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Chapter 1
Introduction
To provide an orientation to the framework of the study will be the initiative of this chapter. The foundation of dependent variable of psychological well-being and independent variables of religiosity and mindfulness is where it will begin from. The impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological wellbeing of working women (Government and private educational institute and organizations) of south Punjab, Pakistan will be examined in this research.

Background of the study
Psychological well-being
A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease defining human health clearly as more than the absence of illness, is how health was interpreted.A state of well-being in which one realizes one’s own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to one’s community (WHO, 2017), was determined as mental health in positive terms. The presence of a positive mood is more than not having negative mood, while, the absence of symptoms of any mental disorders is not an assurance of possessing high well-being (Huppert & Whittington, 2003) was demonstrated by the evidence. The absence of the crippling elements of the human experience (depression, anxiety, anger, fear – and the presence of enabling one) positive emotions, meaning, healthy relationships, environmental mastery, engagement, and self-actualization was the psychological well-being simultaneously. Above and beyond the absence of psychological ill-being was the psychological well-being and a broader spectrum of construct that what is traditionally conceived of as happiness (Seligman &Csikszentmihalyi, 2000; Seligman, 2011) was contemplated by it.The absence of disorders, such as major depression or schizophrenia were comprised in psychological well-being. Physchological well-being can hardly be experienced by an individual suffering from mental disorders.. However, psychological flourishing was not guaranteed by the absence of those disorders.Being associated with better health, higher immunity, more stable and satisfying relationships, better performance and upwards progression in work, and much more.(Happiness, 2017),Psychological well-being had tremendous value.

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Psychological well-being (PWB) was a more narrowly focused term for a specific set of variables that are deemed by some expert source as being necessary for human flourishing, suggested Steger (2008). Inspiration from Aristotle’s philosophy was drawn by eudemonic well-being with which it is generally associated. For the full development of human potential and not always including the kinds of information someone might use to judge if she or he is happy, PWB variables are often viewed as being critical. Personal growth, persistence, virtue, morality, and so on were what PWB variables focused on. It certainly can be considered to be both hedonic and eudemonic,meaning itself is often put forward as a PWB or eudemonic wellbeing indicator (Ryff, 1989), (Steger, 2016). Many characterizations of PWB suggest that people should have a positive view off their selves.Psychological well-being has been linked to a broad range of health outcomes, most notably reduced risk of diverse forms of morbidity and general mortality (Chida; Steptoe, 2008; Giltay, Geleijnse, Zitman, Hoekstra, ; Schouten, 2004; Hill ;Turiano, 2014; Pressman ; Cohen, 2005)
Subjective or hedonic well-being indicators, psychological or eudaimonic well-being indicators, and general quality of life indicators are the three categories of well-being referred by Steger 2018.The concept of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) is an example of the EWB tradition. Ryff posited six key features of people who are functioning well in life by drawing on the theories of Erikson, Jung, Maslow, and Rogers (among others).The maturity to be guided by internal standards (autonomy), capability of trusting and loving others (positive relations), being able to manage external stressors and leverage on opportunities (environmental mastery), having a positive attitude toward themselves (self-acceptance), having important aims and goals (purpose in life), and accepting new challenges in life is what people should have as furthering their development (personal growth).Living up to one’s personal potential in line with Aristotle’s view of eudaimonia as living in accord with one’s true nature was emphasized by other psychological well-being approaches. Psychological well-being is rooted in the pursuit of goals and activities that are consistent with one’s values and identity (McGregor ; Little, 1998; Waterman, 1993),from this frame of reference.

Work on psychological well-being by Ryff was particularly well-developed.Three psychological literatures that theoretically guide an understanding of the meaning of this construct were specified by her. Developmental psychology literature, which approaches well-being from the prism of progression and views it as the continuous growth of the individual across the life span,was the first. Erikson’s model of stages of development was one well-known example of this approach. The second is the clinical psychology literature, which offers different formulations of well-being. For example, Maslow considers self-actualization as the ultimate criterion of well-being. Rogers asserts that the ideal human condition is embodied in the “fully functioning person.” This person was characterized by openness to experience, ability to live existentially, trust in the self, ability to expresses feelings freely, independence, and creativity (Rogers, 1961). Jung regards individuation (a process in which the conscious and the unconscious domains of personality work in harmony rather than in opposition) as its core. Ultimately, Two major approaches to well-being, the mental health literature have . The first is predominated by the absence-of-illness definition of psychological well-being, while the other stresses positive functioning, having constructs such as creativity, curiosity, open-mindness, courage, and love of learning. Based on these three sources, six components of well-being and developed scales to measure each component were proposed by Ryff (1989; 1998).Support for these six highly differentiated dimensions of well-being was yielded by factor analysis (Ryff 1995).
Six components of psychological well-being (self-acceptance, positive relationships with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, personal growth) were emphasized by Ryff and Keyes (1995) .Self- acceptance (i.e., positive attitude toward the self; acknowledgment and acceptance of different aspects of the self). For example “In general, I feel confident and positive about myself.” Purpose in life (i.e., having goals and a sense of directedness in life; feeling that there is meaning in life). For instance “I have a sense of direction and purpose in life.” Environmental mastery (i.e., feeling competent, and possessing the ability to manage the environment; making effective use of surrounding opportunities). For instance “In general, I feel like I am in charge of the situation in which I live.” Autonomy (i.e., self-determination and independence; ability to resist social pressure).For instance “What other people think of me would not influence my decisions.” Personal growth (i.e., feeling of continued growth; seeing the self as growing and expanding). For instance “I am the kind of person who likes to give new things a try.” Positive relationship with others (i.e., having warm, satisfying, and trusting relations with others; concern about the welfare of others). Sample item: “Most people see me as loving and affectionate.” Heintzelman (2018) suggested that in the decades since the emergence of this model of psychological well-being, much research has developed following this broadened conceptualization of well-being (Ryff, 2014). First, research regarding its factor structure has been conducted, with numerous papers reporting replications of the theoretical six factor structure of this model (e.g., Clarke, Marshall, Ryff, & Wheaton, 2001; Gallagher et al., 2009; Ryff& Keyes, 1995). Still, elsewhere, this six-factor model has been challenged and the factor structure has not always replicated (Kafka &Kozma, 2002; Springer & Hauser, 2006). More discussions of the factor-structure replications can be found elsewhere (Ryff, 2014; Ryff& Singer, 2006; Springer & Hauser, 2006).
Work following the psychological well-being tradition has focused on examining age and gender profiles in well-being (Ryff& Keyes, 1995; Springer, Pudrovska, & Hauser, 2011) and additional psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates of Psychological well-being (Keyes et al., 2002; Ryff& Singer, 2008),in addition. For instance, adults with higher psychological well-being were younger; more educated, and were more open to experience, suggest findings (Keyes et al, 2002). Moreover, research examining the biological underpinnings of psychological well-being and its importance for health has been growing in recent years (Ryff, 2013). Some commencing findings point to links between psychological well-being and lower salivary cortisol, decreased cardiovascular risk, and better sleep (Ryff, Singer, & Love, 2004). Subsequent work has identified association between some factors of psychological well-being and important inflammation indicators (Friedman &Ryff, 2012; Morozink, Friedman, Coe, &Ryff, 2010).Consistently better at learning are the students with more psychological well-being. Negative emotions create attention that is more confined, more critical and more analytical thinking. On the other hand, positive emotions generate more creative, more holistic thinking and broaders attention (Bolte, Goschke&Kuhl, 2003; Estrada, Isen& Young, 1994; Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson &Branigan, 2005; Isen, Daubman&Nowicki, 1987; Isen, Rosenzweig&Young, 1991; Kuhl, 1983; 2000; Rowe et al., 2007; Seligman et al., 2009).Rector & Friedman, (2018) refers that in females, the rise and fall of levels of estrogen with the menstrual cycle have been suggested to play a major role in the fluctuation of mood and emotions. Over the life cycle, the decline in estrogen levels among women (e.g. perimenopause and menopause) has been reckoned to harmonize the increased rate of depression and mood disorders, compared to men. While the underlying mechanisms are not known, evidence points to the neurological effects of estrogen, which are directly applicable to mood symptomotology (Wharton, Gleason, Olson, Carlsson, & Asthana, 2012). Diversifying levels of testosterone and estrogen are often explored in conjunction with sexually dimorphic phenomena. However, few studies have directly investigated their relationship with well-being.Psychological well-being is also related to resilience and mindfulness (Fredrickson, 2009). Psychological well-being is defined as the ability of an individual to balance many different thoughts, emotions, situations, to problem solve and respond to stress in a healthy manner (Bradshaw, Hoelscher, & Richardson (2007).Psychological well-being can increase with age, education, extraversion and consciousness and decreases with neuroticism (Keyes et al., 2002).
Widened horizons and more leveraging factor that correlates from positive side,are because of the ongoing research in psychological well-being. Mindfulness has been found to directly enlarge well-being (Howell &Buro, 2011). It is one of the factors that positively correlate with psychological well-being by its capability to forecast depression, anxiety and stress (Cash & Whittingham, 2010; Gregoire, Bouffard, &Vezeau, 2012).An influencing role in individual psychological well-being is played by Religiosity. Religion has been generally contemplated as a protective factor for the psychological well-being of the people. Increased individual psychological well-being is practiced directly by Religion.

Religiosity
Religion plays an important role in the lives of many people.It is important to consider the beliefs and practices of Islam.According to Wulff (1997), the word “religion” originated from the Latin religio, which some scholars say was initially used to nominate a greater-than human power that requires a person to respond in a certain way to avoid some dreadful consequences,to understand how religion relates to well-being. They include gaining personal ends, such as meaning in life and self-development, social ends, such as intimacy with others and just in the world, and sacred ends, such as closeness to God and living a moral and ethical life (Tarakeshwar, Pargament& Mahoney, 2003).Down to earth, English and English (1958) suggested that religion is ‘a system of attitudes, practices, rites, ceremonies and beliefs by means of which individuals or a community put themselves in relation to God or to a supernatural world, and often to each other, and derive a set of values by which to judge events in the natural world’.Many of the world religions uplift or teach their followers to pardon one another of their wrongdoings. The act of simply belonging to a religious group could even increase the likelihood that one would forgive others (Wuthnow, 2000).

The world has become very unpredictable. Resources for individual’s livelihood has drastically reduced and technology has taken into extinction most natural resources that people now spend money for every bit of their needs, is making life very hard for people to cope with socially, economically and psychologically and especially for the less privileged who have strayed hope of the areal essence of the real essence of life and whatever life could offer, in the recent times. The undetermined and untrustworthy situation has largely influenced the overall well-being of individuals thereby increasing feelings of loneliness, reduced self-esteem and decreased life satisfaction. People are being revealed to unhealthy life style amounting to overall breakdown in mental health and overall well-being as a result of this situation. (Reinberg; Weaver, 2010).Some studies suggested that Individual beliefs and dedications to religious activities are relying on whether the individual has intrinsic or extrinsic aims and the value attached to this aims (Strawbridge, et al, 2008). In terms of religion a variety of different elements may be safeguarding scores of individuals from psychologically draining effects. Some may find their hearts at rest when bowed down in enervation to their Lord. Others may find consolation within religious sermons where different religious books are read and recited. Still others may find their souls at peace when they submit themselves entirely to their Creator, with an unshakeable belief that he has full control over all that is happening in their lives. (Ismail ;Desmukh, 2012). However, there remains the possibility that such a relation does not exist. It is not essential that religion is what keeps people grounded. Many individuals may ascribe their psychological health to factors that do not have a relation to religion such as hiking, reading, stitching, photography and the like (Johansson, 2008).
There is considerable evidence that religion and spirituality are strongly associated with mental health and psychological well-being (Chamberlain ;Zika 1992; Hill ;Pargament 2003), after decades of research. It is broadly assumed that religion plays a positive role in giving a sense of identity, a network of social support, and a coherent framework for answering to existential questions (Elliott ; Hayward 2007). It can help in surviving with negative life events or chronic illness (Pargament 1997) and lead to a sense of shared understanding of a loss or a trauma (Ellens 2007). It can also lead to protective effects against suicide or substance misuse (Moreira Almeida et al. 2006). More research that has more ?nely delineated the constructs of religion and spirituality points to an increased positive relationship with psychological well-being (Hill ;Pargament 2003).

The major religious traditions have a number of features of belief in common, suggested Loelwenthal (1995). There lies a non-material (i.e. spiritual) reality. To grow harmony in the world by doing well and evade evil is the purpose of life. In monotheistic religions the source of existence (i.e. God) is also the source of moral directives. Furthermore, all religions involve and depend on social organization for conveying these ideas. Common features of religions thus included beliefs and behaviors about spiritual reality, God, morality, purpose, and finally the communication of these. Some would include atheism, agnosticism and ‘alternative faiths’ as religious postures involving a relationship with God (Rizzutto, 1974).

Islam is a monotheistic religion, and therefore by definition belief in God is a central tenet. Islam means submission to the will of God, in Arabic. There is a clear core of religious duties (the five pillars of Islam; Husain, 1998), which are comparatively straightforward to state. These include belief in God and the prophets, prayer, giving away a proportion of one’s goods, fasting in the month of Ramadan, and pilgrimage. Modern Islam is said to emerge with the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), who is seen as a continuation of a line of prophets beginning with Adam, the first man. The central feature of the Islamic view of sin is that sin involves forgetfulness of divine unity. The root of sin is arrogance and self-sufficiency. Reason is seen as playing an important role in the choice of right. Islam has a long tradition of interest in mental health. A number of announcements on the psychological aspects of Islam have come into view in the last decade (El Azayem and Hedayat-Diba, 1994; Geels, 1996; Kose, 1996, 1966; Hedayat-Diba, 1997).The emphasis on the psychological benefits of Islamic practice: ‘Islamic teachings have reference to care for the family, divorce and polygamy, concern for the welfare of parents and the aged, and concern for learning and work, is one feature of some of those writings. Proscriptions against suicide, sexual perversions, crime and racial discrimination and Muslims can enjoy healthy and balanced lives by following these teachings’ (El Azayem&Hedayat-Diba, 1997). Muslims report that regular prayer (salat) is experienced as beneficial psychologically (Cinnirella&Loewenthal, 1999), and may prefer to try prayer and other religious means to alleviate psychological distress (Husain, 1998).Esmail (1996) has argued that Islam offers ‘a vision of community, self and self-realization which differ from the dominant philosophy of the modern West’. The relative importance of community and communal ties in Islamic life, emphasizes Esmail.

God is viewed as a powerful creator who can judge and also as merciful and compassionate, in Islam. In a similar manner to the Christian’s view of God, this juxtaposition could have diverse effects on well-being. In contrast to the Christian’s view of the Trinity (i.e., God as three persons in one), Muslims trust in a monotheistic God, i.e., God as a single entity. They also have confidence that God cannot be fully comprehended, but they believe it is possible to have a personal association with God. That is, no intermediary is essential to communicate with God Newman & Graham (2018). One of the five pillars is fasting. Muslims are called to fast from dawn to sunset each day during the holy month of Ramadan,to feel more closely connected to God. This could increase a feeling of closeness to God. As all Muslims are called to fast during the same time, it could also promote a sense of belonging and connection to others which could increase well-being. Muslims are obligated to take a pilgrimage to Mecca at some point in their life as this is also one of the five pillars of Islam. The pilgrimage involves sleeping in various desert plains, walking around the Kaaba in Mecca, and walking between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah. Pilgrimages, when done with other fellow believers, can have similar positive effects on one’s wellbeing as worship services. Providing with a sense of closeness and bonding, these acts likely bind people closer together. Experiences of awe and wonder; experiences that often covary with well-being can also be instilled by these pilgrimages (Rudd, Vohs, ; Aaker, 2012). Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, the two major holidays in Islam, begin with the word Eid which translates to solemn festival. Eid al-Fitr occurs just as Ramadan ends and means the “festival of breaking of the fast.” It is responsibility to give money to the poor, help the needy, pray, and display signs of happiness. Celebrated in remembrance of Abraham who was saved from having to sacrifice his son Ishmael after being presented with a ram as a substitute, is the Eid al-Adha. This festival is sometimes introduced as the festival of the abdication. Clearly, festivals can have mixed effects on well-being. Most celebrations likely enlarge hedonic and psychological well-being as they involve a gathering of people with food and merriment. Somber holidays and festivals likely do not increase hedonic forms of well-being at the moment, but they could increase a sense of meaning and psychological well-being by solidifying one’s faith or by enabling one to remember a somber past (Newman & Graham 2018).
Individual psychological well-being is also increased by mindfulness. Mindfulness has been found to directly increase well-being (Howell &Buro, 2011). It is one of the factors that positively correspond with psychological well-being by its capability to forecast depression, anxiety and stress (Gregoire, Bouffard, &Vezeau, 2012; Cash & Whittingham, 2010).

Mindfulness
Mindfulness is complicated and multifaceted, with a rich and evolving history. The term mindfulness has entered English as a transcription of certain usages of traditional Eastern words that include smrti (Sanskrit), sati (Pali), and dran-pa (Tibetan). In Buddhist tradition, the term is often linked with speci?c methods of meditation (Thera, 1962) as well as with the qualities of recollection, care, and circumspection (Payutto, 1988). In contemporary Western psychology, mindfulness is often de?ned as the awareness that arises through intentionally attending to one’s moment-to moment experience in a nonjudgmental and accepting way (Kabat-Zinn, 2003; Shapiro, Carlson, Astin, ; Freedman, 2006). Moreover, mindfulness is considered to be an approach that fosters increased awareness of mental process and effective response to them. In this way, mindfulness can improve decision making as well as capability to adapt to different circumstances. Western thought has tended to focus on the importance of mindfulness in more history.American Transcendentalists, Henry David Thoreau among them, in the nineteenth century, believed that life principals could be learned from conscious observation and emphasized the importance of awareness and living life deliberately. In 1940 Gestalt psychologists incorporated mindfulness into their therapeutic practice. (Goldstein E, 2014)
Mindfulness was introduced as bare attention by Theravadin scholor Bodhi (2000) however, he also noted that ”bare attention is never completely bare”. The context and intention one brings to practice and how one practices are very important. What bare attention refers to is that we have removed our conditioned ”emotional reactions, evaluations, judgments, and conceptual overlays” (Bodhi, 2006).
Efforts have been made to more accurately elaborate mindfulness practice, in recent times, by positing three fundamental components: (a) intention, (b) attention, and (c) attitude (Shapiro et al., 2006). Intention, in this de?nition, includes knowing why one is paying attention. It involves motivation; a conscious direction and purpose. Attention includes the direct, moment-to-moment knowing of what is happening as it is actually happening. The mind is educated to focus, aim, and sustain attention. How one pays attention is described by one’s attitude, introducing the accepting, caring, and discerning qualities of mindfulness. Mindfulness can be spoken of as ”affectionate attention”,noted Kabat-Zinn (Cullen, 2006).

The capability to focus one’s attention on present-moment experience, releasing worries about the future and regrets about the past, mindfulness, has been shown to produce a host of benefits for both physical and mental health (Keng, Smoski, ; Robins, 2011).A surge of popular and academic interest in the psychological benefits of mindfulness have been witnessed by the past three decades..

Mindfulness is a non-judgmental and present based attention toward a skill considered by a person at a specific time; moreover, and this concept is associated to moment-by-moment experiences and acceptance of them (Janowski K, Lucjan P 2012). Mindfulness can describe it as a technique that is combined with meditation to increase mind presence and non-judgmental acceptance of experiences (Potek R 2012). For instance, in talking with a friend, one can be highly attentive to the conveyance and sensitively aware of the perhaps subtle emotional tone underlying it. Homogenously, when eating a meal, one can be attuned to the moment-to-moment taste experience while also peripherally aware of the increasing feeling of fullness in one’s stomach. This is to be differentiated with consciousness that is blunted or confined in various ways. For instance, contemplation, absorption in the past, or imaginations and anxieties about the future can pull one away from what is taking place in the present. Awareness or attention can also be divided, such as when people are tenanted with multiple tasks or preoccupied with concerns that divert from the standard of engagement with what is focally present.
In psychology and psychotherapy, to alleviate different suffers and ailments of humankind, mindfulness is used. Bishop et al. (2004) proposed that mindfulness is ”a process of regulating attention in order to bring a quality of non-elaborative awareness to current experience and a quality of relating to one’s experience within an orientation of curiosity, experiential openness, and acceptance”, proposed Bishop et al. (2004). Mindfulness is characterized by pre-conceptual awareness, purposeful control of attention, non-judgmentally acceptance of skill and present-focused emplacement (Brown, Ryan, ; Creswell 2007). Self-regulation and focusing the attention on the present is required by mindfulness. (Bishop et al., 2004). This awareness and attention entails the individual experience instantly. By processing internal and external data in an unbiased and undistorted manner, harmony and compassion with present experience are realized. (Brown ; Ryan, 2004).
A surge of popular and academic interest in the psychological benefits of mindfulness are witnessed by the past three decades. In less avoidant coping, (Baer et al., 2006), evaluating prospective opportunities in a nonthreatening way (Weinstein et al., 2009) and in disengaging individuals from automatic, thoughts, habits, and unhealthy behavior patterns and fostering self- endorsed behavioral regulation, mindfulness may be important. (Ryan ; Deci, 2000).

The capability to regulate negative emotions, non-attachment and rumination were mediating in the relationship between mindfulness and two aspects of mental health; psychological distress and psychological well- being (Coffey ; Hartman, 2010). Mindfulness has been conceptualized as promoting the well-being of individuals; in particular, mindfulness directly nurtures the well-being experience through providing richness and it indirectly does so through facilitating self-regulating health behavior which includes increased attention to and acceptance of individual needs and values and a higher capacity to behave consistency with those needs and values (Brown ; Ryan, 2003; Brown et al., 2007). Mindfulness may directly, and also through mediating variables, reduce depression, stress and aggression and increase psychological well-being, shows the result of the study. (Marlatt, 2002).

Problem Statement
Literature continues to support a positive relationship between mindfulness and religiosity that leads to increase psychological well-being among adolescents, on the whole. However, there is no research to date that has specifically emphasized on working women and religiosity. Giving of this critical time period of development, it is essential to explore specifically, that how mindfulness and religiosity influence psychological well-being. The religion aspects help in getting a deeper understanding regarding any community. It is worth suspecting to have more facts in regard to religiosity and psychological well-being, on the basis of existing literature. In noting the in?uence of religiosity on the psychological well-being of the Pakistani community, especially the working women, the present study will assist. This will also advocate that religiosity is central to the welfare of working women, and therefore, it necessitates integrating religion and related aspects into their job satisfaction for inculcation of a healthy nation.

Established in the direct links among mindfulness and psychological well-being were the given literature. However, existing literatures are limited in examining the combined predictive effect of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being among working women. This study intended to testify the predictive role of mindfulness and religiosity on psychological well-being among working women of southern Punjab, Pakistan, in order to fill knowledge gaps.
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Significance of the study
Horizons for future research are opened and widened by the present research and it also provides with guidelines for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and mindfulness on psychological well-being among the working women. The present study attempts to explain the influencing mechanisms of mindfulness and religiosity on psychological well-being, specifically in the working women population. Inadequate attention has been received by the researchers in the recent years. Therefore, psychological well-being among working women is being influenced by the impact of religiosity and mindfulness.

The increasing verification attesting to relationship between religiosity, mindfulness and psychological well-being has led psychiatrists and clinical professionals to a review on the suitable role of religion in people’s well-being. For instance, it is increasingly appeased that if a patient is religious, it should be examined by psychiatrist and as well as seen to be a hypothetically constructive force in the person’s life that has a role to play in the therapeutic process (William et al, 2011).

Religiosity and mindfulness to certain extent, had shown positive relationship to psychological wellbeing, in respect to these studies. Based on existing evidences and in the interest of reliability, it may be worth examining more facts and associations regarding religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being to evade sloppiness. This may be considered as proof that religiosity and mindfulness, to an extent influences positively on psychological well- being. But the evidences are still not very strong. To examine the impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being among working women within southern Punjab, Pakistani population, the present study is designed. However, no research has investigated the impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being among working women of south Punjab, Pakistan.

Chapter 2
Literature Review
This chapter will illuminate the reviews and traverse the association between the variable of this study. The literature review to this study and then in light of present and contemporary research they are supposed to be fulfilled, will be fined in this chapter. Theoretical background in the light of existing knowledge will be involved in this chapter. Meanwhile this chapter will be giving the reviews of the researcher and this will be basic addition in the literature review and then over all that it will pave way to the conclusion of the thesis and will present the major contribution of the researcher to the existing body of knowledge and literature about psychology.

Psychology is the study of human behavior and human approach, suggested Luthans et al. (2007). One factor that is related to well-being of human beings and this context, is essential to represent the importance of positive behavior. Affirmation that changes of modern psychology has been shifted from the negative to positive approaches. Causes that shift to the well-being approaches from other things to fiscal things. Things like well-being, mindfulness, health, wealth, religion and high quality of life are being explained by the literature these days. However, objective of the present study is that how positive perspective of psychology should be implemented in the lives of working women that are the main concern of this research.

Steger, (2018) reviewed particularly within the last 10-15 years, many studies have been conducted providing extensive knowledge about well-being. However, despite being proposed to be a defining features of well-being nearly 30 years ago (Ryff, 1989), meaning only recently has been a serious and common part of conversations and research about well-being.Psychological well-being can increase with age, education, extraversion, and consciousness and decreases with neuroticism (Keyes et al., 2002).

The relationship between religion, health, and well-being has been the focus of a number of empirical studies over the last 20 years. Religion is a central part of the lives of many people. According to one estimate, 68% of humans claim that religion is an important part of their lives (Diener, Tay, ; Myers, 2011).More specifically, religious individuals report higher levels of life satisfaction and positive feelings in the US (Diener et al, 2011) and lower levels of depression in the US and Europe (Smith, McCullough, ; Poll, 2003). These effects tend to be small and positive, and the effects also depend on the level of analysis (Tay, Li, Myers, ;Diener, 2014). For example, within countries, religion can fulfill needs such as a sense of belonging and community affiliation, which promote well-being. Between countries, religious practices could increase volunteerism and altruistic behaviors. (Newman, ; Graham, 2018).

Most studies indicate that in the United States, many forms of religious experience are associated with improved physical and mental health. The most common dimension of religious experience that is assessed in research on religion, health, and well-being is attendance at religious services. Frequency of attendance at religious services has been linked to greater psychological well-being in most studies (Keyes ;Reitzes 2007; Francis ;Kaldor 2002; Ellison et al. 2001; Strawbridge et al. 2001; Ellison et al. 1989) but not all (Dezutter et al. 2006; Schnittker 2001).

A surge of popular and academic interest in the psychological benefits of mindfulness have been witnessed by the past three decades. In less avoidant coping (Baer et al., 2006), evaluating prospective opportunities in a non-threatening way (Weinstein et al., 2009) and in disengaging individuals from automatic, thoughts, habits, and unhealthy behavior patterns and fostering self- endorsed behavioral regulation (Ryan ; Deci, 2000) , mindfulness may be important.
Research on mindfulness has been increased significantly (Brown et al., 2007). Research has focused on the benefits of mindfulness to psychological well-being indicate that mindfulness is salubrious for mental health (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, ; Toney, 2006; Brown ; Ryan, 2003), in the recent years.

An effect of psychological well-being in working women is increased or decreased by the relationship of religiosity and mindfulness, according to the researchers. These have an emerging impact of positive psychology and psychological strength of working women shaped different methods to increase or encourage general psychological well-being. After study of number of researches the present study have different relationship of variable like religiosity and psychological well-being, in the literature review.

2.1 Relationship between Religiosity and Psychological well-being
Prior work on psychological well-being and religiosity has shown that religious participation and reliance on religion to cope with stress seem to have positive benefits for psychological well-being, but little to no work has invested relationship between religiosity, mindfulness and psychological well-being. Religiosity seems likely to relate to an individual’s propensity to use certain religious coping strategies or to be included in religious activities. A complete understanding of the intricate ties between religiosity and psychological well-being needs the consideration of multiple dimensions of religiosity.

Pertaining to the subject area of religiosity and psychological well-being, previous researches eloquently speak volumes of, and provide sound evidence to support the positive association between religiosity and psychological well-being. A wide range of different researches have been carried out in this context „ (Dyson, Cobb & Foreman, 1997; George, Ellison, & Larson, 2002; George, Larson, Koenig, & McCullough, 2000; Mickley, Carson, &Soecken, 1995) ?. The consistent findings have been that aspects of religious involvement are linked with positive psychological well-being outcomes (Ellison & Levin, 1998; Swinton, 2001). Evidence supporting these findings emerge from both cross sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as from studies based on both clinical and community samples (George et al., 2002; Plante& Sherman, 2001).

Extended across different populations, these relationships include samples of the young, adults, older people, general community residents, immigrants and refugees, college students, the sick, addicts, homosexuals, persons of parenthood, individuals with mental health problems and personality disorders (Alvarado, et al., 1995; Baline& Croker, 1995; Braam et al., 2004; Chang et al., 1998, Donahue & Benson, 1995; ; Idler &Kasl, 1997; Jahangir et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 1996; Koenig, George & Titus, 2004; Levin & Taylor, 1998; Miller et al., 1997; Plante et al., 2001; Richards et al., 1997; Thearle et al., 1995; Yeung Wai-keung& Chan, 2007).

So the purpose behind the attendance of religious congregations may be contemplated as more important than the act itself. Often researches find that individuals are forced to behave more religiously than they would choose to. In such scenarios, the true impact of religiosity on psychological well-being becomes quite hazy to understand as these are the feelings and thoughts that go behind every religious act, which are expected to be associated to psychological health (or the lack of it). Not all studies, however, have proved a positive association between religiosity and mental health outcomes. Sigmund Freud has termed religion as “The universal obsession neurosis of humanity? (Freud, 1959) while others too have argued that “No correlation between religion and mental health? exists (Bergin, 1991). Higher levels of religiosity are related to greater levels of personal distress (King & Shafer, 1992) and that religious beliefs are responsible for the development of low self-esteem, depression, and even schizophrenia (Watters,1992). Moreover, positive relations have been found specifically between some styles of religion and general well-being, marital satisfaction and general psychological functioning (Gartner, 1996). The means through which religiosity provides positive mental health outcomes have not yet been satisfactorily uncovered, however, factors relevant include: (1) increased social support, (2) extended psychological recourses, (3) positive health practices, and (4) a stronger sense of coherence (George et al., 2002; Harrison et al., 2005).

Religiosity has been linked with psychological well-being, in psychological context. A study conduct by David & Graham, (2018) explore the concept, in literature. They examine how religion is associated with psychological well-being. Research investigates that people who engage in religious activities have higher level of psychological well-being. The result of study also shows that religion and psychological well-being both have positive relation. This study also explores how various religions define well-being and envision God. Research also suggests that these faiths and practices could have important implications for well-being researchers and could highlight avenues for future research. (Newman, &Graham, (2018).

With 60 Muslim students at the University of Southampton and Birmingham in the UK, a study was conducted by Aflakseir (2012) and he found out that Muslim students look at life meaningfully and the significant source of the meaning of life comes from their religious activities and a good association with the family. A few reported to come from hedonistic activities and ownership of objects. A positive relationship between the meaning of life with the components of PWB, spirituality, and religiosity, was also found out by the study.

With the aim to examine the association between subjective psychological well-being, psychological well-being and religiosity, a study was conducted by Faizah & Mayasari (2015) .The results indicated that the constructs of well-being are completely different from each other. Out of the two constructs of well-being, only psychological well-being has an important correlation with religiosity. (“Subjective Well-Being, Psychological Well-Being, and Islamic Religiosity”, 2015)
Ismai; &Desmukh, (2012) examined the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being in a model of Pakistani Muslims. According to the result of the study, the relationship between religiosity and levels of loneliness is indeed very strong and a negative correlation exists. Religiosity and anxiety also appeared to have a strong negative link and also found that a strong positive link lies between religiosity and life satisfaction. The results of this study supported the association between religiosity and different facets of psychological well-being. Pertaining to the subject area of religiosity and psychological well-being, previous researches eloquently speak volumes of, and provide sound evidence to support the positive relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being.

Research literature shows that psychological well-being has a substantial association with spirituality and religiosity. In another study, the population (85 females and 65 males; age range = 18–60 years) showed a positive relationship among religiosity and various aspects of psychological well-being, whereas a negative association with solitude. In the study a linear regression analysis was conducted to explore the outstanding predictors of psychological well-being. Religiosity was found to be the imperative forecaster of psychological well-being, among the independent variables. (Hafeez & Ra?que 2013).

Ahmad, (2017) analyzed the association between religiosity and psychological well-being in Muslim Clerics in Kashmir. Between religiosity and psychological well-being, a strong positive relationship was also found. The results of this research supported positive association between religiosity and different facets of psychological well-being.

The present study has different associations like mindfulness and psychological well-being, after reviewing the literature.

2.2 Relationship between Mindfulness and Psychological well-being
Mindfulness has been conceptualized as promoting the well-being of individuals; in particular, it nurtures the well-being experience through providing richness and indirectly does so, through facilitating self-regulating health behavior which involves increased attention and acceptance of individual needs and values and a higher capacity to behave consistently with those needs and values (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Brown et al., 2007). The results of studies show that mindfulness may directly, and also through mediating variables, reduce depression, stress and aggression and increase psychological well-being (Marlatt, 2002). Moreover, studies on non-clinical populations show that mindfulness increases self-compassion, positive affection, well-being and quality of life and reduces negative emotions, rumination, stress symptoms, anxiety, somatization, aggression and avoidance behavior (Shapiro et al., 2008). Furthermore, mindfulness may increase health and emotional tolerance for negative emotions and stressors (Baer, 2003; Breslin, Zack, &McMain, 2002; Kabat-Zinn, 2003).

Literature show that the association between mindfulness and emotional intelligence. Howell et al. (2011), Wolsko& Lindberg (2013) found positive correlations between connectedness to nature and mindfulness to various dimensions that contribute to psychological well-being. Extant research shows that mindfulness is positively linked with PWB. Practices that are aimed to facilitate awareness or reflection have been used in mindfulness interventions. For instance, Bränström, et al. (2010) conducted a randomized control study. Researchers randomized cancer patients to either the mindfulness intervention or 6-months wait-list control group. Bränström& colleagues (2010) reported that compared to baseline score, at the 3-month follow-up, the intervention group had greater reduction in distress and an increase in positive states of mind and mindfulness compared to the wait-list group. The intervention group also had greater change scores across all measures than the waitlist control group. Furthermore, researchers explored the impact on the assigned group (intervention/wait-list) on positive states of mind and distress.
In disengaging individuals from automatic thoughts, habits, and unhealthy behavior patterns, mindfulness is important and thus can play a key role in fostering informed and self-endorsed behavioral regulation, which have been linked with well-being enhancement (Ryan & Deci, 2000). There is associational relation between mindfulness and psychological well-being. A correlative study made by Sanoveriana, &Fourianalistyawati, (2017). Statistical analysis showed that there is a strong association between mindfulness and psychological well-being. Result suggests that mindfulness ability to be fully aware of present experiences was positively correlated with psychological well-being.

Pidgeon & Keye (2014) considered that mindfulness is a strong predictor of psychological well-being among university students. The results found strong associations between all three variables with mindfulness and resilience significantly forecasting psychological well-being, with resilience accounting for the greatest amount of variance in contrast to mindfulness. These results support previous research, which found that mindfulness increases positive psychological well-being.
Fazli & Ghahari (2017) is of view that significant positive relationship between the components of mindfulness and psychological well-being. The study was to evaluate the association between mindfulness and psychological well-being, and coping strategies with stress in female basketball athletes in Tehran. The result demonstrated significant positive relationship between the components of mindfulness and psychological well-being, and coping with stress strategies. There was a significant positive relationship between components of mindfulness and psychological well-being, coping strategies with stress.

2.3 Theoretical Background
The aim of this current study is to determine the effects of Religiosity and Mindfulness on Psychological well-being of working women of southern Punjab, Pakistan. It is apparent through the literature that non-judgmental, complete awareness of present, autonomy, self-control, and religion. Female function most effectively experience greater psychological health when their behavior is autonomous rather than being controlled. Similarly, the awareness and optimistic growth is impossible without self-determination that absolutely contributes in their psychological well-being. For the theoretical background of the study, it is expected to believe the following theory according to the state of affairs.

2.3.1 Self-determination theory
A macro theory of human motivation, personality development, and well-being is the self-determination theory. The theory emphasizes especially on volitional or self-determined behavior and the social and cultural conditions that promote it. SDT also postulates a set of basic and universal psychological needs, namely those for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and fulfilment regardless of culture or stage of development.

Ryan and Deci (2001) explored that well-being is not best captured by hedonic conceptions of ‘happiness’ alone, instead SDT also employs the concept of eudaimonia, or well-being defined as vital, full functioning, as a complementary approach. Finally, SDT stresses the role of mindfulness and well-ness because autonomy is facilitated by reflective awareness.

SDT has been developed and researched through a set of five mini?theories, which together comprise the theory’s formal objective. Each mini?theory was initially introduced to explore phenomena that emerged from experimental and/or field research on factors affecting human motivation and optimal functioning
Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) concerns how social contexts and interpersonal interaction either facilitate or undermine intrinsic motivation. Doing something for own sake, and implying to activities such as play, sport, and leisure is the intrinsic motivation. CET stresses the importance of autonomy and competence to intrinsic motion, and argues that events that are perceived to detract from these will diminish intrinsic motivation. How factors such as rewards, deadlines, feedback and pressure affect feelings of autonomy and competence and thus enhance or undermine intrinsic motivation, CET specifically addresses. For example, CET explains why some reward structures, such as the financial incentives, and reward form some natural power e.g God actually detract from subsequent motivation, a phenomenon that is often called ‘the undermining effect of rewards’ (Deci, Koestner; Ryan, 1999).

Relevance to the study
One of these is self-determination theory (SDT; Deci ; Ryan, 1985; Ryan ; Deci, 2000), which posits that an open awareness may be especially valuable in facilitating the choice of behaviors that are consistent with one’s needs, values, and interests (Deci & Ryan, 1980). On contrary, automatic or controlled processing often precludes considerations of options that would be more congruent with needs and values (Ryan, Kuhl, & Deci, 1997). In this sense, mindfulness may facilitate psychological well-being through religious activity and fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy (self-endorsed or freely chosen activity), competence, and relatedness (Hodgins & Knee, 2002). That is, awareness facilitates attention to prompts arising from basic needs, making one more likely to regulate behavior in a way that fulfills such needs.

Ryan & Deci (2000), autonomy is introduced to as volition, to having the experience of choice, to endorsing one’s actions at the highest level of reflection and awareness. Autonomy, as the main characteristic of health functioning, is a necessary requirement and has a strong relationship with psychological well-being (Ryan, ; Deci, 2000, 2006).

Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) is also support Cognitive manifestations of religiosity, such as religious coping, also play important roles in the link between religiosity and well-being. For instance, positive religious coping, such as utilizing social support from a religious community, is predictive of reduced depression and hopelessness (Pargament et al. 2005). Glenwick and his colleagues similarly found that positive religious coping was linked with higher positive effect and life contentment, and that negative religious coping could forecast depressive symptoms, anxiety and, in youth in middle school, of negative effect (Terreri and Glenwick 2013; Van Dyke et al. 2009).
Antecedent work has shown that religious participation on religion to cope with stress seem to have positive benefits for psychological well-being, but little to no work has explored relationships between religiosity, mindfulness and psychological well-being. Religiosity is a distinctive aspect of religious coping. One could participate in religious activities or use religious coping strategies with or without indicating strong religious regard or centrality increases psychological well-being. Religiosity seems likely to relate to an individual’s propensity to use certain religious coping strategies or to be evolved in religious activities.
There is scope of s positive assets like mindfulness and religiosity and there link with psychological well-being of the individuals and their development in this theory. This theory is quite relevant for aligning with scope of study.

2.4 Practical Gap
The studies discussed above have majorly covered the variables like mindfulness and emotional distress, roles of connection to nature, mindfulness and distress on psychological wellbeing, work-family balance, trait mindfulness and psychological well-being, mindfulness and procrastination, resilience and mindfulness. However, the psychological well-being of working women seems to be less discussing by literature. The variables like Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being, Religious Involvement, Spirituality and Personal Meaning in Life, in the same manner. The association among mindfulness and religiosity on psychological well-being is ignored in available body of knowledge. The effect of mindfulness and religiosity on psychological well-being of working women are not explored in the previous literature. A mental state of non-judging openness, curiosity, and acceptance towards inner and outer experiences emerging in the present moment (Bishop 2004; Hofmann et al. 2010; Kabat-Zinn 2003) are concerned by mindfulness. Non-judgmental and acceptance creates the situation in which people experience good feelings, at the same time it expresses the good psychological well-being. In this research, this is an unaddressed problem and it is a dominant gap in literature .Shemaila ,(2016) pointed out the role of religiosity on psychological well-being among medical and non-medical students. There is important issue which is not discussed, presence of mindfulness is also important for working women, they also face problem in work place and home at same time. Impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being of working women not tested earlier. This is important to study this link between mindfulness and religiosity because both are important for everyone to live a good life and have balance in all aspects of life. It is dominant gap in literature which requires attention to assessing the association of these perspectives of working women.

2.5 Contextual gap
Most of the studies with respect to religiosity, mindfulness and psychological well-being in the context of developed countries are presented by literature. Prominent studies involved Richard & Kiang, (2016 ) in New York, Shemaila & Tamhoen, (2016) in New York, Doroth, (2017) in USA, Baroni&Norini, (2017) in New York, Tammy, et al (2107) in New York, Gaiswinkler&Unterraines, (2016) Austria and Pidgoen&Keye, (2014) New York. Ivtzan et al (2011) in UK. However, in developing countries, finite studies are found. Few studies which covered these variables are Belay Tefera &Gerun Terek (2017) in Ethopia, FaizahBiniti Award &RosMayasari (2013) in Indonesia, Zeinab Fazli1 &ShahrbanooGhahari (2017) in Iran, Anusha Raj Jayaraja&PuspuNanthinniRamasamy (2107) in Malaysia, Dr. Zeenat Ismail &SohaDesmukh (2012) in Pakistan. Religiosity and psychological well-being separately are covered by these studies and also the relationship of mindfulness and psychological well-being but it ignores to explores the association of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being at same time. Among women especially the working women in past, these variables are less tested and it also has less teste in Pakistan. This relationship needs to be assessed in Pakistan. To comprehend the psychological problem and issues of working women, this research is too helpful. In the context of Pakistan and south Punjab, this research is an important addition, to understand the impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being of working women.
2.6 Purpose of the study
To inspect the effect of religiosity and psychological well-being of working women, is the aim of this study. To explore the relationship between religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being of working women, this research is an effort. The goal of the study is to check the impacts of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being of working women and also to find the positive relationship between religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being of working women in southern Punjab. The fact that Islam plays a major role in shaping Muslims? apprehending, skill and proclamation during times of mental distress is well documented (Abdel-Khalek, 2007; Abu-Ras, Gheith, &Cournos, 2008; Tawfik, 2007). The holy book of the Muslims, the Quran, holds proofs to this concept in many verses. “for, without doubt, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest? (13:28), is one such verse. To have a positive effect on psychological well-being, mindfulness has been found. The effect of mindfulness is complemented by high sense of autonomy on both psychological well-being and distress (Parto&Besharat, 2011). Mindfulness has been proved to promote psychological well-being even further, in combination with meditation (Keune&Forintos, 2010).

In getting a deeper understanding of any community, the religious aspects help. On the basis of the existing literature, it is worth investigating to have more facts in regard to impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being. The present study will assist in noting the in?uence of religiosity and mindfulness on the psychological well-being of the Pakistani community, especially the working women. This will also advocate that religiosity and mindfulness is central to the welfare of working women, and therefore, it necessitates integrating religion, mindfulness and related aspects into their job satisfaction ?elds for inculcation of a healthy nation. Additionally, the study ?ndings may point out that in the circumstances where religiosity and mindfulness provide psychological well-being advantages, it may provide collective advantages as well. This means that if larger number of individuals performs activities re?ective of religiosity, bene?t at a larger level will be provided by this and overall general public will be resilient and healthy. But all this needs to be af?rmed by strong evidences. To explore the impact of religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being among working women background, the present study was depicted.

2.7 Objectives
The current study included the following objectives:•To examine the relationship between psychological well-being and Religiosity among working women.

• To explore the relationship between psychological well-being and mindfulness among working women.

• To investigate the educational and socio-economic status differences on mindfulness and religiosity on psychological well-being.

2.8 Hypotheses
The hypotheses of the current study are:
•Positive correlation with the psychological well-being, mindfulness will have, among working women.

• Positive association with psychological well-being, religiosity will be having, among working women.

•More religiosity and mindfulness on psychological well-being, education and socio-economic status of working women will be having.

Chapter 3
Method
Tactics of present study will be provided by this chapter. All methods that were used in study will be examined by this chapter and it will help to complete present study. Participant characteristics, research design, sample size, and measure of dependent variable that is Psychological well-being and independent variable Religiosity and Mindfulness of working women related to these variables in Pakistan, will be contained by it.
3.1Participants Characteristics
Chosen as the participants for this study were the working women from three districts of Punjab (Multan, Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan). From both private as well as public sector organizations, the participants were taken. Ranging from 20-45 years was the age group of the participants. All the participants were affiliated to Muslim religion and educated. The demographic questions such as age, sex, religion; marital status; number of kids and educational status, were included in the questionnaire.

3.2Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Muslim working women belonging to three district of South Punjab (Multan, Bahawalpur & Rahim Yar Khan) were the participants. Participants were from southern Punjab. Ranging from 20 to 45 years was the age of the participants. Not included in this study were the participants suffering from any psychotic and neurotic disorder. Uneducated participants were not included in this study. Participants not included in the study were those suffering from any physical disabilities. Researchers excluded the working women involved in violence and criminal activities.
3.3Research Design
Through cross sectional survey technique, psychological well-being of working women of Punjab was examined (salano et al., 2016). To assess health related needs of a population at a given point of time, using cross sectional studies and future interventions, may prove to be helpful for allocation and planning, said Ridker et al. (1993). Into classified categories, or rank order, for further measurement and analysis, the data was collected. From analyzed data, the tables were made.
3.4Sample Size
Sample size needs to be 5-20 times of the parameters to be estimated, suggested Lei & Wu, (2007). Sample size is to be determined as recommended, on the basis of the number of predictors, in multivariate study (Hair 2010). For a good model, using 15 samples per indicator is suitable. The total sample size (N=104). For sample justification (Soper, 2018), by using anticipated effect size, sample is calculated, that is (f2 ) is equal to 0.15, chosen statistical power level is equal to 0.9, number of predictors are 2 and probability level is equal to 0.05. The minimize sample size was calculated and that was being found at 87. 20 percent attrition rate was also considered as the probability of respondent biases.

3.5Sampling Technique
Systematic random sample technique was used, in the current study, for the selection of sample from three different institutions of three cities of south Punjab of Pakistan. To be a part of this study, a sample of 105 participants was selected.
3.6Measures
Demographic Questionnaire
Information regarding age, gender, marital status, years of education, monthly income, organization/ institute name and city of current residency, the participants were asked to provide.

The Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-Being (RSPWB)
To measure psychological well-being, this short form scale was employed. In 1996, Ryff and Singer developed it. The following six positive psychological functioning characteristics are measured by this scale: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life and personal growth. It has 54 items, and each item is rated on 5-point scale ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). High internal consistency is demonstrated by the scale, as alpha ranges from .86 to.93, and temporal reliability (test– retest coefficient ranges from .81 to .88). This scale also correlates modestly (and positively) with prevailing measures of positive functioning (e.g., life satisfaction, affect and self-esteem), and negatively with a measure of negative functioning (e.g., depression), thereby determining convergent and discriminant validity (Ryff& Singer, 1996). Cronbach’s alpha in the present study was .87.

Urdu Version translated by Tahira Jabeen, the Ryff scale of Psychological well-being is 54 items with six point Likert type measure. The six area of psychological well-being is indicated by it: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life and self-acceptance. Its Cronbach’s alpha was .87 (Jibeen& Khalid, 2010).

Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaires (FFMQ)
39-item instrument measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1 =Never or very rarely true, 6 = Very often or always true). Following are the ?ve subscales comprises the FFMQ: Observing (“I pay attention to sensations, such as the wind in my hair or sun on my face”), Describing (“My natural tendency is to put my experiences into words”), Acting with Awareness (“I ?nd myself doing things without paying attention”–reverse scored;), Non-reacting (“I perceive my feelings and emotions without having to react to them”), and Non-judging (“I tell myself I shouldn’t be feeling the way I’m feeling”–reverse scored). Interpretable for the FFMQ is the full scale score, as well as the scores for each subscale.

Muslim Religiosity Personality Inventory
Krauss et al. (2005) developed it. In the current research, translated by Muhammad Saleem, the Urdu version is used. This scale includes 46 items and all the items are positive effecting the authenticity for the high validity of the scale. The value of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.857 which shows the enough reliability for being used. The correlational coefficient between the overall forms is 0.273, showing the sufficient validity of the scale.
3.7Procedure
Including information letter and consent form, a research proposal was submitted to the NCBA ; E committee for approval and recommendations in line with the APA ethical procedure. A supervisor was assigned to the researcher, after the approval. On the basis of availability and interest, working women was chosen. On willing women fulfilling the study criteria, the questionnaires were managed. Written and verbal information about the study was given to all the participants and they were informed that the data needs to be treated confidentially, and also that the right to quit the study at any time was also given to them. Any kind of indemnification for taking part in the study was not given to the participants. Participation in the study was voluntary, assented, and undesignated. In exchange, no economic donation was given. 20 minutes were required to administer the whole questionnaire. To analyze the data, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and descriptive statistical was initially run, following to it the correlation was analyzed.

3.8Statistical Analysis
The base of research was the quantitative data, so following questionnaire or scales were selected using guideline of Switzer et al. (1999).The method was found appropriate, considering context and psychometric properties of the scales.

3.9Ethical Consideration
This research was approved by the NCBA ; E. Working women were already been told that the participation in this study was voluntary and that the research data was anonymous. After taking the formal allowance through email from the authors, the scales were used. Information given to participants about research through consent letter and participation was duly signed by the participants. Before actually conducting, the concerned management and authorities were been told of the objectives and possible implication of the study. Moreover, about the time to be utilized for the psychological test, the management was informed. Included in appendix is the informed consent sheet. Civility does not allow to decline, in Pakistani Culture, however participants had the right to leave at any point of research. By using codes in the questionnaire, anonymity was preserved. To carry out this study, formal permission was also taken from the research and ethics committee.

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