Material Purpose Source Amount(m3) Properties
Al 6061 T6 Main external material (e.g. Hull) Moon 9.5 x 106 Good Weldability, corrosion resistant and tensile strength of 310MPA
Low Carbon Steel Ball Bearings Earth 8.48 x 105 Low brittleness and malleability
Silicon Oxide Solar Panels Lunar Surface Semi-conducting material
Bucky Structure External Hub construction and elevator cable Alexandriat 9.15 x 106 Strong and flexible
Silica Rubber Adhesion Adhesive Earth – Strong Adhesion
Crushed Lunar Regolith Outermost Shell Moon 7.63 x 106 Light Weight
Lead-laminated Acrylic Glass Window composition and radiation protection K-Type asteroids and Earth 3.37 x 105 Transparent and excellent light transmitter
Fused Quartz Silica Glass Window composition Electric melting of natural Quartz 3.11 x 105 Good adhesive and UV resistant
RXF1 Polyethylene To provide protection against solar flares and cosmic radiations Earth 3.6 x 105 Good absorber of rays
Copper Electrical wiring for houses, electronics and industries Asteroids – Great conductor of electricity
Iron For internal structure of the settlement and making steel Earth/Asteroids – Malleable ductile and strong
Water Domestic and industrial uses Icy comets – Mineral rich and nutritious
Operations and Infrastructure
3.2.1 Air, Climate and Weather.
At Arial, we aspire to provide optimum conditions for a human settlement making it easier for inhabitants to adjust in space. We carry out our best to ensure that the transition from Earth to space is carried out effectively.
Gas Percentage (%) Mass/kg/ annum/ 14.7 psi
Air composition of Arial
Gas Percentage (%) Quantity(m3)
Nitrogen 78.084 1.19 x 10
Oxygen 20.447 3.18 x 107
Carbon dioxide 0.033 5.01 x 104
Water vapor 0.5 0
Noble gases 0.936
Total 100 4.97 x108
Humidity will be controlled by humidifying and de-humidifying modules
Temperature and Pressure in both Tori
Torus Temp. / degree Celsius Pressure
Residential 25 14.7 psi
Agriculture and Industrial Variable (according to crop) 9 psi
Each sector of Arial needs a specific temperature range to work effectively. Hence, an elaborative mechanism of solar powered heating and solar air conditioners will help maintain constant temperature in all zones, which could be changed according to the season at the time. Aero gel of thickness 0.25m will be used for regulating temperature.
Excess water vapors will be condensed and precipitated back through a network of microtubule channels on the Arial ceiling. This will be done to maintain the same experience as it was on earth.
Atmospheric Operational Parameters
Name Operational Parameters
Nitrogen Nitrogen will be transported to Arial as liquid Nitrogen from Earth. Nitrogen is essential in maintaining pressure and temperature. It will be produced on site through the decomposition of biomass and by leguminous roots of plants
Oxygen Tree plantation would be encouraged; moreover oxygen produced by the electrolysis of water obtained from Luna’s pole and from the agricultural Torus would be enough. In Oxygen deficit areas., liquid Oxygen would be used to prevent drowsiness and suffocation. The production of Oxygen through electrolysis on the moon is less expensive than to commute liquid Oxygen from the Earth to Arial. Oxygen would be recycled by directing the Oxygen produced by algae and the plants to residential Torus and the Carbon dioxide is maintained as it is the stimulus for breathing.
Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide will be reduced to Carbon monoxide and utilized in the industrial zones. Being aware of Carbon dioxide’s importance for photosynthesis, it will be kept at a higher concentrations inside the agricultural sector to achieve maximum yield. carbon dioxide initially will be transported from Earth, but later on will be recylcled between humans and plants. High amount of Carbon dioxide (4%) will be provided in the agricultural torus for maximum yield.
3.2.2 Food Production
Conditions for Aeroponics
Nutrient solution conc. 700-900 ppm
Light Red and Blue light will be provided for photosynthesis
UV radiations To prevent growth of certain bacteria
Carbon dioxide concentration 4%, as it is the basic requirement for photosynthesis so high concentration
In an aeroponics system, the roots are hung in the air, within a stand. The roots are lubricated with a nutrient solution with the aid of a misting machine, which is applied once every couple of minutes. As roots are hung in air so the misting should be slow to avoid the roots becoming dry. Hence, a timer mechanism controls the pump which sprays for a few seconds in each turn. the nutrient solution is sprayed by a high-pressure pump so more oxygen reaches the roots.
Diagram of Aeroponics
Food Requirement (g/person/day) Yield(g/m2/day)
Soya Bean 50 85
Wheat 300 31
Rice 250 35
Corn 7 58
Vegetable and fruits 400 132
Almond milk 200ml 122
Meat (cultured) 70g 20
This is grown in cell culture instead of inside animals. It is a form of cellular agriculture. It is made by using tissue engineering techniques. This can substitute the need for having livestock on board and reduce costs dramatically.
The prepared food will be commuted to the industrial sector and from there to the residential torus for retailing. The people will buy the food using a point system. Food will be stored in large containers. Storage will be inside the axle. Moreover, storage facilities will be available in the residential torus as well to ensure food reserves are present in each sector to cope with any calamity periods of blight as 3-week food would be present at all times for the 6000 inhabitants and the 600 visitors of Arial. 355008Kg of food will be stocked in Aluminum containers. Ultra violet light will be used to treat the food before storing. Nitrogen will be added rather than ordinary air and will be kept away from sunlight at all times. This would eliminate bacterial growth. Commodities such as medicine will be stored in central refrigeration unit All other commodities such as cement, toiletries and construction materials will be stored in the cargo storage facility in the docking port
Steps to food cultivation
Growth An automatic water spray method would be employed which would need minimal amount of water. The culture medium contains K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, P, Mg and Zn. These nutrients would be obtained using nitrogenous compounds which will be extracted from human egested waste. Rest of the nutrients will be taken from the Moon and Earth. Heat produced by servers will be used for cultivation.
Harvesting Harvesting would be done by the use of automated robots
Processing Food processing will be done in special facilities made in the agricultural zone
Packaging Packaging will be done as soon as processing would be done to ensure freshness
Delivery Delivery will be done with the use of robots
Retailing Arial inhabitants can buy food using their points
Milk production Technique:
Algae are the food of the future. With biotechnology and genetic engineering making ground breaking advances, it has been made possible to manipulate algae into delicious good with no harmful effects at all. This algae is nutritious and beneficial due to having very low amount of Fats. Algae grows sporadically and this is why we have devised a plan to give a 20% share to this mode of food. This will further reduce our requirement for agricultural area and hence save us the cost as well.
A system which provides artificially closed and inert environment for the highest yield of algae. This environment is properly sustained to avoid the growth of dangerous micro-organisms
Conditions for Algae growth
Parametres Range Optimal conditions
Temperature 16-27 18-24
Salinity 12-40 20-24
Light intensity (lux) 1000-1 2500-5000
Photo period(kight:dark,hours) 16:8(min) 24:0 (max)
pH 7-9 8.2-8.7
3.2 Power generation
The primary source of generation of power that ‘Arial’ will utilize would be solar. Constructed using silicon oxide, processed using silicon readily available on the lunar surface, these solar panels will harness energy reflected their way by orbiting mirrors, thus allowing a constant 24 hours supply of sunlight for power production. These mirrors will be positioned, by ‘Titania’, in such a way that energy will directly be reflected to the panels almost throughout the year (all but 40 hours in total). These will operate at 90% efficiency.
With growing business opportunities ‘Arial’ hopes to implement Power-conversion devices which will convert solar energy directly to electrical current which could be converted into an infrared laser beam, or a cone of microwaves and transmitted to receivers. Furthermore, due to continuous solar absorption, the need to store the energy for later use would be eliminated, a process which can cost up to half of the energy stored.(Fig. from https://www.wealthdaily.com/ report/solar-technology/1409)
As an emergency backup and a secondary source MBCs (Microbial fuel cells) will be used. For the purpose of electricity production a special type of bacteria known as ‘Bacillus stratosphericus’ will be extracted from the air samples taken from stratosphere, at a height of 14km. These bacteria, capable of generating 200milliWatts per cubic meter (twice as much energy as other types of bacteria-105milliWatts per cubic meter), will then be cultured in the area under down surfaces in both the tori. The MBCs will provide a means for microbes to oxidize organic materials from biomass to generate electricity. Since, any organic matter can be fed to the fuel cells, ‘Ariel’ will couple them to water management system and waste disposal system.
Sources Power produced (per square meter) Total Power produced
Solar 28.7 KW 7.78×107 KW
MCbs 200 mW 6800 KW
Industrial and agricultural torus
Approximate power per person
3.2.3 Water Management
A total of 200 million liters of water must be available at any given time in the reserves. Different techniques will be employed for collection of such a large amount of water.
Water is to be supplied through polyvinyle chloride pipelines while the waste water will be purified in a purification plant. Water from the mining will also be purified before consumption
Water Consumption at Arial in one day
Area % Amount (million liters)
Industry 47 94
Residential 10 20
Total 100 200
The water in the storage tanks is circulated it avoid stagnation and bacterial growth
Water will be stored in a 400 million liter storage tank. This water will also be used for precipitation but the drain water will be recycled and reused.
Sources of Water
Icy comets Extraction from nearby comets rich in ice
Carbonaceous asteroids Mining in the industrial zone of carbonaceous asteroids
Recycling Waste water is to be recycled in the purification plants to produce clean water.
Purification of Water(Newer methods with flowchart and diags)
External and Internal Communication
High frequency signals, such as lasers operating at visible light frequencies , prove to be a fruitful method of interstellar communication ; at a given frequency it takes surprisingly small energy output for a laser emitter to outshine its local star from the perspective of its target. Nd-YAG laser will be used which in comparison to other lasers e.g Ld, provides higher power and suitable performance. This sets up a free -space optical communication system.. (Fig.1)
Internal communication can be carried out by the usage of Li-Fi for the transferring of information. The inner communication system will have two networks, one internal and one external. All communication inside the spaceship will use the internal network as all information will go to a process centre and sent to the given device. All the communication with the outside of the space station will be sent through the external network to the processing centre and towards the selected target.
Quadri will be used for internal communication. This is an earpiece that is able to project high resolution images.
This acts as an accessory for Quadri and contains an ultra high definition camera that enables video chatting.
3.2.6 – Waste management
However advanced we as humans may be; we have still ways to go from detaching ourselves of the dependency of limited, un-clean and fossil fuels. Till then, it is important for us to reuse, reduce and recycle. Everything we use has to come from somewhere and must go somewhere once we are finished with it. Putting this thought in consideration, Arial’s waste management scheme was formulated.
126.96.36.199 – Waste Separation
Waste will be separated into different categories using the processes mentioned below
Eddy current Separator
Near Infra red sensors X-ray technology
188.8.131.52 – Organic and Human waste
Human waste would be recycled by the following processes, in a specific order:
Separation of the waste water and solid waste
Then the liquid waste will be sent to the fertilizer processor facility where it will be treated to obtain fertilizers and then sent to agricultural torus.
The solids will be sent to the MCBs (ref. to 3.2).
184.108.40.206 – Plastic Waste
Before undergoing recycling, the plastics would be sorted according to their resin types. This will be done by automatic sort systems and mechanized automation processes that involve shredding, sieving and separation via difference in density, magnetic or complex spectrophotometric distribution technologies e.g. UV/VIS, NIR, Laser, etc.
This process uses hydrous pyrolosis for the reduction of complex organic materials into light crude oil. It is done by the grounding of feedstock material into small chunks and mixed with water (if dry). It is then heated at constant volume, 250°C. Steam leads to a pressure of 600 psi. Then, flash evaporation is done to obtain crude hydrocarbons and solid minerals. This crude oil can be used by the industrial sector benefitting Arial.
220.127.116.11 – Glass
The glass, like the plastics, is also categorized via parameters such as color, etc.
Labels, caps and other such material shall be removed from the glass
Machines would be used which will melt the glass and would be able to shape it into any form needed using moulds.
The remaining glass (bigger portions) will be crushed and then recycled using high temperatures.
18.104.22.168 – Metal
Metal recycling can be explained in the following steps
This involves separating from what is non-recyclable. A high quality recycled product or item can only be created if the original materials used in the recycling process are of good quality, which calls for strict quality checkups during sorting
All recycle materials are squeezed and squashed using machines to lower volume occupied
Metals are broken down to smaller pieces so there is large surface area to volume ratio so less energy is required to melt
Melting and Purification
Metals are put into a large furnace and turned into liquid. Afterwards, electrolysis and powerful magnetic systems are used for purification and separation of metals from other recyclables. The metal is then cooled for it to solidify. This acquired metal can then be put to use in various sectors ranging from Arial’s framework to manufacturing of metal products, in a cost effective manner.
3.3 Construction Machinery (for all machinery, refer to section 5.1)
3.3.1 Exterior Construction
Exterior construction will be carried out by robot Sycorax.
Jigs will be used to tether and direct the robots to start building with the primary part of the settlement i.e. the axle.
The jigs will move outwards as the axle is completed, and continue with the construction process (refer to section 2.3).
Sycorax will be supplied with sheets of Al 6061-T6 assembled on Luna. It will mold the sheets and build the structure accordingly with the aid of its modular tools.
3.3.2 Interior Construction
Interior construction will be carried out by the robots Figurati and Envy.
Figurati will weld modular sections and frameworks of stainless steel and aluminum inside the tori.
Envy will further install and construct infrastructure with respect to the structure, and material for the structure supplied to it.
3.5 – Accommodations at the Dock
The docking port of Arial is a 8 sided octagon structure with 2 docks at one face. This enables 8 ships to be accommodated at once, with 2 being reserved for emergencies (Fig.1). The docks will have variable pressure (0 psi or 14psi) .
Once the cargo/visitors are inside, they would have to go through customs for maintaining the integrity of Arial, and for assuring security for its residents/visitors.
Accommodations provided at the docks include:
Loading/unloading of cargo
The docking system consists of a, “Female Cargo Joint” situated at the dock. The, “Male Cargo Joint” is an extension situated on the cargo ship. There are circular bolts situated at the male joint which fix into the circular cavities situated on the female joint. Once contact is made, small nail-like grapplers clamp onto the circular bolts, maintaining stability. (Fig.1.1) If there are problems pertaining to docking, autonomous robotic arms will assist in successful docking. Once a air tight seal is ensured, the doors are opened for transfer.
Robotic Arm(refer to 5.5)
The robotic arm will have scanners installed in order to indentify dimensions, model and make of the ship in order for accurate maneuvering. It can also assist in container loading/unloading as it can recognize the type of container (small or large) and its contents (water, food etc) and sort accordingly.
These nano-bots aid in forming an air tight seal. This is done by bots of 10 micrometers which fill the gaps/leaks in an arrangement just like of hexagonal cells. They will ionize one end of the gap which will then naturally attract the other end of the gap. However, if the gap is too large then nano-bots will pull one end close to the other followed by ionization of that end
Refueling is done by a retractable pipe. After successful docking, the pipe will provide required fuel. (refer to Fig.1.1)
Special robots called, “Episkevi”, will be used for maintenance and repair of transport exclusively.
This robot has four ionic thrusters on spokes around the main body to maintain balance around the subject ship. Each thruster will have a 10cm diameter. The main body will also feature 4 arm buts each coated with Geckel similar to those used in Geckopi. These will allow the bot to stick to the surface of the ships so that it does not float off while denting or ionizing the body of the ships.
Technology Usage Efficency Working
Electro Thermal Thrusters. To provide a uniform upthrust for a longer time period then the chemical thruster.
Provide 3 timee more thrust then chemical thrusters. electromagnetic fields will be used to generate a concentrated magnetic field to increase the temperature of the propellant. The thermal energy imparted to the propellant gas is then converted into kinetic energy by a v shaped nozzle of either solid material or magnetic fields. Low molecular weight gases are preferred propellants for this kind of system.
Reaction-control System. This is used to maintain the Ariel in its orbital These systems will record the date every 1/5 of a second which will ensure this system to provide command on the right time. infrared sensors, referred to as horizon detectors, are used to detect the rim of the earth against the background of space. With the use of four such sensors, one for each quadrant, the center of the earth can be readily established as a reference point. Any shift in orientation is detected by one or other of the sensors, and a corresponding control signal is generated which activates thruster.
Navigation, Control and Guidance This will be used to maintain the altitude of the Ariel This system will control record the date every second will ensure that its held
on a precise location. Controlling Ariel’s attitude requires sensors to measure Ariel’s orientation, actuators to apply the thrust needed to re-orient the Ariel’s to a desired attitude, and algorithms to command the actuators based on sensors measurements of the current attitude then its moved to the desired altitude.