologies because mobile applications are taking place of web applications and desktop applications to provide remote access to information. Organizations worldwide are presently investigating conceivable open doors into the mobile application market. In any case, what is the extent of mobile technology innovation? What are the standpoints as far as the significance and dangers of these innovations? These key inquiries should be replied before firms can believe in the precision of business strategy planning (Weng, 2015). Companies are migrating their data sources to mobile operators data sources.
This report focuses on mobile computing characteristics, the benefits to the organizations, how organizations are influenced by this technology. Sharing information online, remote access to information shared by organizations (Kenneth McBride, 2014). Organizational perspective behind migrating to mobile computing with the examples of organizations influenced by mobile technologies. Although some challenges are faced by firms while adopting mobile computing which includes strategic business planning. Business strategies of mobile computing in an organization will be stated with an example. Companies management or corporate governance manage the strategic IT plan for mobile application before integrating the application.
2. History of mobile computingToday the mobile technology has reached to certain extent it is very difficult to find people not using mobile technology. But its humble beginning or origins started back in the year 1894,when the inventor of radio waves by Marconi the primary person to provide radio waves across the long distances that marks the beginning of mobile technology. The first wireless network eventually got completed in FRG in the year 1958.the Motorola’s first invention of worlds initial personal phone or cell (Livingston) in the year 1983.this led to the invention and creation of industrial cellular market for 113 years of history of mobile computing. This led to rapid growth on new mobile technologies and also the mobile os IOS by apple in the year 2007.
Mobile computing can be defined as a two way radios that use large antennas to communicate messages. starting from there it has ended to 3 inch personal computers that will do almost all of the work whatever a personal computer does. This is such a mobile devise all you need is just an internet to connect from any place anywhere from there you can start to work basically 2 way radios are used by police officers that was also considered as mobile technology. but now people can connect without any wires that is wireless connectivity to the internet any where around the world. if and only if he the devices that is capable of connecting to the internet (Chung, K., Yoo, J., ;amp; Kim, K. J et al., 2014.)
The popularity of mobile computing has grown drastically with help of new innovative ideas and smart devises which is better utilized by smart phones and mobile tablets (Sykes, E. R. et al., 2014 ) Due to these innovative technology all the business are adopting to new mobile computing technology that include migrating all their resources from their server to mobile service provider. instead of only browsing the mobile devise users are more keen in creating and sharing content. Now it is even more easier to accesses information and share them. This has led to users to move towards data centers of in order to get a better response and reliability(Sykes, E. R. et al., 2014 ) .
3 Use of mobile computing For business strategies, companies are moving to the mobile computing but there are so many factors has to be considered before integrating mobile computing for the organization. Mobile computing is more restricted than the other technologies because of the small platform size, multitasking of user, dynamic context at the other hand challenges of security and privacy of the information. (Tarasewich, Gong, Nah ; Dewester,2008).
3.1 IntegrationA survey held in the USA the benefits of using tablets and mobile devices for medical students studies has found advantageous. Mobile devices and tablets usually come with a wireless internet connection so that transmitting information via mobile and tablets is easy and fast (email, browsing) with help of (Robinson ; Burk, 2013)in medical education mobile and tablets are used for pre-clinical curriculum. It is a reasonable investment in the education of medical students. In a survey held in 7 medical schools out of 148 schools of AAMC. They found students are happy with the addition of tablets and mobiles in medical education.one of the schools reported improvement in the United States Medical Licensing Examination(USMLE) test scores as consequence of using tablets and mobile devices in medical education. most medical students of AAMC schools use tablets for ebooks, references, and study for board exams(Robinson ; Burk, 2013).
3.2 Key pointsFor mobile companies, strategic planning of adopting mobile computing may increase their business in a market with low risk.(Tarasewich,Gong,Nah,Dewester,2008).Since mobile devices have smaller screen size, creating user interface is a hard task for mobile development. Mobile devices are used for all operations such as information sharing information, social media, email, education, banking and so on. Thus organizations have to be cautious about the mobile application restrictions while developing an application and creating a strategic plan for the mobile computing.
4. Global Example4.1 Characteristics of organizationsAny organization that needs to grow in this competitive environment then their characteristics of that respective organization plays an important role. An well organized company will share the business objectives with its employees at each level the management shares its objective with its employees in order to achieve the required purpose (mission).Each company that has long term accomplishments they must create and well maintain a healthy atmosphere in the working places (Chung, K., Yoo, et al., 2014). A healthy institution in order to be in a competitive phase they should continuously evolve themselves in order to get good revenues .understanding the characteristics of an institute helps you to detect and tackle those problems in the company in the long term. Must have high employee morale and offering training opportunities and any person to lead a team must posses strong leadership qualities. Understanding the risks and act according to circumstances. lastly a great team work.
To understand the functionality of an organization or its characteristics we have taken Amazon company for its global reputation and great organizational skills. Amazon.com Inc.’s they follow a different organizational structure which helps them to enables massive control on global e-commerce operations. In an organization the corporate structure will be established in a firm there will be interaction among design and members. For example, Amazon’s corporate structure determines how managers direct and influence operational activities in various business areas. As the leading online retail business in the world, the company must maintain an organizational structure that sufficiently supports its expanding market reach
Amazon.com . has a functional organizational structure. This structure focuses on business functions as bases for determining the interactions among components of the organization. The following characteristics are the most significant in Amazon’s corporate structure:
Global function-based groups
Global hierarchyGeographic divisions
4.2 Strategic plan of companyIf a business has to grow then we have to take many calculated risks that includes ashort term and long-term plans and how to increase and expand operations. Creating such a strategic plans will lead to the growth of the business. A business plan is totally different from strategic plan. To a achieve the short-term goal and the steps taken to achieve them is called a business plan. A long term plans to achieve the required strategies is called as strategic plan. There are different methods to understand strategies planning .analyzing the current situation and understanding the internal and external environments. Forming the strategy and executing the strategy, levels of operational planning and checking for those plans for sustainability
4.3 Advantages of using mobile computing The most important advantages of mobile computing are flexibility of location, Time saving, productivity can be enhanced, easiest way of research, entertainment streamlining of business process, easiest way of operating, touch screen, wireless, facility to access from anywhere reducing and maintenance cost (Chung, K., Yoo, J., & Kim, K. J et al., 2014). Accessibility around the globe, software up gradation is a major concerns here in after need not worry because we are using flexibility and highly automated processes .the huge advantage of using mobile computing is cost savings. Improving data storage capacity, improving reliability, scalability, ease of integration (Chung, K., Yoo, J., & Kim, K. J et al., 2014).
4.4 SecurityIt is necessary that the corporate 1st defines the sort of mobile devices it will support, giving support for too several platforms would eventually weaken the safety system and build it not possible for the IT security team to handle future problems, embrace solely the most recent mobile devices, which supply higher security measures and device-level secret writing.
The company needs to next set a limit to the user’s right of accessing and storing company data received via his or her mobile device. This limit mostly depends upon the kind of the organization and also the nature of data the institution offers its workers access to, offer workers access to all or any mandatory knowledge, however conjointly see thereto that this knowledge can’t be keep anyplace on the device.
Different workers tend to use their mobile devices for various functions. Each one, therefore, accesses differing levels of knowledge with their mobile gadgets. determine high risk users and to transient them on the industry’s security controls. Request to feature a tool typically, it becomes imperative for a corporation to refuse employees’ requests of adding on specific sorts of mobile devices to their accepted list. this is often particularly the case wherever the business has got to keep its information secret
Every mobile device connected to your network has to follow an equivalent security policies on your network, and also the best to begin with square measure screen locks and passwords.
In a mobile cloud environment, there is a large number of users and including organizations. any breach in this mobile cloud computing environment will lead to exploding of all users and organizations (Amandeep, S. W. et al., 2017)
Most of the companies will be outsourcing the data to people providing cloud services. due to low cost that a cloud can offer, there are many occurrences when the data will be breached due to malicious attack and server crashes other disaster like fire or earthquakes resulting in loss of data (Amandeep, S. W. et al., 2017)
Any communication that occurs between clod service provider and API through clients where clients can manage the data. Due to these interfaces has to be secure to make sure any unauthorized accesses.
An unapproved person who has a password can view the data of clients by stealing it, revamping it, may be removing , or chances where they may sell for certain benifits. There are various solutions to avoid any description or service seizing
• Can prevent the users by not sharing their credentials
• Using a two-factor authentication method
The data location matters when the user data is stored in allocation that is prone to disasters. There are certain rules and regulations in specific countries where the company can have their own data center.
The mobile cloud services they offer hardware and software sources that can be shared among several users. If somebody hacks and occupies all available resources this will lead to shortage of resources there by leading to denial of service, which will end up in slowing down of accesses. Usually IT identify a user based on his username and including password. In an security systems authentication is far different from authorizing, which is the method of giving individuals an accesses to the system base do their identity (Pallavi, L. et al., 2014).
It’s a process of giving permission to a particular person a permission or to access the resources. in this sort of permission giving access to read or write files ,time to access amount of allocated space (Pallavi, L. et al., 2014).
Encryption is performed at higher levels of a organization, appropriate to the use of context and other components of the system., it translate the data into a secret code and is most efficient way to attain data security (Pallavi, L. et al., 2014).
Every user in mobile must ensure the integrity of their data present on the cloud. Every access should be verified and authenticated. Every access must be authenticated assuring that it is their data and thus verifying its integrity (Pallavi, L. et al., 2014).
The effective method to protect these contents from piracy and illegal access are applied such as paid access or encryption and decryption keys to access these contents.
5. IT strategic plan5.1 Theoretical background
Information technologies provide support for all business functions in the organization, it delivers new opportunities for the implementation of competitive advantages and interaction with customers and stakeholders. Key factors for a successful company in a competitor’s environment are IT effectiveness and efficiency that support business strategy (Silvius et al., 2011). In this regard, the planning of the company’s growth in the information technologies field acquires important meaning. The basic direction of work in this area is the implementation of the IT strategic plan (Chen ; Kamara, 2008).
The IT strategic plan is a complex document that provides future progress of the company’s IT infrastructure for several years, it also clearly defines the priorities and objectives of IT development and focuses on improving the business value (Hong, 2009). IT strategy is a kind of continuation of the all business strategy of the organization in the IT development field. Moreover, the IT plan is a combination of IT solutions and resources that guarantee the implementation of the company’s core business objectives (Chan ; Reich, 2007).
The IT plan determines the prospects, technologies, timeframes and budget required by an organization to reduce cost of business operation or generate additional profits, which provide strategic and competitive advantages. Some factors that have serious impact on successful implementation of strategic plan were found in the literature, for example appropriate resource allocation, stakeholders’ involvement and detailed implementation planning (Hong, 2009).
Most of the authors agreed that IT strategy have to reflect the organization’s strategy and support business objectives. In this case IT plan should include vision and mission statement that are relevant for the business.
It is necessary for IT strategic plan to be clear with its goals, containing a set of technology investments that the IT department deems a priority to contribute to the organization’s success. It is critique important that the plan have to contain evaluations of the company’s existing IT financial plan and assign project-specific resources and responsibilities within the IT department to run into their aims (Chan ; Reich, 2007).
Today mobile is an important part of the business, it provides communication channels between employees, customers, managers and shareholders, and it is an instrument, which provides help with business operation to the company. All of this facts influence to a company strategy, from this perspective organization mobile strategy should be crossed with general strategy and be part of IT company’s strategy (Lakhdissi, El Habi, Semma, & Bounabat, 2013).
5.2 Critiques of WSSC IT Strategic plan
The Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC) is the company that deliver good quality and reliable water and provide wastewater services to their customers in the USA. Their vision is to be the one of the best tier of the top-managed water and wastewater functions in the world. WSSC IT Strategic Plan includes investments in mobile computing, mobile workforce and prepare staff with real-time data and guidance (Lawson et al., 2011).
IT Plan clearly explains that mobile computing in WSSC should have to be developed from the bottom to support business and operational functions through the company (Lawson et al., 2011).
Mobile workforce would play a central role in providing the vision of a real-time WSSC where working activities are visible and managed in real-time, delivering important solution in the way of upgraded customer service and process effectiveness. This plan ties in nicely with WSSC company strategy for the next few years and it should be delivered within the budget and timeframe (Lawson et al., 2011).
One of the most valuable advantages for WSSC from implementation of mobile workforce is motivation of company’s employees by providing them more flexibility, allowing each person to decide when and where to work (Raguseo, Paolucci ; Neirotti, 2015).
Another great advantage for company is reducing transfer costs (Kahle-Piasecki, Miao ; Ariss 2012). Thus, company provide maintenance services to customers can provide their employees with tablets or smartphones with installed software that will inform employee with the instructions and customer address and any additional information, which is could be required during the working day (Raguseo, Paolucci ; Neirotti, 2015). In this case each employee doesn’t need to visit WSSC office after each job finished, so number of visits is reducing to only one or maximum two visits per day (Bhatia, 2016).
Choosing mobile workforce could also significantly reduce WSSC real estate expenses due to the fact that mobile workers are often outside of company’s main site working at customer location, and if they receive all the instructions through mobile workforce, there is no need for their presence at company site and WSSC can reduce office rent due to optionality having offices for mobile workers (Kahle-Piasecki, Miao ; Ariss, 2012).Despite the fact that that introducing mobile workforce brings a lot of advantages to a company, there are some disadvantages which could arise as a result of its implementation. Such factors as low internet speed, small display size of smartphone, difference between mobile and desktop web applications can reduce efficiency of using mobile application (Kahle-Piasecki, Miao ; Ariss, 2012). Another problem is using WSSC internet for private purposes by employee and as a result reducing internet traffic speed (Raguseo, Paolucci ; Neirotti, 2015). Hacking the wireless connection can compromise the whole company network that can be a serious concern for the WSSC. Stolen corporate mobile phone or laptop can also become a significant vulnerability for security system (Bhatia, 2016).
In addition, WSSC IT Strategic Plan includes road maps for business needs and IT solutions for them and for IT initiatives with strategic priorities. The map provides information about key steps like Foundation to “real-time” utility for Mobile Workforce and Geographical Information Systems (Lawson et al., 2011).
One more advantage that has WSSC IT Strategic Plan is that after implementation of mobile app employees will have online access for information all time in any location, in that case it will increase their productivity (Weng ; Lin, 2015).
Nevertheless there are some threats that mobile computing provide. One of them it is the security of the customers personal and payments data (Weng ; Lin, 2015). The IT plan provides procedures for disasters recovery and cyber-attack only. It is not caver authorized systems of mobile app for customers, staff and shareholders. Secure access to IT infrastructure has to stop information leaked with unauthorized entrée into business system (Lakhdissi, El Habi, Semma, ; Bounabat, 2013). The availability that customer information is not secure could influence on consumers trust to the WSSC at all.
Moreover, WSSC created five years IT Strategic Plan, with comments that it should be reviewed to verify that, technologies are still modern and add new business needs from time to time. There is not time frame for this procedure in this plan. For IT industries, particularly for mobile computing, it is necessary to follow new trends and technologies that provides competitor advantages and customers satisfaction for organization (Chen ; Kamara, 2008).
6 Examples of mobile computing in New Zealand Company6.1 Characteristics of Auckland Transport mobile applicationAT mobile is a mobile application developed by Auckland transportation. It can help find, plan and track the routes of the public transportation network in Auckland more quickly and conveniently.
The mobile computing application is in the map matching of AT Mobile. When implementing GPS signal and GIS integration, the problem we have to consider is the accuracy of GPS signal positioning points or trajectories. When the moving target is displayed on the electronic map, the influence of the electronic map itself, the GPS system error, the GPS receiver, etc., When the mobile target is displayed on the electronic map, it is not guaranteed to be on the road (Luo, 2010).
For example, when a car is driving on a bridge, due to the error described above, the GPS positioning point may not be on the bridge but in the river. Such positioning indicates that the failure will not work. In addition, when the electronic map is scaled to a larger or smaller scale, the positional offset will also occur. Therefore, in the positioning query function room of the mobile GIS system, it is necessary to match the map, that is, it is necessary Artificially correct the position of the moving target (Luo, 2010).
First collect data on how people in Auckland use the roads, roads and public transport of our city. Use all possibilities and certainty to provide all known and reliable data from a variety of sources and in a variety of formats. The published data is also provided by developers and researchers, or some open data enthusiasts, for free. The Auckland transportation developer portal is a platform to showcase the various APIs and transportation data of Auckland transportation and NZTA. This service is provided to developers and companies under the terms and conditions of the Auckland transportation API (Application interface) (Luo, 2010).
The API data includes: Real-time alerts, vehicle locations and trip updates. Public transport routes, stops, agencies and trip information. Parking locations, scheduled works, customer service centers and points-of-interest (Luo, 2010).
Open GIS data site provides access to, download and use of Auckland-related data sets with the ultimate goal of encouraging local communities to develop innovative ideas, services, applications and business ideas. Google Transport Feed public transportation information is available in a series of data sets. Menstrual Cycle Monitoring. Use automatic bicycle monitoring equipment to monitor and report the number of bicycle trips in 13 city centres and 14 regional centres in Auckland. The number of daily trips is compiled monthly. The data has a .csv format. Learn how to collect data and download monthly (Luo, 2010).
6.2 Characteristics of Kiwi Bank mobile computingKiwi Bank is similar in many respects to an earlier post office-based bank owned by the New Zealand government. As more and more people use smartphones and tablets, almost every bank has its own app, and almost everyone can use the Internet. Two methods of establishing such a mobile banking are Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and standalone mobile applications. WAP is equivalent to accessing Internet pages on mobile devices. (Johnson ; Maltz, 1996) These are the page settings for the personal computer, but mobile devices can access them as if they were accessing the computer based on the concepts of browser, server, Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and gateway. One advantage of this approach is that users can use the web pages they are familiar with using the computer and don’t need to download anything, such as an app. One major drawback is that mobile devices lack the same level of anti-virus software and personal firewalls. (Johnson & Maltz, 1996) A standalone mobile app. This requires users to download applications that are user-friendly and allow banks to customize and brand to their liking. (Johnson & Maltz, 1996) This approach is widely regarded as the future of mobile banking. Users need to be authenticated when they log in. Mobile computing technology is needed, the technology associated with generating a user’s specific profile can be scanned using mobile computing techniques. It can also be used to authorize encrypted messages, application-specific encryption keys, or to access and store data. Mobile computing technology can identify the user’s information, including account transaction information, user name and password, and so on.
6.3 Influence of mobile technology on New Zealand organization The AT mobile software, people can quickly, preferentially and efficiently select the right public transport. Make transportation more convenient and convenient. Formed a formal, stable public transportation network, becoming more orderly and safer. More efficient reduction or avoidance of individual traffic congestion (Transport, 2018). It is possible to record any place and route that has been visited in real time, effectively and conveniently. Clearer and clearer search for historical traffic records. For the government, the realization of the excellent public transport planned by Auckland has achieved the results of excellent and efficient public transport. A sustainable financing model is ensured to ensure that assets are maintained and updated, service levels are gradually improved and additional capacity of the transportation system is increased to meet future growth needs and needs. Develop creative, adaptive, innovative, fast and efficient transportation services for Auckland Transportation’s projects and new projects (Transport, 2018). Establishing networking and resilience for travel time, enabling existing services and assets to be better valued, and having good regulatory and resilience to future shocks, such as changes in oil prices, travel patterns and changes in demand, And natural disasters such as floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, etc. It also enhances customer attention and good experience by providing users with roads, public transportation, bicycles, walking services and various transportation services. It has improved the public transport system in Auckland, improved the way people travel, and provided a good traffic environment to meet the people. Achieving the outcomes and priorities of the Auckland Plan is linked with meeting key targets for increasing public and active transport mode share, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved accessibility, lower congestion for public transport, delivery of services and freight, travel time savings and the delivery of transport infrastructure priorities over the next three decades Transport, 2018).
The Kiwi Bank software, helps protect accounts and organizations safely and effectively. This is an approach based on three pillars: protection – protecting customers with multi-level security. And it can monitor customers’ Banks 24 hours a day in case of potential threats. Ensuring customer security, using some of the best security and technology to protect information security. Online codes and unique pins make it easier for customers to register software that will receive an Online Code when new devices are added. This adds an additional layer of protection. Then, select an KIWI BANK PIN at the first registration and log in each time you use the app. It has reduced many factors of insecurity and reduced the generation of fraud and other behaviors of obtaining personal information, strengthened the protection of customers’ bank information and improved the information security of the organization, improved the reliable connection between customers and the organization better and more effectively, and enabled customers to have profound credibility to the organization.
To sum up, AT mobile and Kiwi bank app are products that conform to The Times, have certain influence and benefit on the development of today’s society, and play a huge role in promoting the development and progress of enterprises and companies. Along with the advance of science and technology, mobile computing application in various fields, for the people, improving the efficiency of the application software, at the same time also brought a fast and convenient, for organization, in the creation of high yield, more established a good operational mechanism, make enterprise keep good contact with the customer. For the government, it has improved its governance capability.
7. The CIO role in mobile computing
The chief information officer?CIO? is the chief information officer or information director and is a senior official in charge of all aspects of a company’s information technology and systems. They support the company’s goals by guiding the use of information technology (Boomer, 2012). They have both technical and business process knowledge and a versatile concept, often the best person to combine the organization’s technology deployment strategy with business strategy. CIO originally refers to the chief information officer in the government management department. As the information system develops from the auxiliary tools of the rear office to the powerful means of directly participating in the enterprise, the CIO emerges as the enterprise and emerges as a pivotal figure (Boomer, 2012).
With the continuous progress and development of the company or organization, CIOs gradually enhance and improve their functions, and further study and participate in the business and work of the organization. In mobile computing, the CIO, improves the responsiveness of the tasks in the enterprise, and according to changing customer needs and make the appropriate changes, reduce the risk, to maximize the use of IT resources through the application of the method, evaluation and change without affecting the at the same time, the appropriate modern reduces the application cost, increase the value of the application software, at the same time reduce the unnecessary infrastructure and operating costs. It further improves users’ trust, preference and personalized interaction to the enterprise. It provides these services on multiple devices and identifiable user locations and devices, understands specific scenarios, including their past interactions, high responsiveness and true scalability, and supports unpredictable growth patterns (Boomer, 2012). CIO services and oversight are at the beginning of the enterprise lifecycle and integrate security into each process and service. More importantly, use the multi-source security intelligence provided in specific scenarios to detect threats and prevent and defend against them. Protects key business services such as e-commerce, application chains, or messaging systems from day-to-day operations (Boomer, 2012).
7.1 Ethical challengesMobile devices are being the part of the information technology spreading in the world widely (Kenneth McBride, 2014). Some mobile devices have been accepted by users but sometimes the corporate world is not happy with the devices. Plus some conflicts occur when a mobile device works for corporate and individuals need simultaneously (Tarasewich, Gong, Nah, Dewester,2008). (Weng, 2015) says this technology is not for all organizations except unguarded ones.
Privacy:- Adopting mobile computing is always a risk for organizations because the privacy and security of the data of the company have been compromised. Users are sharing more information than before. the possibility of integration has increased because of the wide use of mobile applications (Kenneth McBride, 2014). Maintaining privacy has become difficult since anyone can access the data from anywhere. Hence the privacy is a big concern for organizations so new techniques should be used to solve the privacy issues while adopting mobile computing. Some organization’s mobile applications save their client’s personal data such as location, contacts, card details etc. Thus, they should address privacy issues (Wong, 2010).
Accuracy:-The data which is being shared on mobile applications and on the web are not guaranteeing accuracy (Kenneth McBride, 2014). There are many unverified authors writing this information although many people agree with the data but they all might be wrong or misunderstood. Accuracy is also an important aspect of mobile computing and organizational data (Kenneth McBride, 2014).
Property:- According to (Kenneth McBride, 2014) owning the information as intellectual property is not yet agreed but some organization may share information for free. Hence companies are more concern about there data but because of mobile computing and web technologies, it has been shared online and given access to all people at no cost.
Access:-When the information is being shared online, the accessibility is hard to manage because enormous no. of people is accessing data. Sometimes organizations share too much data over the internet. Too much data sharing is also as harmful as too less data (Kenneth McBride, 2014).
7.2 Corporate governanceThe set of the policies, regulations and rules on the basis of which management implements directorate and control of an enterprise for lining up with objectives constitutes corporate governance (Lize-Marie & Rudman, 2016). As a part of corporate governance, IT governance is responsible for verifying that IT investments are controlled by secure mechanisms (Lize-Marie & Rudman, 2016).
One of the serious vulnerability for corporate governance could migrate from the governance of mobile technology. Therefore, it is important to include security of mobile devices to corporate governance to make sure that the whole process complies with company’s governance strategic policy (Lize-Marie ; Rudman, 2016).
Organization should formulate and apply proper mobile strategy with the corresponding policies in the framework of governance to ascertain that the strategy is sufficiently understood (Lize-Marie ; Rudman, 2016).
7.3 Security policyA company ought to develop a written policy shaping the right use of communication systems, inform staff of the timeframe to observe them, inform staff concerning the corporate system that not invariably ensures privacy, and think about the potential prices i.e. low morale, potential law suits, etc. of excessive observation. Nykodym ; Ariss (2006) planned many ways in which to fight the crime, and indicated the management of crime has to be attacked from 3 levels: (1) management has to be control in charge of handling issues together with hiring screenings, firing practices and web use contracts, (2) education and learning on the prevalence of crime for corporations and their managers, and (3) the problem ought to be prohibited on a really grand scale. this implies as an example, fitting workplace to develop international standards and punishments for cybercriminals, standardization for web security, and investigation into criminal activity on the net. Another major drawback of multiple policies is consistency. it is important you have a single policy form which other sub-policies can be developed by making this possible thus ensuring consistency in governance of all technology elements (Cisco IBSG, 2012; Sybase, 2011).
Attributes of productive executable mobile strategies and required policies are simple and easy to implementation, flexibility in order to adapt to changes in stakeholder requirements and reliability under abnormal circumstances. According to ISACA (2010) there are certain considerations that enterprises need to take in to account when developing a mobile polices (Oracle, 2014; Gartner, 2012a; Ernst ;Young, 2012; Wright et al., 2011; ISACA, 2010).
Specifying necessities resembling outsourcing or the in-house development and maintenance of mobile technology; practicability analyses per enterprise division; deciding the resources necessary to migrate existing systems onto mobile systems; and allocating specific responsibilities and decision-making authorities.
Constantly observance and change policies through performance measures for each outsourced and in-house services, collection and reviewing external service level agreements and evaluating internal IT workers performance regularly; the continual observance of recent and rising threats in mobile platforms; maintaining and change existing ways or developing new ways to adapt to new mobile technology.
Distinguishing all technology parts in use by taking the total device life cycle into account; shaping approved devices and applications and crucial the configuration specifications; distinguishing and classifying each authorized or unauthorized uses of mobile technology; and specifying the storage and transmission procedures for enterprise data.
Developing mobile policies sought to embrace spare training: certain specific coding needs to trained under certain platform like application developers using certain coding. similarly IT employees needs regular courses to be refreshed on new packages and checking for security risk .regular updates of package and awareness of the suitable channels for news issues and requesting IT support (Ernst ; Young, 2012; GAO, 2012; Wright et al., 2011).
ConclusionMobile computing has become an important aspect of business (Lakhdissi, M., El Habi, R., Semma, A., ; Bounabat, B. (2013) no matter which business it is that means entertainment, enterprise, education or commercial (Weng, 2015). Banks are also influenced by mobile computing such as Kiwi banks, ANZ bank which helps to reduce the work load of the organization employees as well as end users. Mobile computing is used for education by students to reference the books, sharing information, connecting with the people and getting access anytime, anywhere (Robinson ; Burk, 2013). Although in the survey held in USA AAMC schools no student reported there is need of tablets and mobile computing in their studies but the addition of the mobile devices helped them a lot in improving their scores. Mobile computing’s first challenge is the security and privacy of the information where it offers accessibility of the information to anyone. Organizations should take care about all the possible risk of the mobile computing before creating a strategic IT plan as such for information security the first step for organization should take by stopping access of unauthorized users. (Lakhdissi, El Habi, R., Semma, A., & Bounabat, B. 2013). Second is apply security policies for information security. These are all the responsibilities of corporate governance of the organization. The challenges which are could be faced by organization in mobile computing is pace of the evolution of the technology where companies are confused which technology to adopt.
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