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Conflict Management in Project Management
What is conflict management?
Discuss its involvement in various stage of project life cycle.

How could we categories the conflicts?
What are the conflict resolution strategies that we can adopt for dealing with conflicts?
Discuss the factors involved in conflicts and their dynamics based on faced-negotiation theory.

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What are the requirement and principles that we need to consider in negotiation to resolve the conflicts?
What are techniques that we can apply in dealing with conflicts?
What is conflict management?
Conflict management refers to the techniques and ideas designed to scale back the negative effect of conflict and enhance the positive outcomes for all parties concerned. This method and ideas used over the kind of conflict that wishes managing-researchers differentiate within affective (relational) and sizable (performance, process and task-specific), as nicely as like interorganisational struggle (between joining or greater businesses) or interorganisational (conflict with organisation) (Johnson and Singh 1998). According to the PMBOK Guide, “conflict is inevitable in a project environment”. After defining the problem, the PMBOK suggests five strategies because undertaking management. Let’s stricture it methods and think about then to usage them into managing conflicts.

Withdraw/Avoid Conflict management
Definition: “Retreating from an actual or potential conflict situation; postponing the issue to be better prepared or to be resolved by others”
Withdrawing and avoiding is treasured of the quick term, that be able remain above used. Indeed, to pull away beyond a conflict situation or go into bankruptcy after comply with up, the battle is possibly in conformity with emerge as worse over time. Withdrawing then heading off also works well as a self-management technique.

Smooth/Accommodate Conflict management
PMBOK Definition: “Emphasizing area of agreement rather than area of difference; conceding one’s position to the needs of the others to maintain harmony and relationships”
This method recognizes the value of professional relationships in imitation of project success. On lengthy term projects, something above a little weeks, assiduous or strengthening the undertaking team will become very important. After all, venture crew participants are continuously emphasizing differences, working development about the project will become at all difficult.

Compromise/Reconcile Conflict Management
Definition: “Searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties in order to temporarily or partially resolve the conflict”.

As the project managers it can also compromise throughout time. For example, if a stakeholder’s apply for extra functionality by deferring their request to phase two on a multi-phase project. In this case, that type on change is the best documented via an exchange request. Otherwise, that is convenient to lose track regarding the change.

Force/Direct Conflict Management
Definition: “Pushing one’s viewpoint at the expense of the others; offering only win-lose solutions, usually enforced through a power position to resolve an emergency”
As PMBOK definition above suggests, applying power to determine clashes includes some major disadvantages. In particular, the project manager is probably going to hurt associations with the undertaking group by utilizing this strategy. Mishandle or abuse of this system tends to cause more clash in the long term.

Collaborate/Problem Solve Conflict Management
Definition: “Incorporating multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives; requires a cooperative attitude and open dialogue that typically leads to consensus and commitment”.

The cooperation and critical thinking way to deal with strife is the most gainful system in my view. This technique has two major benefits; the contention itself is explained and the venture group is fortified as a side-effect of attempting to tackle the issue. This technique is destined to be fruitful in circumstances where the task group as of now has abnormal state of trust. (Rowley 2013)
Discuss its involvement in various stage of project life cycle.

The project life cycle consists of four phases, concept, definition, implementation (including monitoring and controlling) and handover and closeout (Wang and Hou 2011). Below will demonstrate the diagram conflict on product life cycle and will be anaylse below:

Indeed, conflict management can exist all through the periods of the different phases with a portion of the following sources (Levitt 1965):
Concept Phase: Conflict can come in this stage with respect to why the undertaking is really required. Stakeholders may see the task as un-required and possibly unfriendly and problematic to the project team. The meaning of the extent of task may cause struggle as a few stakeholders will need the venture to accomplish more than what’s conceivable with the allocated funds. For example of this could be the occupants close to an arranged prepare line expansion being antagonistic with respects for why line is taking the course proposed
Definition Phase: During phase, conflict may come in the prerequisite gathering process. Users and Stakeholders should organize which of the necessities are most gainful and with a task under monetary requirement, some might be delegated as “nice to have” and left out of the project. Conflict can be great at this stage, as it can frequently driver better choices, if it is controlled and overseen. For example could be the nearby Manager Project on the prepare line expansion being consulted by the angry residents, and to beat the negative conclusion, the project includes bigger security hindrances.

Implementation Phase: Conflict in this stage could originate from the change control and risk management areas. Change asks for are likely and dangers will appear which may cause conflict with existing necessities or effect the advance which has just been made. Indeed, justification of the change might be required for the viewing pleasure of anyone passing by the advantages of the change and defeat the conflict, but this may prompt to rework or different necessities being dropped, prompting further clash. The prerequisite to keep conveying to spending plan and time, will be affected and will be affected and will have conflicting have implications in the situation.

Handover and Closeout: In this phase, conflict could come from the subjective acknowledgment of the finished undertaking. On the off chance that quality criteria has not been completely characterized, there will be extension for varying elucidations of value, prompting strife. The change to Business As Usual, could likewise be a wellspring of contention with functional department. (Naybour 2013).

How could we categories the conflicts?
According to Evan 2013, a part of approaches to characterize conflict due to how it is utilized as a part numerous regions. Consequently, to keep it straightforward for the layman, struggle relates to the restricting thoughts and activities of various substances, in this manner bringing about an opposing state. Conflict is an inevitable part of life. Every one of us has our own sentiments, thoughts and sets of convictions. Hence conflict is classified into the following four types:
Interpersonal Conflict refers to conflict between two individuals. Indeed, this could happens commonly because of how individuals are unique in relation to each other. The fluctuated identities which more often than not results to incompatible decisions and sentiments. Evidently, it is a characteristic event which can in the end help in self-improvement or building up your associations with others. However, if interpersonal conflict become too destructive it might called as mediator, it would help so as to have to resolve it.

Intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual. The experience happens in the person’s brain. Thus, it is sort of contention that is mental including the person’s thoughts, qualities, standards and feelings. Interpersonal conflict may come in various scales, from the more straightforward commonplace ones like choosing whether or not to go natural for lunch to ones that can influence significant choices, for example, picking a vocation way. Furthermore, this sort of conflict can be very hard deal with in the event that can be think and it is difficult to interpret your internal battles. It prompts anxiety and uneasiness or can even cause sadness.

Intragroup conflict is a type of conflict that happens among individuals within a team. The contrary qualities and errors among these individuals prompt an intragroup clash. It is emerges from relational contractions. (For example; team members have diverse identities which may prompt strain) or differences in perspectives and thoughts (for example in a presentation, members of the team might discover the ideas introduced by the one managing to be incorrect because of their disparities in opinion. Within a group, struggle can be useful in thinking of choices which will in the long run enable them to achieve their goals as a group.

Intergroup conflict takes place when a misunderstanding arises among different teams within an organisation. For example; the sale department of an association can come in strife with the customer support office. This is because of the fluctuated sets of objectives and interests of these diverse gatherings. Moreover, rivalry likewise contributes for intergroup struggle to emerge.

Conflict may seem to be an issue to a few, however this isn’t the way struggle ought to be seen. Then again, it is an open door for development and can be a powerful methods for opening up among gatherings or people.

Indeed, the four categories strategy has well be analyise and determine how on each phase the conflict is situated.

What are the conflict resolution strategies that we can adopt for dealing with conflicts?
Their five basis conflict resolution strategies that can deal with conflict and according to Dontigney 2018, five strategies will be evaluate below:
Accommodating
The accommodating strategy basically involves giving the contradicting side what it needs. The use of accommodating frequently happens when one of the gatherings wishes to keep the peace or sees the issue as minor. For example; that requires formal dress may institute a “casual Friday” approach as a low-stakes methods for keeping the peace with the majority. Indeed, employees who utilize convenience as an essential peace promotion procedure, in any case may follow along and create resentment.

Avoiding
The avoidance strategy seeks to put off conflict indefinitely. By postponing or disregarding the contention, the avoider trusts the issue settle itself without an encounter. The individuals who effectively stay away from struggle regularly have low regard or hold a place of low power. Likewise, in a few conditions, keeping away from can fill in as a productive peace promotion methodology, for example, after the expulsion of a famous but inefficient representative. The contracting of a more beneficial substitution for the position mitigates a great part of the conflict.

Collaborating
Collaborating works by integrating ideas set out by multiple people. The objective is to locate an innovative arrangement satisfactory to everybody. Collaboration, however valuable, requires a huge time responsibility not proper to all conflicts. For example; a business owner should work cooperatively with the administrator to build up arrangements, but collaboration basic leadership in regards to office supplies wastes time better spent on different exercises.

Comprising
The compromising strategy typically calls for the two sides of a conflict to surrender components of their situation keeping in mind the end goal to set up an adequate, if not pleasing, arrangement. This strategy wins regularly in clashes where the gathering hold around proportionate power. Business owner utilize trade off during contract transactions with different organisation when each gathering stands to lose something significant, for example, a customer or necessary service.

Competing
Competition operates as a zero-sum game, in which one side wins and other loses. Highly identities regularly fall back on rivalry as peace making methodology. The aggressive strategy works best in a predetermined number of contentions, for example, an emergency situations. In general, business owners’ advantage from holding the aggressive procedure available for later for crisis circumstances and choices that produce hostility, for example, pay cuts or layouts.

Discuss the factors involved in conflicts and their dynamics based on faced-negotiation theory.

According Stella 2013, the conflict styles vary with the way of life and through mingling; the individual has a tendency to mirror the specific culture while negotiating a conflict. For the most part there are two aspects in which the conflicts styles are classified. People having a place with individualistic culture tries to keep up a face in order to save one own face while in a collectivistic culture, individuals keeps up a face for the general public. Indeed, there are five types of conflict styles:
Domination – An individualistic approach to make decisions by dominating or controlling.

Avoiding – A collectivistic approach of staying away from the conflict.

Obliging – A collectivistic approach of giving up.

Compromising – An individualistic approach to negotiate to come to a solution.

Integrating – An individualistic approach to work together to reach a solution.

According to these five factors conflict it has been demonstrate and also analyse how it is based on the face negotiation theory.

What are the requirement and principles that we need to consider in negotiation to resolve the conflicts?
According to Lens 2004, the principles that can consider in negotiation to resolve will be discuss as follows:
Think before reacting
The tendency in a conflict circumstance is to respond promptly. All things considered, on the off chance that cannot be respond and may lose their chance. In order to resolve conflict successfully it is essential to think before to respond and think about the alternatives, measure the conceivable outcomes. A similar response isn’t proper for each contention.

Listen Actively
Listening is the most important part of communication. Indeed, for other parties could not hear from communicating therefore they could not resolve a conflict. Active listening implies not just tuning in to what someone else is stating with word, but in addition to what is said by inflection and non-verbal communication. The active listening process additionally includes telling the speaker that he or she has been heard. For example, “What I heard you say is…”
Assure a fair process
The process for settling a contention is frequently as basis as the contention itself. Assure that the determination technique picked and additionally the procedure for influencing that strategy is reasonable for all gathering to the contention. Indeed, even the view of shamefulness can obliterate the determination.

Attack the problem
Conflict is exceptionally enthusiastic. At the point when feelings are high it is considerably simpler to start assaulting the individual on the opposite side than it is to take care of the issue. The main way clashes get settled is the point at which we assault the issue and not each other. “What is the problem that lies behind the emotion?” “What are causes instead of the symptoms?”
Accept Responsibility
Each conflict has many sides and there is sufficient obligation regarding everybody. Endeavoring to put accuse just makes hatred and outrage that increases any current clash. With a specific end goal to determine a contention that could acknowledge our offer of the duty and dispose of the idea of fault.

What are techniques that we can apply in dealing with conflicts?
Considering the PMBOK there are five conflict management techniques to resolve conflict and according to Ravi 2017 the five conflict will be analyses as follows:
Collaborating or Problem Solving
Collaborating or problem solving is the most gainful refereeing strategy, when the team members believe each other and realized that they have to cooperate to accomplish a shared objective.

Furthermore, as a project manager, along with the group there have to comprehend the underlying driver of the issue by talking alternate points of views and perspectives of the colleagues as for the conflict.

According to PMBOK 4, confronting the problem or problem solving is segregated as a different compromise procedure. However in PMBOK 5, confronting conflict resolution is converged into the other conflict management technique called collaborating of problem solving.

Compromising
The two parties surrender a comment the conflict. This conflict is just conceivable, when both the parties has some mentality to concur and need to keep the relationship alive.

Comprise conflict is a predicament, in light of the fact that the two parties are surrendering something with a specific end goal to determine the conflict.

Usually as a project manager to start with you would to deal with the problem and try to resolve the conflict through team up or conflict thinking compromise procedure.

Compromise conflict resolution technique may of help just when the conflict will be able to be solve through collaborating or problem solving.

Smoothing
Smoothing at when the contentions is flare up between the gatherings, at that the point the problem is to appear like the problem is not so terrible or exists by any means, Therefore, smoothing is a temporary work around and it will not be solve the issue.

Forcing
As a project manager can settle on a ruling for one gathering. So one gathering wins and the other party free. Thus this is called win-lose circumstance. Thus the negative outcomes to this conflict, as the losing gathering may get demotivated. So this conflict procedure need to apply deliberately by taking a gander at the effect to the project.

Withdraw or avoid
At the point the individuals disappoint more from the issue or simply skip it until further notice. Furthermore, the real issue still hold on and it is only that individuals pulled back from the circumstance. Sometime, the issue may likewise get settled independent from anyone else. Typically as a project manager when the issue is not on the list for the venture or the stake is not high, this conflict management technique will be apply.

To conclude with all this each of the five conflict management techniques can resolve conflicts. Additionally which are the powerful peace promotion strategies among others. Nearby the conflict resolution, as a project manager can also need and to understand the five types of powers that the project manager can use to get the circumstance on track. Forcing or withdraw are the last conflict resolution techniques to apply. Meaning that when project manager do not have some other choice, at that point the project manager have to attempt pull back or compelling alternatives.

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