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Rock Street, San Francisco

Martha Abana Pogu
A00019306
Lab partner: Aisha Gurin
ENZYME ACTIVITIES
Question: How does enzymes and substrate concentration affect the rate of a chemical reaction?
Hypothesis: Enzymes concentration affects the reaction rate.

Prediction: If the concentration of enzymes is higher, then the rate of reaction is faster.

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Introduction: Enzymes are specific biochemical reactions that come about when a substance produced by a living organism act as a catalyst.

There are three types of enzymes:
Digestive Enzymes break down foods into smaller component. The process of digestion has many step, the first step starts in the mouth. Digestion involves breaking down of food substance in the smaller unit, until they can be absorbed into the body.
The second is chewing: Chewing is a process whereby food mixed with saliva begins the process of digestion. When there is lack of digestive enzymes in our body, it causes a freezing effect. Meanwhile we are incapable to obtain the essential nutrients from food sources; even thou we do eat foods that are rich in vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates and minerals.

Metabolic Enzymes are reactions within the cells. Metabolic enzymes help us maintain physiology homeostasis of our body. They assist in the repairs and maintenance of organs and tissues in our body as well as ensuring new cells grow. They are internally produced and ensure blood, tissues and organs are at top gear.

Food Enzymes, food enzymes are provided to us through what we eat. So we should not forget the third group of enzymes in the living beings. Besides we cannot survive without food in our life. Although digestive enzymes and metabolic enzymes are produced inside the body, food enzymes come from outer sources.

Materials
Distilled water
Masking tape
Test tubes
Test tubes rack
Timer
Test plates
Tissues
Dropper
Rubber and Mechanical glass Pipette
Testing Reagent for Starch- Iodine Solution
Method
Test tube set 1
Label 1-5 test tubes and arranged them accordingly in the test tubes rack.

Add 5ml of distilled water to test tubes by using a graduated pipette and label 2-5 test tubes.

Wash the pipette.

And then add 5ml of 1% amylase to tube, which means that the concentration in test tube 1 is 1%.

Add 5ml of 0.5% amylase from test tube 1 and shake it.

Wash the pipette and then use it and add other 5ml of amylase solution to test tube 2 and shake it.

Wash the pipette again and add 5ml of amylase solution from test tube 3 and shake it.
Add another 5ml of amylase solution from test tube 4 and shake it.
Then return the set of 5 test turns into the test tube rack.

Test tube set 2
Label another set of tubes 1-5.

Then the first 5 set, transfer 1ml of solution into the tube 5 of the second set of tube that being used by using pipette. Clean the pipette in distilled water, and repeat this method for the remaining 4 tubes and shake it.

Add 1ml of pH 6.8 buffer solution to the tubes in the second set. And the shake.

Add 1 drop of l2Kl to the test plate. Then used clean test plate for each concentration of amylase.

2nd set of tubes, continue with the tests with tube 5.

Then wash the pipette and then add another 2ml of 1% starch solution to tube 5 and shake it carefully. Then other partner should quickly record the time from 00.00.

Quickly add 1 drop mixture to a drop of l2Kl in the test plate.

Then the other partner should set the time at least for 10 second intervals, by using a new test plate. Keep on doing it until its change color and the l2Kl to yellow-amber. Then record time taking for the digestion of starch in table 1.

Then repeat it from 1-4 for the remaining concentrations.

Results
Tubes % Amylase Time of starch
Disappearance (in seconds)
1 0.5 30
2 0.25 40
3 0.125 110
4 0.0625 150
5 0.031 170
Discussion: from the results above, one can see that the hypothesis stated that enzymes concentration affects the reaction rate. These because the percentage of amylase is increase we could see that, the more we added the substrate it took time before digest. That means it change gradually from blue black to yellow amber.

Conclusion: This experiment shows us that, if somebody wants digest starch quickly, thing they need to do, is that add the enzyme amylase quickly if you think you are very busy and you need in short time, just increase the concentration.

Works Cited
BIBLIOGRAPHY (n.d.).

Importance of Enzymes. (1997, July).

Importance Of Enzymes. (n.d.).

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