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HYPERLINK “http://mdx.mrooms.net/login/index.php?authCAS=CAS” o “” “”_blank”” PRS3421 Management and Law
Mo Torabi(UK)
Zhakatayeva Gulnazik M00690320Introduction
In this essay, I am going to write about effective laws to prevent accidents in the workplace. An accident is damage to a machine, machine tool, equipment, building, or structure. Accidents occur at the utility and energy networks and industrial enterprises. If these incidents are not so significant and did not entail serious human victims, they are usually classified as accidents. A catastrophe is a major accident with large human victims, i.e. an event with very tragic consequences. The main purpose of the task is to write about the laws that prevent accidents.
The main objectives of the task:Determine the causes of an accident at work
Identify laws that will be effective to prevent accidents in the workplace

The main causes of accidents in the workplace:
• deviation from the requirements of design and technological documentation;
• violation of the repair regulations;
• unsatisfactory technical condition of the equipment;
• inefficiency of production control;
• careless or unauthorized actions of contractors;
• improper organization of work.

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Technical reasons for occupational accidents can be described as causes depending on the “imperfection” of technological processes, design flaws and the technical condition of equipment, buildings and structures, tools and means of collective and individual protection, insufficient mechanization of heavy work, including imperfections of fences, safety devices, means of signaling and blocking; the presence of strength defects in materials and structural wear; previously unknown dangerous properties of substances used, etc. These reasons are also called design or engineering.

Closely adjacent to them, forming a kind of subgroup, violations of sanitary and hygienic standards, which include increased (above MAC) content in the air of working areas of harmful substances, insufficient or irrational lighting, elevated noise levels, vibrations, adverse meteorological conditions; the presence of different radiations above the allowable values, etc.

The organizational causes of occupational accidents depend entirely on the level of work organization in the workplace and in the enterprise as a whole. These include: deficiencies in the maintenance of the territory, passages, aisles; violation of the rules of operation of equipment, vehicles, tools; shortcomings in the organization of jobs; violation of technological regulations; violation of the rules and regulations of transportation, storage and storage of materials and products; violation of the rules and regulations of preventive maintenance of equipment, vehicles and tools; shortcomings in the training of workers in safe labor practices; shortcomings in the organization of group work; poor technical supervision of hazardous work; the use of machines, mechanisms and tools for other purposes; absence or imperfection of fences of work places; absence, malfunction or non-use of personal protective equipment, etc.

( HYPERLINK “https://websot.jimdo.com/%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5/%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9-%D0%BA%D1%83%D1%80%D1%81/%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5-%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4%D1%8B-%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%8B-%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%87%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BD%D1%8B%D1%85-%D1%81%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B0%D0%B5%D0%B2-%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5/” https://websot.jimdo.com/%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5/%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9-%D0%BA%D1%83%D1%80%D1%81/%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B5-%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4%D1%8B-%D0%B8-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%8B-%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%87%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BD%D1%8B%D1%85-%D1%81%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%87%D0%B0%D0%B5%D0%B2-%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5/ )
Psychophysical causes. These can conditionally include the physical and neuropsychic overloads of the worker. A person may commit erroneous actions due to fatigue caused by large physical (static and dynamic) overloads, mental overstrain, analyzer overvoltage (visual, auditory, tactile), monotony of labor, stressful situations, painful condition. The incompatibility of the anatomical, physiological and mental characteristics of the human body with the nature of the work can lead to injury. In modern complex technical systems, in the design of machines, instruments and control systems, the physiological, psychophysiological, psychological and anthropometric features and capabilities of a person are still not sufficiently taken into account.

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Evaluate which laws are the most effective at achieving accident
To determine which law would be effective in preventing accidents in the workplace, these laws were examined:
The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSW Act)
The law defines the general responsibilities of employers, workers, contractors, suppliers and materials for use in production, persons controlling work premises, and those who manage and maintain them, and people in general. That is, it requires employers to ensure the safety of all workers, and the adoption of measures to control risks
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
This law considers the organization of a safe workplace of employees. That is, it includes taking measures for prevention, consultation, training, medical care, etc.

The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
This is a statutory document, which stipulates the general requirements for standards for all workplaces. The law introduced a directive on the minimum requirements for occupational safety and health at work.

In the beginning, the main causes of the accident at the workplace were identified. Therefore, to prevent accidents, need to control the causes, for this, we will review the laws.

Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (HSW Act)
The aim of the HSWA is to ensure practical compliance and help organizations understand and implement an ‘organizational intent’ to support health and safety.

In particular the requirement, for a health and safety policy enables the safety management structure to be publicized so all employees know how health and safety is dealt with.

The law speaks of the duty of all employees, including employers, to ensure security. But in the reasons we have psychophysical reasons. That is, people can not prevent all the risks that may cause an accident later. Because the human factor is one of the reasons. If a responsible person makes a mistake in explaining, it can lead to serious consequences. That is, it is impossible to prevent an accident only with the execution of the policy.

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
The main requirement of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations is that employers must carry out risk assessments to eliminate or reduce risks. Employers with five or more employees need to record the significant findings of a risk assessment.
In this you can find employers responsibilities for security organization:
1. To ensure the safety of workers in the operation of equipment and the implementation of technical processes. (Regulation 5 Health and safety arrangements)
2. Ensure the use of personal protective equipment and collective protection.( Regulation 19 Protection of young persons)
3. Ensure compliance with labor protection requirements at each workplace. (Regulation 8 Procedures for serious and imminent danger and for danger areas)
4. To ensure the regime of work and rest.

5. Instructing on labor protection.(Regulation 13 Capabilities and training)
6. Verification of knowledge of labor protection requirements.

7. To ensure the organization of control over the state of working conditions at workplaces, as well as the correctness of the use of personal and collective protection.( Regulation 19 Protection of young persons)
8. Ensure timely investigation of accidents and documentation of the investigation.( Regulation 9 Contacts with external services)
9. To ensure the conduct of mandatory preliminary and periodic inspections at the expense of the organization. (Regulation 11 Co-operation and co-ordination)
Employee Responsibilities 🙁 Regulation 14 Employees’ duties)
1. Comply with labor protection requirements;2. It is correct to apply means of individual protection;3. Pass training, briefing and testing knowledge of labor protection requirements;4. Immediately notify your work manager about any situation that threatens the life or health of people;
5. Go through preliminary medical examinations.

Assessment of the law: Basically, there is a review of the organization of safety at the workplace and clearly defined responsibilities of the employer and workers. You can also find information about ensuring security using personal and collective means of protection. There were also indicated about the internship of workers and the work of future mothers, providing medical examination of all workers.
The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
These regulations set out the physical conditions in the workplace and require employers to meet minimum standards for a wide range of issues which include:
Maintenance of buildings and equipment
LightingProvision of drinking waterTemperature
Rest facilities (including that for pregnant women and nursing mothers)
VentilationToilet facilitiesRoom dimensions and space?leanlinessCondition of floors and traffic routes.

This regulation specifies safety standards for technical reasons for an accident at the workplace. If you comply with all standards in accordance with the regulations, you can prevent accidents at the workplace. Because these regulations were created in the minimum standards, and in accordance with human workability.
Take as an example one of the technical causes of an accident in the workplace: “imperfection” of technological processes
Safety requirements for “imperfection” of technological processes
The machine and (or) equipment can be adjusted and maintained without endangering people under the conditions specified by the manufacturer.

 In the design and manufacture of machines and (or) equipment, the responsible persons:
a) Eliminate or reduce the danger;b) Take measures to protect against danger;c) Inform consumers about protective measures, indicate whether special training is required, and determine the need for protective equipment.

3. When designing and producing machines and (or) equipment, as well as developing guidelines (instructions) for operating a machine and (or) equipment, the likelihood of an unacceptable risk of operating machines and (or) equipment is taken into account.

4. If as a result of unacceptable operation a danger may arise, the design of the machine and (or) equipment should prevent such operation. If this is not possible, the user’s manual (s) draws the attention of the consumer to such situations.

5. When designing and manufacturing a machine and (or) equipment, ergonomic principles are used to reduce the effects of discomfort, fatigue and psychological stress of personnel to the lowest possible level.

6. When designing and producing a machine and (or) equipment, restrictions imposed on the actions are taken into account.

The same requirements can be found in Maintenance of workplace, and of equipment, devices and systems (regulation 5). It means that if you follow all the rules in this law, you can prevent an accident. That is, this law can be effective in preventing accidents.

This law is not only effective in preventing technical problems. Also for others such as:
Ventilation (Ventilation Regulation 6)
Lighting (Lighting Regulation 8)
Microclimate parameters (Temperature in indoor workplaces Regulation 7)
Sanitation (Sanitary conveniences Regulation 20, Washing facilities Regulation 21)
Organization safety work (Organisation etc of traffic routes Regulation 17, Escalators and moving walkways Regulation 19)
Psychophysiological state of a person (Facilities for rest and to eat meals Regulation 25)
?ssessment of the law: This law describes all the requirements concerning the workplace. In order to provide an employee with a safe workplace, it is necessary to take into account all the causes of the accident. The law covers all causes of the accident, all problems and requirements for them were taken into account
Conclusion
For writing this essay, I built a plan. First, I outlined what the reasons may create an accident in the workplace. According to my research, there were mainly three reasons: Technical, organizational, Psychophysiological reasons. In order to understand which laws can be effective in preventing accidents, I reviewed three Acts:
The first law was less effective because in this law duties were given to politics. That is, this law says that adherence to policies can prevent an accident.

The second law is effective only for the organizational causes of the accident. Above, I pointed out exactly which the requirements are written in the law. That is, this law says that a good organization of a safe workplace can prevent an accident.

The third law is more effective. Because it covers all the causes of accidents. That is, to prevent accidents you need to follow this law. Moreover, it will be effective.

To check this, I took as an example one of the reasons and made up the security requirement in this particular area (the law of other countries took the example). In addition, as it turned out, these requirements were the same in this law.

References:
http://www.safework4you.com/download/l21_management_of_health_and_safety_at_work.pdfhttps://revolution.allbest.ru/life/00669176_0.html
http://www.mvif.ru/texnicheskij-reglament-o-bezopasnosti-mashin-i-oborudovaniya
https://www.atl.org.uk/advice-and-resources/health-and-safety/health-and-safety-legislation
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/priced/l24.pdfhttp://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1974/37/contents
http://www.hse.gov.uk/PuBns/hsc13.pdf
(http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/priced/l24.pdf )
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1974/37/contents
http://www.hse.gov.uk/PuBns/hsc13.pdf
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg225.pdf

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