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In 2015, cancer caused over 8.7 million deaths worldwide and was the second leading cause of mortality behind cardiovascular diseases (Mortality and Causes of Death 2016). Even though these remarkable numbers are testimony that the “war on cancer” has not been won, latest developments in personalized medicine and novel treatment approaches like immunotherapy have raised hope of considerably improving cancer survival (Hanahan 2014, Grady 2016, Lowy and Collins 2016). The most common 4 cancer types diagnosed lobally: lung, female breast, bowel (anus) and prostate; account for more than 42% of all new cancer cases and nearly half of all cancer related deaths (Ferlay, Soerjomataram et al. 2015).
An estimated 7.4 million males were diagnosed with cancer globally in 2012. Lung cancer was the most common, being almost a fifth (17%) of all cases diagnosed. Worldwide, prostate cancer was the second most common cancer diagnosed in males (15%). Cancers of bowel, stomach and liver are the remaining of the five most common cancers in male worldwide, accounting for 10%, 9% and 7% of the male total, respectively. Among females, an estimated 6.7 million females were diagnosed with cancer worldwide in 2012. Breast cancer was the most common, accounting for a 25% of all cases diagnosed. Bowel cancer was as the second most common cancer diagnosed in females worldwide (9%). Worldwide lung, cervical and stomach cancers are the remaining of the five most common cancers in females, accounting for 9%, 8% and 5% of the total female , respectively (Ferlay, Soerjomataram et al. 2015).

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