23 November 2018
Cause and Effect of Domestic Violence on Women
Despite its existence over the centuries, domestic violence remains a serious social problem that over the years, have disproportionately affected women than men (Metz, Jérémy and Anne, 1). Women in marriage or romantic relations are more at risk of getting exposed to the violence from their partners. Understanding the cause of domestic violence has, therefore, remained critical in evading or reducing its impact on the women (Nadda et al. 534) While domestic violence can be due to the aggressive tendencies of both the male and the woman in an intimate relationship, its impact disproportionately affect the women than men. Most common effects are due to the emotional and physical violence that are commonly engaged that lead to be emotional and physical harms to the women. Despite these harms, women would tend to stay in abusive relationships due to the mental factors that subconsciously make them insensitive to their impacts.
Emotional and Physical Violence
Nadda et al. (534-538) Assessed the cause and the impact of the domestic violence among the Indian couples. The study showed that domestic violence was associated with a significant adverse effect on women’s health and well-being. Analyzing the state of the domestic violence in rural areas and the urban areas, the study found that all forms of violence except sexual violence were common in rural areas compared to the urban areas. More than half of the women investigated reported injuries from domestic violence. Of different types of violence in domestic violence, emotional violence was the most prevalent form of violence. The second most frequent form of violence was physical violence. More intriguing was the cause of this violence. Women were the least likely causes of violence with the only 0.1% of the emotional violence and 4.5% of the physical violence having been caused by women (Nadda et al. 534). Mostly, domestic violence are cause by men or the husbands in these relationships. There is, therefore, a need to create more awareness of domestic violence and institute legal frameworks which would protect the women. Evident from this study are two aspects of domestic violence, the males, and husbands as the initiator of the violence and the women as the victims of this violence. Women are more affected by this violence and remain highly vulnerable to their impact in the society. There is, therefore, a strong need to understand the male factor that predispose given individuals to violence compared to others. Most importantly, since the emotional and physical violence is the two most common types of violence associated with domestic violence, the concern that arises is the role of women in predisposing themselves to the abusive relationship since despite being exposed to such harmful relationship, women sometimes find it very difficult to disengage and move on.
Domestic Violence from Psychoanalytic Perspective
Metz, Jérémy, and Anne (1-8) further attempted to apply the psychoanalytic approach in the understanding why the women would not separate from the relationships that predispose them to harm due to the domestic violence. Unlike the above study by Nadda et al. that explored the role of men as major contributing factors to domestic violence, this study analyzed the intrinsic and unconscious factors within women that made it relatively very difficult to separate from abusive partners. The psychic factors that make women less likely to associate with the kind of relationship that the women had in their immediate families. Women unable to move out of abusive relationships were in most cases coming from families associated with infantile relationship difficulties. Some of these women were at the time rejected by their families, and in most cases, they were exposed to marital violence where they would see their mothers falling victims of domestic violence. Lastly, the mothers were not supportive of these women. These family factors predisposed them to a violent environment (Metz, Jérémy and Anne, 3).
Furthermore, the traumatic experience that such women had gone through put them in more risk of staying in an abusive relationship characterized by domestic violence (Metz, Jérémy and Anne, 4). Having lived through the traumatic experience, the women tend to develop unreal hope that they would be able to repair their marriages. The culture of submission and dependency compounds these supernatural elements. In most instances, the women who were brought up the highly submissive environment to their parents will extend the same submission to their husbands. Adding to the dependence that some women have in their marital relationships, it becomes challenging to separate from the relation. The essence and relevance of these findings are that the nature of the infantile relationships that women undergo while a kid has a significant impact in defining whom they become in future. Growing up in an environment characterized by domestic violence and poor relations with her parents imply that the women will grow up used to violence. Despite the repetitive harm that she may be faced in adult life, it will be difficult to separate from the abusive relationship (Metz, Jérémy and Anne, 4). The study provides new insights into the role of women psychic as influential subconscious factors that predispose them to violence. It, therefore, provides a narrative that point to both the women and men as part of the domestic violence problem.
Goldner finally unmasked the problem associated with the treating of an abusive relationship and inquires whether it is possible to create a safer relationship to women which are equally less threatening to men. While the study keenly discusses the therapeutic relationship that is ideal for the couples in the abusive relationships, it, among other issues, points to the role of the patriarchal values in the creation of intimate violence. A clear correlation exists between the patriarchal norms and the habit of wife beating. Specifically, in instances where women have a lower educational, political, institutional as well as legal positions are significantly lower, wife beating tends to be on the rise (Goldner, 351). On the other hand, when this status is higher, the incidence of wife beating significantly decline (351-352). The study further debunks on whether males are the primary aggressors in domestic violence or if the women also play some role in the process. Women as just as violent as males, however in a heterogeneous relationship, men are almost always the aggressors in a relationship characterized with high incidences of domestic violence (352).
Due to the growing aggression of males towards the women in marital and other intimate relationships, the family is no longer a haven for the women (Goldner, 347). The women are more exposed to harm from those they love that they are from the public or in streets. In these cases, the women remain more prone to physical and emotional harm than the males. More women are physically hurt and even killed in violence that erupts during the relationship or in the process of trying to end one. While the cause of the domestic violence is attributed to at least both gender, the asymmetrical effect of gender violence on women raise key questions (Goldner, 348). This study provides an elaborate overview that goes beyond the moral framework that works when dealing with such cases by providing an exploration into the cause and impact of this violence. It is clear that in most cases, both couples play some role in the development of aggression. However, being that the women are always on the receiving end, and in the process becoming more at risk of the harms that result from this violence, points to the fact that domestic violence deeply borrows from the power structure in a patriarchal society which promotes the dominance of women by the males. Domestic violence, therefore, can be seen as a tool for dominance and suppression that in the end, disproportionately affect more women than the men.
In conclusion, domestic violence, while having a range of causes with the women and men factor playing a critical role in defining it, disproportionately affect women than males. In most instances, the men are the main aggressors of domestic violence. However, there are psychic factors specific to women that contribute to the development of the problem. Mainly, an infantile relationship characterized by violence put the women at risk of tolerating more harm as they try to make the abusive relationship work. Most significant forms of violence associated with this violence are the emotional and physical violence which lead to emotional and physical harms. The domestic violence, therefore, remains a critical issue that requires additional inquiry to understand completely.
Goldner, Virginia. “When love hurts: Treating abusive relationships.” Psychoanalytic Inquiry 24.3 (2004): 346-372.
Metz, Claire, Jérémy Calmet, and Anne Thevenot. “Women subjected to domestic violence: The impossibility of separation.” Psychoanalytic Psychology (2018).
Nadda, Anuradha, et al. “Study of domestic violence among currently married females of Haryana, India.” Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 40.6 (2018): 534.
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