Background of the study
According to Klarer (2004) says that in most cases, “literature is referred to the entirety of written expression, with the restriction that not every written document can be categorized as literature in the more exact sense of the word. Wellek and Warren (1963: 22) says that “the term literature seems best if we limit it to the art of literature, that is to imaginative literature. Literature is also produced by imagination of the author. Literature is not just a document of facts, it is not just the collection of real events though it may happen in the real life. Literature can create its own world as a product of the unlimited imagination”. The literary work, as a work of art, can be a drama, a fiction, essays, biography or journalism and so on. Sometimes the narrator deals with an imaginary world such as in prose, drama, and poetry. A literary work can be defined as a branch of literature dealing with words as raw material to create a picture, an idea or a story in a meaningful pattern.
The literary work is two types, either a creative writing or the study of what is written. Writing is a creative work that values man as a creator and raises his existence above the world of subsistence, but that work we call study is the way (by which) another literate person sees and analyses the work in question. The literary work was neither a vehicle for ideas, a reflection of social reality nor the incarnation of some transcendental truth: it was a material fact, whose functioning could be analyzed rather as one could examine a machine. It was made of words, not of objects or feelings, and it was a mistake to see it as the expression of a narrator’s mind.
Novel is one of the literary work, that becomes daily activities for teenagers and as we know it become more modern. Nowadays, people can find anything in internet, and you can also read novel online. Novel is fiction story that nowadays can be nonfiction or based on real story. Most of the authors in the past write novel influenced by social background that was happened at that time.
Historical and Biographical approach has evolving over many years. This approach sees a literary work chiefly, if not exclusively, as a reflection of its author’s life and times of the characters in the work.
In The Great Gatsby, the American Dream is supposed to stand for independence and the ability to make something of one’s self with hard work, but it ends up being more about materialism and selfish pursuit of pleasure. No amount of hard work can change where Gatsby came from, and old money knows it. Merit and hard work aren’t enough, and so the American Dream collapses just like the ballooning dresses of Jordan and Daisy when Nick first sees them.
Problems of the study
Based upon the above explanation, the problems are:
What is the three dimensional aspect of main character used by author in Scott Fitzgerald’s novel “The Great Gatsby”?
What is the characterization method used by author to represent the main character in the novel “The Great Gatsby”?
Aims of the study
To describe the three-dimensional aspect of main character used by author in Scott Fitzgerald’s novel.
To describe the characterization method used by author to represent the main character.
Scope of the Discussion
To limit the discussion, the scope of the study simply focused on:
The three dimensional aspect of the main character such as: psychological, physiological, and sociological in The Great Gatsby which as an object of analysis.
This study also refers to the characterization method which was used by the author to represent the main character.
According to Myers (2009) “the research method is a strategy of enquiry, which moves from the underlying assumptions to research design and data collection”. The research method in this study was classified into four parts, they are: data source, data collection, data analysis, and data presentation of analysis. Each of these four research methods is explained in the followings.
Data source of this study is primary data which is take from novel entitled “The Great Gatsby” by Francis Scott Fitzgerald who was an American novelist and short story writer, whose works illustrate the Jazz Age. While he achieved limited success in his lifetime, he is now widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. “The Great Gatsby” was one of his well-known work which illustrate the American Dream which is published in 1925. The reason why this study will use “The Great Gatsby” as data source, because the title make the reader curious about who or what is it about, why it is called the great Gatsby and about the social background that happen in the time when Fitzgerald write this novel.
Method and Technique of Collecting Data
Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information related to study variables in an established and systematic fashion that helps in answering research questions, aid in testing hypotheses and evaluating outcomes (Konar, 2011). This study collect the data by note taking. The working procedure was divided into several steps:
Reading the novel repeatedly and intensively. Comprehensive reading was needed to understand the content of the novel and also to identify the character of the main character.
Reading the theory book and browsing to the internet, in order to get more information that are relevant to the topic.
Method and Technique of Analyzing Data
Marshall and Rossman (1999:150) describe data analysis as the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data. The data in this study were analyzed using qualitative method. The analysis of the data used the qualitative method and descriptively analyzed. In analyzing data, the writer determined the main character in the story based on the theory of Sarantinos (2014) and Phillips and Huntley (2011:72), then classifying and identifying the three dimensional character of the main character based on Egri Lajos (in Hamzah, 1985:107) and type of characterization method according to Kenney (1996).
Method and Technique of Presenting Analysis
Data can be summarized and presented in various forms depending on the type of data collected. There are many ways to present the data analysis such as frequency distribution, bar graph, histogram, pie chart, and line graph. The data analysis in this study will be present in textual form or descriptive method based on the problem that will be discuss.
Review of Literature, Concepts, and Theoretical Framework
Review of Literature
Literature is often defined as a permanent expression in words of some thought or feeling idea about life and the world. Literary work can construct the world throughout words for the motive that words have power. By the side of statement, it is represented that through that power, it can form an image of particular world, as a new world. Those words have documentary aspects that can break through space and times, illustrate past as well as future (Ratna, 2005:150).
The first thesis is Mirah Yuliari I Dewa Ayu (2010) in her thesis entitled The Analysis of The Main Character in “The Cather in the RYE” by J.D Salinger. The analysis of her thesis focused on the characters, particularly on the main character. She used theory which is proposed by Kenney (1966: 28-29), who states that characters are of two types, namely flat and round characters. She also states that in characterization, there are several methods which could be used by the author.
There are similarities and differences between Yuliari’s paper and the current study. The similarity is both of these papers analyzed the main character from the three aspects of the character those including physiological aspect, sociological aspect and psychological aspect. And the difference is from the theory used to analyze the character from the three aspects of character. Mirah Yuliari used the theory proposed by Warren and Wellek; and Tokay while the current study used the theory proposed by Lajos Egri (in Sukada, 1987).
The second thesis Komang Alit Sawitri (2012) who is also a student from Udayana University, aim her research to the analysis of method of characterization and three dimensional aspects of main character in Brontë’s Jane Eyre. She discussed the characterization used clearly and show the three dimensional aspects then proved that with the method of characterization and quoted from the story itself. This is help this study to be more detail with some quotations to prove the arguments that brought by.
There are also similarities between Sawitri’s paper and current study. The similarities are the current study will also focus to the analysis of characterization and also three dimensional character and prove it by quoting some dialog or narration in the novel itself.
Nadina Priscilla Novembrica (2016) who is a student from Udayana University. Her research aims to analyze the method of characterization used by the author to present the main character, and to describe the main character based on the physiological, sociological and psychological aspects in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird which is very relevant with this study that will discuss about the characterization method used by the author to represent the main character into three dimensional aspect.
This study is also reviewed international online article about the three dimensions of character from Mooderino in 2014. He give explanation about psychology, physiology, and sociology in a literature itself which help this study to analyze a literature. Unfortunately, the article does not contain an example of three dimensional character in a literature or the characterization method which will be analyze in this study.
In order to have another literature to be reviewed, this study also used Character Analysis Method from the International Journal of Communication Research by Nechifor (2013). This journal showed a view about character analysis method which can help this study to analyze a novel. It contained method of character analysis which is state consisted of two points of view, also the types of need to developed a character regarding the form of the context, and also other things which useful to this study.
In order to help this study to be understood clearly. There are many concepts related to this study topic which is going to be explained. The concepts that will be present in this study are
The concept of character that is a person who is responsible for the thoughts and action within a story, poem, or other literature. Characters are extremely important because they are the media through which a reader interacts with a piece of literature. Every character has his or her own personality, which a creative author uses to assist in forming the plot of a story or creating a mood. The character that has the significant role in the story is called as main character.
The concept of three dimensional character which is stated by Lajos, those dimensions are physiology, sociology, and psychology. They are the elements which build the characterization in a literary work and they are bound to each other. Different combination of those factors will result in different characteristics of people.
The concept of characterization method based on Kenney (1996) he classifies the characterization method or how the character itself being describe in the novel as the discursive method, dramatic method, contextual method, and mixing methods.
In order to analyze the characters in Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, it depends on three theories which are theory of character in intrinsic elements of literature, three dimensions of character, and the characterization method.
Theory of Character
In fiction, a character may be defined as a verbal representation of a human being. Through action, speech, description, and commentary, narrators portray character that are worth caring about, rooting for, and even loving, although there are also characters you may laugh at, dislike, or even hate.
The distinction of character based on its role in developing of plot is divided into main character and supporting character. The character that has the significant role in the story is called as main character. Phillips and Huntley (2011:72) said that the main character came into the story with a tried and true method for dealing with the kind of problem featured in the story. The main character tries everything to find a way to solve the problem in a story, holding out in the hope that the problem will eventually go away, or work itself out, or be resolved by the tried and true method.
Three Dimensional Character
Lajos (1964) states that a character has three dimensions as its fundamental structure. Those dimensions are physiology, sociology, and psychology. They are the elements which build the characterization in a literary work and they are bound to each other. Different combination of those factors will result in different characteristics of people.
Physiological dimension is the description of the physical aspects of a character, e.g. appearance and general health. Physical appearance may affect on the character’s feeling regarding his/her surrounding, or the feeling of being secure/insecure. Physiological aspects of a character are observed through sex, age, or physical appearance such as the body shape, whether or not a person is beautiful or handsome, or the color of skin and hair.
Sociological dimension is related to the description of the condition of character’s environment. Sociological aspect can be effectively analyzed through the social life of the character, e.g. the house, the job, the education, and the social status.
The last dimension of character is psychological dimension. Psychological dimensions deal with the characteristics of the character, e.g. behavior, emotion, and thought.
According to Kenney (1996) he classifies the characterization method or how the character itself being describe in the novel as the discursive method, dramatic method, contextual method, and mixing methods.
Discursive method, the narrator who chooses the discursive method simply tells us about his characters. The advantages of this method are simplicity and economy. The writer who is content to tell us directly about his character can quickly finish the job of characterization and go on to other things. The disadvantage is that it discourages the reader’s imaginative participation.
Dramatic method, the narrator allows his characters to reveal themselves to us through their own words and action. The advantages of the dramatic method are that it is more life-like and invites the reader’s active participation in the story. The disadvantages of this method are it is less economical; it also increases the possibility of the reader’s misjudging the character. Under the general heading of the dramatic method is character on other characters, it is the device of having one character in a story talk about another. The reader must remember of course that the information received in this way is not necessarily reliable.
Contextual method means the device of suggesting character by the verbal context that surrounds the character.
Mixing method, the narrator used combination of at least two methods in a story. Indeed, the contextual method can be used effectively only in combination with other methods
Bruccoli, Matthew. 2005. Getting It Wrong: Resetting The Great Gatsby. Columbia.
Coles, William H. 2009. Character in Literary Fictional Story. America, Story in Literary Fiction.
Cynthia, Ragel. 2013. Intrinsic Elements of Literary Work. Indonesia, WordPress.com
Gross, Dalton. 1998. Understanding the Great Gatsby. Greenwood Press, Westport.
Lajos, Egri. 1964. The Art of Dramatic Writing. Amazon.
Mooderino. 2014. The Three Dimensions of Character. Blog. Cited from:URL: http://moodywriting.blogspot.co.id/2014/03/the-three-dimensions-of-character.html?m=1Nechifor, R. 2013. Character Analysis Method. International Journal of Communication Research.
Novembrica, Nadina Pricilla. 2016. Three Dimensions of the Main Character in Lee’s to Kill A Mockingbird. Bali, Udayana University.
Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 1995. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University Press.
Phillips, M.A; Chris Huntley. 2011. Dramatica: A New Theory of Story. United Kingdom, Amazon.
Sawitri, Komang Alit. 2012. Method of characterization and three Dimensional Aspects of Main Character in Brontë’s Jane Eyre. Bali, Udayana University.
Wellek, Rene; Austin Warren. 1989. Theory of Literature. New York, University of Florida.
Yuliari, Mirah. 2010. The Analysis of the Main Character in “The Cather in The RYE” by J.D Salinger. Bali, Udayana University.