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During puberty, hormones released make adolescence grow and changes internally including high emotions and sexual desires. Hormones regulate hunger sleep mood stress sexual desire immunity reproduction and many other bodily reactions including puberty. Menarche is a girl’s menstrual period and the beginning of ovulation. This usually happens around 12 years old, but it varies with every person. Girls usually reach puberty before boys. Menarche is girl’s menstrual period which usually happens at the age 12. In most cultures, this means a change in social and sexual status. Stress triggers puberty faster so if they do not have a good home life they tend to start puberty faster than other teens. Adolescents tend to go to their friends because they can share what they are going through and it makes them feel normal like they are not alone going through this tough time. This causes more conflict with parents as the adolescent becomes emotionally distance. They are likely to have more problems with authority. This is a challenging time for teens as well as for parents. Parents should offer support but at the same time give them space and respect their privacy. Spermarche is the boys first ejaculation of sperm where sperm production usually happens in a wet dream. During adolescence, they have a growth spurt first of weight then height then muscles. Hair is a display of sexuality or independence. Skin becomes more oily and sweatier which can cause acne during adolescence.

Adolescents do not always get enough vitamins or minerals and have diet deficiencies. Body image is a huge concern and how they think they look to others is important. This results in eating disorders which are a dissatisfaction with their body image. One type of eating disorder is anorexia nervosa. Adolescents with anorexia have a low body weight and an intense fear of weight gain and have a disturbed body perception. Another eating disorder is bulimia nervosa also called binge-purge syndrome. They have uncontrollable urges to overeat compulsively then purging by vomiting or taking laxatives. Body shape and weight are how they think of themselves. Body image concerns make teen girls skip meals and boys to take steroids. During adolescence, self-consciousness heightens. They constantly are thinking intensely about themselves and what others think of them. Teens think they are special, unique, and more significant socially. Adolescence thinks everyone else’s behavior is about them. Many teens react quickly, take risks, and learn from mistakes They think fate decides what will happen to them when taking risks and they survive makes them feel invincible. When emotions are intense especially when friends are nearby the logical part of the brain shuts down. Cyberbullying happens a lot more because of social media and with use of technology. Technology rumors and insults spread quicker and further.

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Adolescents think more logically and understand abstract concepts. They have a hypothetical-deductive reasoning ability where they think of possibilities not just reality. They think beyond the present and form theories about everything. They begin to use deductive reasoning from a general statement or principle through the logical step to figure out specifics and intuitive thinking become stronger. The brain has two regions one is emotional and the other is for analytical processing. Regions dedicated to emotional arousal mature before those that regulate and rationalize emotion. Secondary education like middle school or junior high achievements those down so behavioral problems increased they seek acceptance from peers more and pulling gets worse. Appearance is very important and sexual conquests where boys like to brag, and girls get older boyfriend students need the challenges and involvement teachers can create small groups, debates, or presentations because adolescents like to hear what each other thinks.

The teenage sexual activity involves sexual intercourse and other sexual acts in adolescents younger than 20 years of age. Concerns about teenage sexual activity are sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, and early parenthood. Children born to teenage mothers are at greater risk to have health problems. Factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy are peer pressure, need to belong, and sexual content. Teenage girls have sex because they want to feel loved and boys have sex because it feels good and they can brag about it to make them cooler. The risky behaviors among teenagers with sex are that there is little information provided on contraceptives and not taught in schools. Some ways to help with teenage pregnancy is to increase the age an adolescent has their first sexual intercourse and lower number of adolescents sexually active. Sexual education programs can help with discussion of abstinence, contraception, and STDs. Getting them to use protection if sexually active. One way to encourage abstinence, delay initiation of sexual activity, and responsible contraception for those who choose to be sexually active is an approach to prevention. Some federal programs have actively tried to restrict rather than increase access to reproductive services. Parents should be more involved with teens sexual activity which can help stop participation in sexual activity, give access to contraceptives and strengthen future life goals. It is difficult for teens to access contraceptive health care services and pay for birth control products. Contraceptive services need parental approval but, treatment for STDs is allowed for minors without consent.

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