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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Introduction
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According to Gourlay (1992), across all academic disciplines, there is no general acceptable and regarded as single universally agreed waste management strategies that give the best results or can be expected to align or associate with better results within urban local authorities in various local authorities in different developing nation across Africa,
According to US, EPA report (2016), solid waste is any matter of no longer value to people, matter which becomes a burden to community as its presents negatively affects the wellbeing of that community, a residue which has no other use, not fit for any reprocessing, solid waste cannot be a source of any revenue, considered an expense and an eyesore to human beings which presents diseases and environment degradation or damage if not properly discharged or managed to final destination.
Muchandiona (2015) support the US, EPA report on definition of solid waste, he further noted that it is anything in addition to be a valueless by product is in solid state or nongaseous, he further clarify that it is not liquid , he concludes his definition by classifying a solid waste as a product of some process which had initially rendered a waste through extraction of something beneficial, thus, it is a rejected solid item created through human activities in industry and in various homes during production,
In addition to commercial areas and residential areas where solid waste is generally created, it is also generated from other sources like abattoirs, heave and light industry, hospitals, clinics and surgeries facilities, electronic gadgets and packaging services. These are referred to as special solid wastes.

2.1. 2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SOLID WASTE

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When refuse is collected, usually it is treated then deposed or recycled. Disposing waste at illegal dumpsites is the main challenge which is the main concern to the environment as the urban local authority tends to turn to ignore it.
2.1.2.1 Contamination of soil by solid waste
According to Mbida (2014) if solid Waste is not collected and instead ignored, it becomes hazardous to public health, the people at high risk from the disposal of solid waste include residents in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the solid waste workers, and early child development school going children. People living close to solid waste illegal dumps and those whose drinking water source has become contaminated by either due to leakage from landfill sites or solid waste illegal dumping are equally at risk. Highly contaminated solid waste left to percolate untreated into ground, a source of drinking water. Poor solid waste management further contaminate and causes contamination to sources of thousands people source of drinking water thus involving water issues as happened in Mkoba villages15, 18 and 20 of Gweru resulting in typhoid outbreak.
The global village is already heading towards water contamination stress, clean water availability is an emerging issue in Zimbabwe too, and water quality deterioration because of industrial affluent discharges and ULAs solid waste will further accelerate the issue. Increases in risk of injury, and diseases outbreaks are spread at fast rate by uncollected solid waste.
2.1.2.2 Solid waste as breeding sites
According to Chibanda (1990), solid waste provides the conducive breeding sites of several diseases with the help of flies which are very effective vectors in spreading diseases, they take advantages of decomposition of solid waste to breed and contaminate the food and causes illness to millions of people. On the hand Mosquitoes breed and spread malaria a deadly killer disease from the same sources of illegally dumped solid waste. Rats like flies and mosquitos are equally dangerous vectors of diseases, they also take advantage of solid waste dumps and find shelter and food. Rats eat human food and at the same time spread diseases which in turn causes illnesses to residents, rats damage important materials and even electrical cables as they causes unwanted bites which poses risk to human beings.

2.1.2.3 Diseases
ULAs must come up with trainings and awareness campaigns to impart knowledge on safe solid waste handling techniques. These could be through cleanup campaigns or road shows, even home visits with flyers would save a good purposes. It is discouraged to handle solid waste without proper PPC as this endanger employees and any other person handling solid waste, Poor management and handling of solid waste lead to exposure of infections from different diseases such as chronic diseases, the most vulnerable group are the city cleaners who handle solid waste from bins and also paper pickers who on daily basis pick papers in and around city streets, (Gourlay, 1992). In Zimbabwe, various dumpsite are in a sorry state, workers work in these places are exposed to all sorts of diseases and illness. Employees in these areas do not have proper ppc and they express fear that they are risk of contracting diseases although there are safety precautions which are being taken by the ULAs like protective clothing provision and promotion of a free hazard working environment.

2.1.2.4 Pollution.
According to Sule (1981), Solid waste pollutes various sources of man’s livelihood. Solid waste alters the state of atmosphere due to odor, it is from this different states which lead to release dangerous gases. When it decomposes it goes bad and smell coming from refuse disposals is not good for human and animals. The state and wellness of the ground will be disturbed by the solid waste when subjected to wind movements and the surrounding environment. Solid refuse may be burnt which can result in burnings taking place end up being destructive to the important surroundings even though the authorities had put safety measures in place to avoid burnings at the dumpsite by keeping the site clear of any causes of burns through effective ramming of the site and filling up on all solid wastes. Burnings causes smoke, it is this smoke that pollutes oxygen which both people and animal rely on. It thus causes illness to all animals people included when the emissions are not controlled.
2.2.0 PRINCIPLES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
2.2.1Waste Generation:
Generation of waste refers to the process which end up with materials which has no value to people and instead deserve disposal, these processes are found in industries during manufacturing and engineering and from various households during processes for family benefit There are various ways and means in which the solid waste can be disposed some of these methods includes throwing away, collecting solid waste to one point for formal disposal,, According to Joseph (2006) ,solid waste management is still far short of expectation and is the most challenging task for all ULAs in Zimbabwe and abroad. It is expected that more rules and regulations are coming and that its enforcement will be supervised by central Government agency. The efforts of these laws will be to minimize waste generation, it is further assumed to be a monitoring tool to direct, guide and control the behavior and attitudes of all solid waste generation organizations including the ULAs.

2.2.2 Handling
Solid waste management involves a number of processes which are known as; solid waste control, solid waste separation, solid waste safe keeping and solid waste source procedure this is the second procedure after the handling process. The stage mainly considers solid waste segregation which lead to ease safe store in well labelled receptacles. Segregated waste becomes ease to transfer to disposal site for safe solid waste disposal. Solid waste handling also covers transportation of solid waste to key points where it will collected to final disposal site, however the initial stage crucial in solid waste management is sorting where solid waste is selected and grouped into its category for example bottles, plastics and vegetables, all these take place at source. (Chirisa 2011)

Chirisa, (2011), further observed that solid waste handling requires collection point as this ensures safe keeping of solid waste while in transit. Collection points help to prevent the spread of diseases, this is commonly known as public health matters. The sorting of solid waste faces challenges at household level were containers used are not the appropriate for the purpose.

2.2.3Collection:
Solid waste collection covers the gathering of solid waste and its analysis in forms of selecting recyclable materials and the movement of them to the disposal site where compactors empty the waste. At this point further processes like more processing, further transfer and land filling may take place. Chanza, (2011)

2.2.4 Solid waste working and transfer:
This is the fourth solid waste element in which solid waste is recovery of some necessary materials are carried out, and further processing and transformation takes to sort and where necessary to transform some Mapira, (2011). The sorting refers to solid waste separation which is meant to identify solid waste closely and appropriately deal with it to minimize chances of damage to either public health or to the environment.
According Mapira (2011), waste processing is undertaken to recover conversion products.
2.2.5Transfer and Transport:
At this stage solid waste is transferred from small transfer centers to major collection points, it is from these major collection points where transportation to disposal site or dumpsite takes place. So precisely two functions are carried out, the movement of solid to collection point and the eventual transportation to the central dumpsite usually over a reasonably long distance.

2.2.6 Solid waste disposal
According to Makoni (2011) Solid waste disposal is the last and final stage in solid waste management process. Major types of solid waste disposal at hand are land fill and dumping. All waste from residential households and all types of industry end up at this point.

2.2.7 Recovery Facilities
Solid waste create residue after controlled burnings, these residues are recovered and stored in an environmentally safe manner to avoid contamination, and Contamination can take place to essential factors useful to people. It can also happens to home utensils and other items through rodents transfer, thus proper handling of residues is an important procedure.

2.3.0 SOLID WASTE STRTEGIES
Several solid waste strategies are available for ULAs to consider and implement. The selection of a strategy by management involves a number essential issues, key matters that must be membered are; capacity of an institution to support and implement a strategy. Such key issues include availability of equipment and machinery, suitable manpower in terms of adequate numbers, skills and the right organizational culture, Gourlay (1992)
A strategy selection is influenced by the urban local authority’s approach to the solid waste management. The following must be appreciated for a strategy to work; traditional methods or technological powered system. For traditional methods, simple land is required while for a technological backed approach which requires the full implementation of the 3Rs. This later method requires equipment installation at the solid waste plant, Bhattacharyya, (2011) individual ULA must determine its resources and ability to support a strategy before its consideration and implementation, Manase, G. (2004).
Multi-sectoral Approach
Mandishona (2012), identify 3Rs as key ULAs’ multi-sectoal approach to solid waste management. Multi-sectoral approach embraces several ministers, parastatals NGOs and Local authorities and Government Agency. These multi-sectors work together to form a united force against solid waste menace to the community.

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