In the documentary, The Artist is Present by Marina Abramovic located at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 2010 represented the aura from an interaction between Abramovic and the audience; where each individual had a chance to sit across and made eye contact within each other’s company in silence. From this live performance, everyone had their own experience, which could not be manipulated and replaced. Furthermore, the emotions from an individual could change according to the anticipation while they waited for their turn and visually examined the process throughout the silence interaction. This connects the live performance to the concept from the article, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction published in the Schocken Books in 1969, journalist Walter Benjamin states how his concept of the aura means originality and this documentary established a relationship between Abramovic and influenced each individual’s experience from the live performance. Benjamin described “the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of art” (Benjamin, 4) by the statue-like posture from Abramovic; however, the transition from the first interaction of individuals participated in the live performance compared to the last would lose the meaning of authenticity as time passed.
In similarity, Marilyn Diptych, 1967 illustrated by Andy Warhol demonstrates the aura by displaying a repetition of the same print in different forms from the layer of black ink applied on top compared to the original. Although each print was a replica, the results were different from the original, which characterized as unreproducible, and the historical background from the portrait of Diptych represented her personality as an artist. The print would process slowly until it faded away, which created an effect of uneven texture on the surface. Moreover, this has changed the mechanical reproduction by the numerous manipulation from the ink that allowed the original print to become less vivid in colours and lost the idea of characteristics that was portrayed from the portrait of Diptych.
In the film, Ritual in Transfigured Time directed by Maya Deren in 1946, she demonstrated the medium of film and her concept, which allowed the audience to have a clear understanding of her use of methods. This film represented a sense of evolution in time that allowed the audience to experience a new perspective to view moving images and connect to what a digital world would be interpreted as. In this film analysis, the concept of tonal and rhythmic montage along with the use of kinko-eye represented in the Ritual in Transfigured Time conducted by Deren would be discussed between the connection of how the film is presented as a form of art to demonstrate the transition in time and space.
At the beginning of the film, there was a contrast between the use of space and how a woman used her body to mirror herself that portrayed as an individual performance. In similarity, time played a role in how she reflected her actions previously as a silent interaction that created a sense of belonging from the surroundings. This scene represented a relation to the article, Kinkos The Revolution, published in University of California Press (1984), author Dziga Vertox states that the camera established a new perspective that the naked eyes could not interpret and how the artist used the camera lens could perfect the results of a film by experimenting with different angles. Moreover, in the scene where a man stood still like a statue who was about to jump from the top of a platform; compared to a woman running away demonstrated how the kinko-eye challenged the perspective to trick the audience thinking about the transition between the foreground and the movement between the two characters. Furthermore, with the use of technology nowadays, artists filter and alter change according to their preferences for the final result. From this film, Deren chose the monochromatic filter and the silent audio adjustments, which developed how motion picture represented her aesthetic in the approach she used to identify the experiences from the protagonist’s role focusing on her reaction and response. The form of the film was categorized as multilingualism of art expressed in motion picture and it would be easy for the audience to interpret through “the overall context of the scene and the non-verbal images” (Meylaerts, R., Serban, 11), which would be different from another form of art because of the visual presentation in moving images.
In the article, Methods of Montage published in A Harvest/ HBJ Book, journalist Sergei Eisenstein defined the use of “tonal montage” as the transformation of movements in each separate frames. This also expressed how rhythmic montage would create guidance to visualize how moving images would direct the audience’s eyes in the form of the subject. From this film, it established a connection of how Deren used the concept to manipulate the illusion of action, and the duration of each frame to suit the appropriate scene. For example, in the scene at the dance floor people would around with different partners in the pace of their liking, there was a pause in between which showed the “rhythmic montage” demonstrated in the next scene to connect in contrast of three women dancing.
In conclusion, the methods of perception were examined to show the relation between the duration of the film and how it connected Deren’s concepts discussed in the examples to represent a new thinking in the form of art.