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Initial assessment are carried out prior to instruction to establish the basis from which the individual growth of the student can be measured. The purpose of this type of assessment is to know the skill level of the student about a project and in helping the teacher explaining material more efficiently. Examples are application forms, interviews and diagnostic tests.
Formative assessment is carried out throughout the project. The purpose of formative assessment is to aid learning and provide the teacher with feedback of the work of the students. Examples are verbal and written questions, worksheets, practical activities and observations.
Summative assessment is carried out at the end of the project and are evaluative in nature. The purpose of summative assessment is to assign a grade to the students, to summarize the students have learnt and in finding out if they understood well. Examples are written and verbal examinations, assignments, presentations and multiple choice test.
Diagnostic assessment has the purpose to improve the experience of the learner and their achievement level. It is carried out before the course or programme and is used to check that the students has the necessary skills or knowledge to participate in the course or programme.
Holistic assessment helps understand a range of competencies all at once and is the result of day-to-day observations of the teacher. Important insights into the abilities, inabilities and misconceptions of the students can be learnt.

1.2 Describe the characteristics of different methods of assessment in education and training.

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Methods of assessment can be: observation, multiple-choice questions, case studies, and questions techniques. Assessment can be written, oral, formal and informal.
Teacher and trainers can observe the learners in anytime, during the lesson, and, is a good way to taste attitudes and knowledges with exercises or complete some tasks. Learners can learn and improve from their mistakes and teachers and trainers should ask them if they realise them.
Multiple-choice question includes a clear question and multiple possible answers, but just one will be correct.
To obtain a great result and don’t stress too much the learners a positive attitude is always request from the teachers and trainers. Listening skills, sharing goals and give constructive feedback will help the learners to improve their own skills and carry on with the next step of the programme.
1.3 Compare the strengths and limitations of different assessment methods in relation to meeting individual learning needs.
Assessment method Description Strengths Weaknesses
Case studies A case study can be used to assess a learner’s ability to apply material learned to a specific individual / organization. May be simple or complex, and responses might be short answer or deep analysis depending on the level. They are valuable in that they may allow the student to apply understanding to real world situations. Care does need to be taken to ensure that the level of detail presented in a case study is appropriate. Too much or too little detail and the case study may not be level appropriate or students may be guided to appropriate answers.
Group assignment Often group assignments are simply a group of people working individually on specified aspects of an assignment. In their truest sense a group assignment should be set because the assessment requires the demonstration of interpersonal communication and collaborative skills. Used effectively a group assignment will demonstrate a learners’ ability to synthesize group understanding and work with others to create a group product. Also useful where a practical task takes more than one person to complete. Clarity must be provided for how marks will be assigned to the group, especially in a situation where one member carries, or weakens the group. Care must be taken with the makeup of the groups so that one group is not advantaged or disadvantaged.
Practical A practical application of learned skills. Often the learner will complete a practical process or construct something demonstrating and applying learned skills. Useful to assess practical skills where the assessment is the learner completing or applying those skills. Care must be taken to ensure the learner is ready to be assessed and that the assessment itself does not put the learner in danger. Clear criteria must be established

1.4 Explain how different assessment methods can be adapted to meet individual learning needs.

Assessments have changed and adapted to ensure that they meet the needs of all learners. Assessments should cater for all learning styles and shouldn’t in any way discourage or inhibit the learning process.
Some learners will naturally take longer to come up with a written / verbal answer to a given question. This can be complicated further when medical conditions such as Dyslexia and Dyspraxia are taken into consideration. Learners can be helped by allowing them more time to complete assessments, coursework and homework.
Learners suffering with a physical disability may use a scribe to help them get their thoughts onto paper.
Many awarding / exam bodies give learners the opportunity to answer questions verbally rather than in written form. This gives no unfair advantage and does not discriminate against those who may have writing / reading difficulties.
As some learners may struggle in examinations many courses now offer predominately coursework based assessments that give these types of learners the best chance of prospering.

2. Understand how to involve learners and others in the assessment process
2.1 Explain why it is important to involve learners and others in the assessment process.

Involving learners in the assessment process will provide transparency, which means that the learner will understand the actual criteria, or standard, and how the assessment decisions are made. Once the learner is able to understand the assessment requirements, they can suggest and contribute in to planning the assessment: this will enhance student’s engagement and motivation. Last but not least involving the student in the assessment allows learning through the process of re-examining their own work.
Other professional are involved as well in the assessment process for quality assurance purposes and standardisation.

2.2 Explain the role and use of peer and self-assessment in the assessment process.

Self and Peer Assessment will enhance students’ active engagement with their studies, increase the amount of feedback students receive, augment learning as peer feedback invariably requires explanation and justification. Research has shown that learners make more progress when they are actively involved in their own learning and assessment.
It is important to ensure that ground rules are set and clear instructions are given when peer assessing (i.e. to ensure constructive feedback peer assessments could follow a set structure, which will note strengths as well as areas needing improvement).
The focus is on providing opportunities for learners to be able to identify what constitutes a good piece of work rather than actually generating their own grades.

2.3 Identify sources of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process.

The following types of information should be made available:
standards and criteria for the assessment
types of evidence required and methods to be used
practical arrangements
how feedback will be given
assessment outcomes and records

3. Understand the role and use of constructive feedback in the assessment process
3.1 Describe key features of constructive feedback.

Constructive feedback should be: Timely, specific, supportive, relevant, informative, accurate and understandable. It should highlight and strengthen good performance, delineate poor performance, provide remedial action plans and involve two parties; preferably working together.

3.2 Explain how constructive feedback contributes to the assessment process.

Constructive feedback creates opportunities for building students confidence and motivation changing the way they might feel about the assessment process. It does help identify areas of improvement and creates focus on learning outcomes and objectives.

3.3 Explain ways to give constructive feedback to learners.

“I realized that the most powerful single influence enhancing achievement is feedback”. (Hattie, 1987)
To help deliver constructive feedback, different structure models have been developed:
Medal and Mission – Medal is information about what the learner has done well; Mission is information on abaut what the learner need to improve or correct. Clear goals needs to be given in relation to this approach to feedback.
Praise sandwich – Model developed to reduce any unpleasantness when giving someone negative feedback. This is done by praising the individual, then stating the criticism and ending with some compliments.

4. Understand the requirements for keeping records of assessment in education and training.
4.1 Explain the need to keep records of assessment of learning.
There are many reasons for keeping records of assessments; these can be summarized in three main categories:
– For quality assurance (internal or from external regulators or awarding bodies)
– For students benefit (he can examine progress made through recorded evidence, request a duplicate in case of loss)
– For tutors benefit (to examine students progress from start to finish throughout the course or in case of a student’s appeals an assessment)

4.2 Summarise the requirements for keeping records of assessment in an organisation.
Record must be up to date, clear, factual, legible, accurate and need to be backed-up to prevent loss.
Teachers and trainers can received the visit from the awarding bodies and regulators, that organised an inspection to see the documentation that is stored to assess the organisation’s quality assurance system.
Internal and external organisation need to follow the confidentiality policy, Data Protection
Act ( 1998 ), Freedom of Information Act ( 2000 ) and Equality and Diversity Act ( 2010 ).

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