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Define the following terms.

Equality – Equality means that everyone in your setting has equal opportunities, regardless of their abilities, their background or their lifestyle and treating everyone with fairness and respect and recognizing the needs of the individual and ensuring individuals are not treated differently or less favourably, on the basis of their specific protected characteristic, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation or age. Because we all have at least one of these characteristics we are all protected under the Equality Act 2010. Equality allows for the freedom of choice – under no condition should that choice be shamed or criticized. We have to ensure the service user remains in control of what happens to them and ensure that they are fully involved in any decision that affects their care, including personal decisions, such as what to eat, what to wear and what time to go to bed. We can’t assume that service users are not able to make their own decisions. We should take time to understand and know the person and treat them all service users as equals, ensuring they remain in control of what happens them and making sure they have access to jargon-free information about services when they want or need it. Equality supports the legal framework that protects against discrimination and promotes equal opportunity.
Diversity – Diversity means appreciating the differences between people and treating people’s values, beliefs, cultures, environment, customs, religious views, lifestyles, gender, rare, etc. with respect as everyone is different, because we all have our own characteristics and are talented in some areas. We have to recognize that people from different backgrounds often have different ways of communicating. This is vital to understanding medical information with colleagues or explaining health care issues to service users. Having patience with others who don’t speak your language, and making sure to ensure important information is being accurately conveyed. We also have to understand that people from different religious backgrounds often have religiously-based convictions about delivery of health care services. We have to respect the health care choices of others, even if they are not choices we would recommend or select for ourselves. Many cultures view Western medicine as overly-aggressive and prefer less invasive approaches to medicine. We need to take time to fully explain terminology and procedures to people from culturally diverse backgrounds. And Listen for concerns and elaborate where necessary to ensure the service user and there family understand the medical issue at hand as well as options for treatment. After you explain options to a service user, gracefully accept their decision without intervention. And after discussing the equality and diversity needs together with the service user, explain these equality and diversity needs in the care plan section and look at what procedures and adjustments you can implement or that already exist in the care setting to support these needs. And detail the specific arrangements that are in place in the care setting to promote the service user’s equality and diversity. Equality and diversity are essential components of health and social care. Good equality and diversity practise make sure that the services provided to people are fair and accessible to everyone. They ensure that people are treated as equals and that people get the dignity and respect they deserve and that their differences are celebrated as a whole in a culture where everyone is valued and accepted for who they are.

Inclusion – Inclusion means that all people regardless of their abilities, disabilities, or health care needs, have the right to be respected and appreciated as valuable members of their communities and participate in recreational activities, so that everyone has the opportunity to take part when they want to. The aim of inclusion is to embrace all people irrespective of race, gender, disability, medical or other need. It is about giving equal access and opportunities and getting rid of discrimination and intolerance so they feel valued, respected and included. It is important to find out what are service users likings so we can meet their needs. These feelings are crucial for the emotional well-being of everyone. In the work place it is very important to include staff and service users. It is important to include new staff into the team work that they don’t feel left out. They need to be introduced to the staff and management. Service user’s needs to be included in daily routine by for example daily activities that suit everyone.
Discrimination – Discrimination which is against the Equality Act is unlawful. This means you take action in the civil courts. Discrimination is the act of treating someone differently or less favourably than someone because of one of the characteristics in the Equality Act. Discrimination can be DIRECT or INDIRECT. Lack of knowledge and understanding are the main reasons behind most discrimination, often careless remarks and thoughtless individual actions can result in unacceptable discriminatory traits such as: STEROTYPING, INAPPROPRIATE LANGUAGE, LABELLING, and PREJUDICE.
Explain how rights are promoted in health and care services.

Staff within the health and social care sector has a duty to promote equality and diversity across all areas of their work, by providing a service that is fair, personalised and diverse. In order to promote equality and diversity it is important that you understand the various pieces of legislation which relate to health and social care.

.The Equality Act 2010
. The Human Rights Act 1998
. The Mental Capacity Act 2005
.The Care Act 2014
Being able to promote equality and diversity in the workplace is important. Without a fundamental understanding of equality and diversity it can be very difficult to actively promote it in the sector. Everyone in your setting needs to be fully understanding of relevant legislation, principles and practices. Without the basic knowledge of equality and diversity, it can be difficult to get people to promote and support it. There are several strategies that you can implement to effectively promote equality and diversity including.

. The development of an equality and diversity policy.. Ensuring that your workforce have read and understand the policy.. Providing all staff with the opportunity to complete equality and diversity training as part of their induction and provide regular refresher training to reflect changes in legislation
. Promoting individual requirements and developing tailored care plans. Making sure the care plans reflect the likes, dislikes, personal history and beliefs of the individual.
. Creating an inclustive culture for all staff and students.. Ensuring equal access to opportunities to enable students to fully participate in the learning process.. Enabling all staff and students to develop to their full potential.. Treating all staff and students fairly.Treating people equally means that you treat them the same, regardless of their race, sex, social status or anything else like that. Equal does not mean that we are all the same. Each of us is different in our own way but we also have the common qualities that make us all humans. So each of us should be treated with respect and dignity and treat others in the same way. Treating people fairly means that you treat them in ways that are most appropriate to their needs. This may mean that you treat them differently than you treat others because they have different needs than others do, in order to take into account their circumstances and enable them to participate on equal terms with everyone else. For example, treating someone with a disability the same as everyone else and not taking into account the impact of their disability on how they do their job or undertake their studies would not be fair treatment.
Equal doesn’t mean that we are all the same. Each of us is different in our own way but we also have the common qualities that make us all humans. So each of us should be treated with respect and dignity and treat others in the same way. And allow people to make choices about the way they live and the care they receive, ensuring they remain in control of what happens to them, and are fully involved in any decision that affects their care, including personal decisions (such as what to eat, what to wear and what time to go to bed) Choice and control are key defining aspects of dignity, and are important to support the maintenance of skills, particularly in a care setting.
The best way to promote equality and diversity is to comply with the health and social care code of conduct which covers, Accountability, promotion, collaborative working, communication, quality and confidentiality. Each of the countries in the UK has a body that is responsible for inspecting all social care facilities to make sure that they are complying with National Minimum Standards and these are:
The Care Quality Commission in England.The Care Commission in Scotland.The Care and Social Services Inspectorate in Wales.The Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority in Northern Ireland.Each of them uses a series of National Minimum Standards in order to inspect the quality of care. There are different sets of standards for different types of services.

The regulatory bodies in the UK have Codes Practice tor both employers in the social care field and for social care workforce. Their job is to assure that rights are promoted this includes respect for individuality and support for people to control their own lives and respect for maintenance of equal opportunities, diversity, and privacy. Establish and maintain the trust and confidence of people and their carers – this means not abusing, neglecting or exploiting people or forming inappropriate personal relationships, not discriminating or condoning discrimination or placing oneself or others at unnecessary risk. Maintaining confidentiality, using effective communication, honouring commitments and agreements, declaring conflicts of interest. Promoting the independence of people while protecting them from danger or harm. It is likely that anyone who works in health and social care will be working within the provisions
of the Human Rights Act which guarantees the rights to : life, freedom from torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, freedom from slavery, liberty and security of person, a fair and public trial within a reasonable time, freedom form retrospective criminal law and no punishment without the law, respect for private and family life, home and correspondence, freedom of thought consistence or religion, , freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and association , marry and found a family, the prohibition of discrimination in the enjoyment of convention rights, peaceful enjoyment of possessions and protection of property, access to education, free elections, not to be subjected to death penalty. It is important to remember that people who we care have the same rights as we do. It is carer’s job to respect people’s privacy and dignity (by that I mean for example not discussing their private
things with others, always treat them with respect and promote good care ) .

Safeguarding is very important part of our job too, protecting residents from harm that could be
done by others or by themselves. Getting to know people we work with will help us protect them and see changes on their body or behaviour that may show us signs of abuse.

Every human being has a right to make their own choices: meal times (there should be at least
two options ) , dressing ( they should be asked what they want to wear) activities (They should be offered at least few options thru the day to suit their liking) .
Every person we care about should have a right to see their medical notes and daily evaluations they have a right to know what medication they are taking or what treatment is provided by home or other professionals. Under the terms of Data Protection Act individuals have a right to access their own health records or personal information about themselves. Access may be limited where information could cause harm to the physical or mental health or condition of the service user/patient, or where information would be disclosed relating to a third person who had not consented. An individual with responsibility for a service user/patient has the right to view the health records, although health professionals must take into account their confidentiality duty. The government has made a commitment that service users/patients should gain access to their health records within 21 days following a request. Access to health records may also be granted in limited circumstances for relatives or in the case of deceased user servicer/patient.

Discuss ethical dilemmas that may arise when balancing individual rights and duty of care.

Conflicts and dilemmas that may arise when balancing individual rights and care could be staff having a difference of opinion over an individual for example. A staff member believing they have signs of abuse and another staff member thinking they don’t. This could lead to conflict between the individual’s family/carers if staff involved other agencies.

Dilemmas could be knowing when to get further help regarding protection and safeguarding issues for example if you didn’t refer the case to other agencies the individual might still continue to suffer abuse. Another dilemma would be knowing when to break confidentiality and share information, if you had concerns about an individual or felt they were at risk you need to need to report it, because it’s always better to be safe than sorry. Other Dilemmas could arise
from, Lack of team work, absent staff, swearing and behaviour, staff falling out.
Healthcare workers have a legal and ethical responsibility to protect the patients they care for. Ethical behaviour or responsibility is doing the right thing for the patient. For example, A service user/patient is critically ill and can’t speak for themselves/dying. The doctors and nurses are turning to you to make to make medical decisions on the patient’s behalf. You don’t know how to decide what to do and could use some guidance, as you want the family member’s wishes to be followed. But the doctors and nurses think it is time to withdraw treatment and let nature do its course, yet the dying patient’s family insist that you “do everything possible “to keep the patient alive. And you’re unclear how to solve this problem and worry that “doing everything” might cause the patient pain and discomfort without offering any benefit or the patient comes from a culture in which it’s considered wrong to tell people that they are dying and you’re unclear how to respond to the family’s request to conceal the truth from the patient. The carer/nurse must consider the patients right to know, because the carer/nurse has an obligation to the patient and the Ethical principles of non maleficence and fidelity. The carers/nurses own value of telling the truth must also considered.
Potential dilemmas could be that sometimes individuals may want to do something which could be a risk to their Health and safety and duty of care means that you must do all that you can to keep them safe but you also have a duty to respect the individuals rights of choice. If the dilemma is your duty of care clashes with the right of an individual by taking away some of their independence then you finds ways, for example if they shouldn’t use a kettle to make a cup of tea due to it not being safe and you stop them then you’re taking away some of their independence but if you ask them to prepare the cup of tea then they gain it back. If you don’t think it’s safe for them to make tea then you should explain to them why they shouldn’t do it and the risks involved but you must remember that some risk is okay. If an individual and the individual’s family want them to do activities but you think it’s not safe then there will be a conflict between staff and the individual’s family. If you don’t know if it’s safe then you’d write a risk assessment for it outlines the risk and the likelihood of this risk happening. Having risk assessments outline the risks of the activity and rate the chance of this happening. This reduces the chance of harm and we also have policies and procedures that give you clear rules and boundaries ensures that staff know how to act within the work setting, this means not behaving in ways that could cause distress or harm to individuals.

2.1 Explain how to promote equality and support diversity.

In order to understand the importance of the effects of placing people in control. We must understand what can happen to the people who feel that they’re powerless in relation to their day to day activities. How much we value ourselves is a result of a combination of factors, but a very important one is the extent of control or power we have over our lives. People who have a positive and confident outlook are more likely to be active and interested in the world around them. It’s easy to see how this can affect someone’s quality of life and reduce their overall health and well being. Have a positive and confident outlook are far likely to be interested and active in the world around them. It’s easy to see how this can affect someone’s quality of life and reduce their overall order to understand the importance of the effects of placing people in control; we must understand what can happen to people who feel that they are powerless in the relation to their day to day activities. How much we value ourselves (our self esteem) is a result of a combination of factors, but a very important one is the one in excent of control, or power we have over our lives. Being able to promote equality and diversity in the workplace is so important. Treating all staff fairly. Creating an inclustive culture for all staff. Ensuring equal access to opportunities to enable staff to fully participate in the learing process and enrichment activities. Helping all staff and students to develop their full potential. All care workers should have a comprehensive understanding of the principles, practices and legislation so they can properly apply them in their day to day activities. Without a fundamental understanding of equality and diversity it in the sector. There are several strategies that you can implement to effectively promote equality and diversity including.

The development of an equality and diversity policy.

Ensuring that your workforce have read and understand policies.

Providing all staff with the opportunity to complete equality and diversity training as part of their induction and providing regular refresher training to reflect changes in legislation.

Promoting individual requirements and developing tailored care plans
By keeping the service users requirements at the forefront of care planning you can provide a tailored package of care which will always be in the best interests of the service user. Care staff should be encouraged to value diversity and respect the attributes that make people different. Individual care plans should be developed to reflect the likes, dislikes, personal history and beliefs of the individual.
At the centre of promoting equality and diversity is the delivery of person centred care all health and social care workers should be committing to upholding these values and implementing them as fully as possible when they are delivering health and social care services. One of the best ways in which you can promote equality and diversify is to comply with the health and social care of conduct. A code of conduct or code of practice will define the standards that health and social care workers must meet to provide the right level of support in health and social care. The code of conduct outlines the following key principles.

ACCOUNTABILITY – Ensuring that you are accountable for your actions and take responsibility for any omissions or errors.

PROMOTION – Rights, privacy, dignity, well being and health of the service users.

COLLABORATIVE WORKING – Establishing partnership working to ensure that care delivered is high quality, safe and compassionate.

COMMUNICATION – Developing effective communication channels and promoting open and honest communication.

CONFIDENTIALITY – Ensuring that the confidentiality and privacy of service users is protected at all times.

QUALITY – Health and social care workers should be committed to driving up standards in healthcare through ongoing training and professional development.

Good Equality and Diversity practices make sure the services provided to people are fair and accessible to everyone. They ensure that people are treated as equals, that people get the dignity and respect they deserve and that their differences are celebrated. Equality and Diversity should not be seen as bonus benefits to your health or social care setting, but more as integral constituents. In order to promote equality and diversity in your health or social care setting, everyone on your team needs to be fully understanding of the relevant legislation, principles and practices. Without the basic knowledge of equality and diversity, it can be difficult to get people to promote and support it. If your setting has an equality and diversity policy read it and circulated it around your team. Similarly, do your best to ensure that everyone is appropriately trained in EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY in health and social care, the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards and Safeguarding Vulnerable Adults. Encourage staff to think about what matters to each person in your setting. What each person’s values and goals are, what each individual needs to attain their values and goals, if you and fellow workers keep this in mind then the care you provide will always be in the individuals best interest and you’ll always be keeping equality and diversity matters at the forefront. Individuals should be allowed freedom in all ways. This includes being able to make their own choices as well as having the power to decide on aspects which affect their lives, no person receiving care should ever be discriminated against and every person should be treated in a fair and equal manner and with dignity and respect, regardless of their age, gender, ethnic origin, sexual preference, economic status or religious beliefs. Creating an inclusive culture for all staff, ensuring equal access to opportunities to enable staff to fully participate in the learning process and activities, helping all staff to develop to their full potential, equipping staff with the skills to challenge inequality and discrimination in their work setting, making certain that any learning materials do not discriminate against any individuals, ensuring policies procedures and processes promote equality and diversity. Creating an inclusive environment in which staff feel respected by and connected to one another. Everyone should have access to the support and care that they need regardless of their individual circumstances. Staff within the health and social care sector have a duty to promote equality and diversity across all areas of their work, providing a service that is fair, personalised and diverse. Equality and diversity are key components in the delivery of quality health and social care services and good practice should encourage and promote these values as much as possible. A care worker should ensure that through their work, service users are treated fairly and equally and each service user they are responsible for is treated with dignity and respect. One of the best ways to promote the rights of people in health and social care is to ensure that individuals are always aware of their own rights and to actively encourage people to take an invested interest in the care they require. Asking questions of those we care for will ensure that they can give an opinion and be cared for in manner that is to their taste and supports their individual rights.

2.2 Describe how to challenge those not working inclusive in a way that promotes change.

Firstly I would talk to whomever i witnessed during the discriminatory incident to gauge whether they were aware of their actions and to clarify my understanding of what I witnessed. You should never ignore or excuse such discriminatory behaviour anymore than you would ignore or excuse someone if they physically abused someone. It must be addressed and reported because if you don’t you’re contributing to the person’s behaviour and letting them think it’s acceptable. To promote change you need to change people’s attitude towards other races, gender, religion, behaves etc. Don’t ignore discrimination, be calm, assertive and confident knowing that by acting as quickly as possible you protect the individual’s rights and you uphold the law and best working practices by being inclusive and using an anti-discriminatory approach. Understand why discrimination might be occurring, where necessary point out anything that is untrue, give the correct information and new vocabulary to guide what they say or do in the future. Help the person learn from the situation to see any consequences of their actions and to understand why their behaviour is regarded as inappropriate. Help them learn from the situation, to see any consequences of their actions and understand why their behaviour is regarded as inappropriate, ask how they would feel. Ensure they aren’t left with the feeling that they are personally disliked for what has been said or done. Explain it is the words and actions that are not tolerated.

. Provide support to anyone that experiences discrimination or prejudice, reassure them and help them to maintain self-esteem. If you feel confident about what is good practice, you will be able to deal more effectively with incidents that arise. When discrimination happens it may be intentional, but it can also be because of ignorance and lack of understanding. By making a person aware of the facts it will educate them and hopefully change their opinions and actions in the future. It is not easy to change the views of others but you must challenge discriminatory comments and actions. It is important to learn assertiveness strategies that can help when you recognise discrimination. When challenging discrimination, you should: 1. Explain what has happened or what has been said that is discriminatory. 2. State the effects of this on the individual, group or others. 3. Suggest or model ways to ensure anti-discriminatory practice. When you are concerned about anti-discriminatory practice, you should report it to your manger or team leader as you have a duty of care to do so. Follow the guidance your setting has for challenging discrimination, file reports and give statements as required. By doing this it is more likely to be dealt with in the appropriate manner. In a work setting, discrimination can be a disciplinary matter and policies and procedures will be in place to deal with this. The way you would challenge discrimination in general is to discuss the reasons why certain practises are in place with your supervisor or with other staff who are working under you. Provide evidence e.g. daily evaluation care plans to demonstrate how changes can be made which help prevent discriminatory practise. If you observe discrimination then you might organise a team meeting or training session where you demonstrate examples of discrimination and show staff ways that they can change their work to prevent this.

You should always challenge discrimination , but to do this it is essential that you can recognise anti-discriminatory practice . If you ignore it when it happens , this will be viewed as condoning (excusing or overlooking ) discrimination . Consider how the individual may feel if they experience discrimination which is then ignored by a member of staff who is there to support them. The individual could feel that you have the view of the prepetrator or
Believe that the way they are being treated is normal.
Education is a key part of promoting change in any organisation. Focus groups, reflective exercises, training days etc. All aid in promoting change as people are interactively getting involved in the culture you want to promote. When people understand the reason behind change they are more inclined to adopt the change than if the change is just enforced. Being proactive also promotes changes. Throughout our social care setting it is important that discrimination is challenged if it has been witnessed. There are many different ways discrimination can be challenged to promote change. Some examples are 🙁 Practicing Active Participation) – By doing as much as possible to support only the arts of people’s lives that really cannot manage for themselves, we can allow individuals to realise their value and reduce a feeling of isolation. This can help an individual gain self esteem and encourage them to take control and make their own decisions which will help to reduce any form of abuse and discrimination. (Quick and Effective Complaint Procedure) – This will help to let the individual know how seriously the act witnessed had been taken and the consequences of discrimination. Discrimination is less likely to occur if others have a strong understanding of the consequences. (Meeting and Discussion) – Discussing and energising issues in day to day tasks help individuals to challenge discrimination. You can reduce the chances of discrimination happening by the way that you work. As a health or social care worker, it is your duty to work in ways that promote equality, diversity and inclusion and be confident to challenge or confront discriminatory practice if you see this in your workplace.
2.3 Explain how to support others in promoting equality and rights.

As a support worker providing care it’s my responsibility to ensure all staff have the correct information on all service users to ensure they’re being treated equally and their rights are being observed at all times. This may mean that when a day trip is being organised all manner of mobility aids need to be considered for suitable transport to get to the venue and suitable access once there for wheelchairs, frames etc. The timing of an activity may need to take into account individuals religious beliefs with regards to visits to church or times of prayer etc. Ensuring all members of staff both new and old is aware of what is meant by equality, diversity, discrimination and inclusion. And how best to put it into practice will also promote its awareness within the care setting along with leading by example. It is very important to support people’s rights, giving them information that helps them to make choices and take control. As a support worker we need to work with service users to make sure they get the best care possible. Getting to know their needs. The wellbeing of a patient relies on the teamwork of all those in the setting, it is important that every person can work together as each person has different strengths and weakness, you can also apply a SWOT analysis to your team, in order to enhance performance, so the team can be much stronger. In order to work as a team you most, work closely with other people, communicate strongly, give help and advice when needed, provide information to others you work with. Communication in a healthcare setting is one of the most important tools, co-operation, co-ordination and communication between members of a team to achieve desired outcomes. In an industry with a high degree of risk, such as healthcare effective teamwork has been shown to achieve team goals successfully and efficiently, with fewer errors. Sharing your observations with other support workers or professionals will effect in providing great patient care and improving patient satisfaction. You are expected to speak with the patient, determine his or her needs, and solve problems, all in a proactive manner. When caring for other it is important to be honest, approachable and trustworthy as people we care for are vulnerable and very easily abused. We need to remember that people we care for have the same human rights as we do.
As policies and law change in healthcare each member of the team should be encouraged to meet the right standards set by lawmakers, as well as policies and procedures within the setting. The quality of teamwork and interactions between those in the healthcare setting will have a huge influence over the way they work together and the standards that they achieve and will change their approach in order to adapt to the standards of their workplace. Working as a team helps you and your colleagues to give feedback to each other and improve. Working to high standards should be done at all times, this means that standards should be reviewed and amended when possible. The effect that we have on others is greater than we think. You should not underestimate the impact your words actions and attitudes have for doing harm (or good) to others and to yourself. Whether you chose or not you are a leadership role model. Your behaviour is emulated by other people and consistently leads by example demonstrate confidence and leadership. To be a good role model you should always be positive calm and confident in yourself. You should lead, develop and co-ordinate your team of care workers to provide the highest standards of respect and care. Overall ensuring the dignity of the service user is maintained at all times.

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