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In May 1945 the Second War came to an end and Churchill would be known to the British people as one of the main responsible for the allied victory, and by this time he was convinced that the Soviet Union was as great a threat to Europe as Nazi Germany in 1939. Churchill believed that World War III should have begun on the first day of July 1945, but his plan was rejected by the British armed forces. Churchill would lose the general elections of July of 1945 assuming a chair in the British parliament, this time in the rule of opposition. Churchill was an active voice in the British parliament against the spread of communism in Europe by considering a terrible threat.
In 1946 on a visit to the United States came the term “iron curtain” referring to the frontier that the part of the Second World War divided Eastern and Western Europe. While the former was under the control of the Soviet Union, the latter was the zone of influence of the United States. The period related to this political and economic division is called the Cold War. Churchill speech put an end to the alliance that defeated Germany in the war and that led to the division of Europe into two parts of areas of different political and economic influences: the capitalist zone and the communist zone. Eastern Europe was under political influence and control of the Soviet Union, while Western Europe was under the domination of the United States.
At the time, the expression was a metaphor for the Soviet influence in the region and emphasized the separatist regime in the economy that existed between Eastern Europe and the capitalist economy. The antagonism between the Soviet Union and the West that came to be described as the “iron curtain” had several origins, including events dating back to the Russian Revolution of 1917, disagreements during and immediately after the Second World War, and various annexations of Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union.
The Iron Curtain refers specifically to the imaginary line dividing Europe between Soviet influence and Western influence and symbolizes the efforts of the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with Western and non-Soviet areas. On both sides of the Iron Curtain, the states developed their own international military alliances, is the Warsaw Pact (A collective defense treaty between the Soviet Union and seven other Soviet satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe during the War Cold War) and NATO
Years later, this metaphor became reality with the construction of walls protected by Soviet military. Physically, the Iron Curtain took the form of border defenses between the countries of Europe in the middle of the continent, most notably the Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall was a concrete wall that began to be built in the city of Berlin and divided Germany physically and ideologically, from 1961 to 1989, into two parts.
On August 13, 1961, Walter Ulbricht, then president of the eastern side of Germany, ordered troops and army vehicles to make a barrier that prevented the passage of any civilian. The construction of the Berlin Wall became a major symbol of the Cold War because it divided German territory into West Germany, which concentrated liberal capitalist democracies and East Germany, where several communist states were located. The eastern part of the country claimed that the construction of the wall was aimed at protecting its population from fascist elements that conspired against the will of the people to build a socialist state in the eastern part of Germany. The German side that was under Soviet control was experiencing serious economic and social difficulties, and for this reason, many people tried to flee to the west side.
Germany was divided into 4 occupation sectors after World War II: Soviet, American, French and English. The three western sectors (American, French and English) were governed by capitalism and the Eastern (Soviet) sector, followed socialism. East Germany was under the influence of the USSR and West Germany, under the influence of the United States, countries that at that moment in history represented the two main world powers. The eastern part was mostly agricultural and was not prepared to put into practice the plans established by the USSR after the war.
A series of events during and after World War II exacerbated tensions, including the Soviet-German pact during the first two years of the war that led to subsequent invasions, the perceived delay of an amphibious invasion of German-occupied Europe, the support of western allies of the Atlantic Charter, disagreement in war conferences on the fate of Eastern Europe, the creation by the Soviets of an Eastern Bloc of Soviet satellite states, the Western Allies dismantling the Morgenthau Plan to support the rebuilding of German industry and the Marshall Plan Churchill also mentioned in his speech that the regions under Soviet control were expanding their influence and power without any restraint. He said that to curb this phenomenon, the dominant force and strong unity between the United Kingdom and the United States were necessary. Much of the Western public still saw the Soviet Union as a close ally in the context of the recent defeat of Nazi Germany and Japan.
Although not well received at the time, the iron curtain phrase gained popularity as an abbreviated reference to the division of Europe as the Cold War strengthened. The Iron Curtain served to keep people in and out of the information, and people all over the West came to accept the metaphor.
Stalin took notice of Churchill’s speech and then responded to Pravda (the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union). He accused Churchill of warmongering and defended Soviet “friendship” with the Eastern European countries as a necessary protection against another invasion. He further accused Churchill of hoping to install right-wing governments in Eastern Europe to stir those states against the Soviet Union.
In the same speech, Churchill also said that it was necessary to prevent another catastrophe such as Nazi-fascism from destroying Europe again. He was referring to communism. In response, Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, stated that the Soviet casualties during the war had been much greater than the British or North American, and that it was therefore the Soviets that Europe should thank for the liberation of Nazi-fascism.

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