Education is the whole of life practice that people attain and which empowers them to deal with and drive fulfilment from living in the world. This is because it permits them to realize social capacity and individual growth. It is on this foundation that it is said that worth of a nation’s Education is comparative to the level of its success (Aduwa ;Uwameiye, 2006). Education is also as a corner stone of economic and social development of the nation and the investment in education enhances productivity towards achieving developmental goals (Milanowski, 2014). National policy on Education (FRN, 2013) pointed out that education is compulsory and a right of every Nigerian irrespective of gender, social status, religion, ethnic background and any peculiar individual challenges, and education maximizes the creative potential and skills of the individual for self-fulfilment and general developmental of the society. It further stated that philosophy of Nigerian education is based on the development of the individual into sound responsible citizen, and the provision of equal opportunities for all citizens of the nation at basic, secondary and tertiary levels in and outside the school system.
Education, according to Akpan (2014), is a process by which the values of society are transmitted across generation through a well defined method such as knowledge, skill, attitudes, believes.
The availability of instructional resources refers to components that are operational for a desirable period of time for profitable use. Availability of instructional resources in Upper Basic school such as model, charts, pictures are all meant to make teaching and learning permanent among children. Aramidek;Bolarinwa (2010).
Oladosu (2015) stated the guidelines for utilization of instructional resources as; preview materials which is the step to be taken to ensure the accuracy and appropriateness of the materials. This is done to erase technical difficulties that could arise, prepare materials which is to gather-up all the media and support materials, practice using the media and determine the sequencing of the instruction, prepare the environment which is the movement of material and people to aid utilization. This includes the setting-up of facilities where the instruction will take place, rearranging classroom seating and lighting and present the Instruction. The availability and utilization of instructional resources are vital of the sustenance of improved participation of students in learning. Iyunade (2014).
One of the factors affecting students’ performance in Basic Technology according to Adejumo (2008) was non-availability of standard workshop, tools and equipment for teaching various concepts in Basic Technology. He stated that students need equipment and tools for a particular activity or purpose. Absence of these tools and equipment may hinder Basic Technology teachers to teach effectively and students not being sound in practical activities which is one of the major objectives of including this subject into the curriculum.
Curzon (2007) points out that utilization of instructional resources Basic Technology classrooms widens the channel of communication between teachers and their students. The instructional Resources allows the growth of specific learning abilities and enhances intellectual and motor skills. To facilitate effective interaction between teachers, learners and subject matter, there should be utilization of instructional resources (Chandra, 2005).
Bolick, Benson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional resources in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers lacked behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional resources in Basic Technology teaching and learning has been very challenging in some schools.
A key feature of effective teaching is the selection of instructional materials that meet the needs of students and fit the constraints of the teaching and learning environment. Reigeluth (2012).
However, various researches have been carried out in the past, on utilization of instructional resources by teachers, in teaching Basic Technology. The major objectives of Basic Technology education in Nigeria is for the youths to be able to explore the fundamentals vocational competencies and also to be well in tune with Scientific and technological world, so as to contribute maximally to the economic growth and development of the nation (FRN, 2014).
Nwafor and Eze (2014), in a study to determined the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching Basic Science In selected secondary schools in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. The research discovered that apart from two-dimensional instructional materials, most schools lack other valuable very important instructional materials for teaching. Fisch, Shalom, & Rosemarie (2005), In order to ensure an effective and teaching learning process, it is important for the teacher to be thoroughly acquainted with the teaching resources and services available to him. The components of instructional resources available to teachers are in large numbers and also vary according to the functions of each component.
Instructional resources refered to resources that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time (Munchi 2008). The learner can see, touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more meaningful. Basic Technology is designed to enable the learners develop interest in science and technology, acquire basic knowledge and skills in science and technology, and also apply their scientific, technological knowledge and skills to meet societal needs. (Abioye 2006). He stated further that If these objectives will be achieved, then efforts should be made to provide adequate instructional resources to Nigeria Upper Basic Schools in teaching of Basic Technology and to encourage its effective use. He also pinned that despite the emphasis placed on the usefulness of instructional resources in teaching and learning process, most students still find it difficult to cope with the study of Basic Technology in schools. This may have resulted from lack of or underutilization of instructional resources by teachers.
Instructional resources are teaching aids in learning activities. They are used to help transfer information and skills by the teacher to the learner. They are available and utilized in teaching and learning environments such as schools, seminars and workshops. Instructional resources includes; textbook, educational media, (library media print, non-print, and electronic resources), computer software, videotapes, films, DVDs, and instructional television programs. All these represent fundamental resources for school in enhancing instruction ,further the pursuit of knowledge and providing experiences of educational significance to learners (Gene, 2013). Ijaodola (2010) refers to instructional resources as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Legget (2005) classified instructional resources into two types: as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and audiovisual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials.
Instructional resources as the name suggests are materials of visual, audio and audio-visual category that helps to make concepts abstracts and idea concrete in the teaching and learning process. They are also materials which the teacher uses to facilitate learning for better results. Likewise, it is the use of the chalkboard, charts, models, overhead projectors, films, television and computers in teaching process. Akinpelu (2011). He also stated that it is not just the use of tools of technology alone but a systematic integrated organization of machines hard wares and soft wares to the solution of problems in education.
The influence of instructional resources in promoting students’ academic performance in teaching and learning educational development was indispensable. Instructional resources are used by teachers to teach, facilitate teaching and learning, which make a successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learner, make lessons explicit to learners. Jekayinfa;ALloyd, (2011).
Moreover, If instructional resources is well utilized, it will give the students real experiences of what the teacher is teaching, so it is the duty of the teacher to ensure that the materials to be used as instructional resources are not only available but also accessible to him and affordable. Abioye (2006).
Basic Technology is a subject that depends on the use of numbers of resources. Ijaodola (2010) summarized those resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful Basic Technology teaching and learning situation. Jekayinfa (2011) opined that instructional resources are used for teaching and learning. Instructional resources help learners to gain facts and develop cognitive process. Instructional resources in classrooms need to reflect the most recent information, research and academic contents standards. This instructional resources must provide a vivid demonstration of subject been taught. (Jimoh, 2010).
Ajelabi (2005), explained that technology was derived from the Greek word “Techne” meaning art of skill and “Logia” meaning science or study. He therefore define Technology as knowledge and creative processes that may assist people to utilize tools, resources and systems to solve problems and enhance control over the natural and man-made environment in an endeavor to improve the human condition. Technology in this statement involves the Purposeful application of knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and products that meet human needs.
Basic Technology is a phase of general education designed to introduce the leaner to acquaint him/her with the basic process, material and product of industries.(Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014).
The Basic Science and Basic Technology Curriculum provides that the teaching and learning of both subjects should be both practical and theoretical in nature (FRN, 2014), as subjects that deals with skills, creativity and critical thinking, whose major purpose is to expose the learner to scientific knowledge and technological rudiments.
Basic Technology is a subject offered by students at the Upper Basic Schools level (J.S.S. 1 – J.S.S. 3). This subject was design to: develop the interest of students in science and technology, apply scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs, take advantage of numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology, among others. (Basic Science and Technology Curriculum 2012).
Statement of problem
Onasanya;Adegbija carried out a study on the type of instructional media technology used by the then Junior Secondary School teachers in Kwarastate, they concluded that learning was more effective when it occurs in interactive setting that was mostly promoted through the use of instructional media technology. (Onasanya;Adegbija, 2007)
Abioye (2006) stated that Some teachers find it difficult to effectively teach Basic Technology as a subject due to the performance of the students because of inadequate resources for teaching. This study wishes to address to what extent is availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools students could be achieved.
Lack of standard Basic Technology workshops and other necessary tools and materials are parts of the factors contributing to poor performance of students in Basic Technology in Nigeria according to Ivowi, (2000) in accordance with School Advisor(2018) that Government (public) schools have fewer facilities and technology compared to private schools. This study examined the availability of Instructional Resources and difference between private and public schools utilization of Instructional Resources for teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools.
Purpose of study
The main purpose of this study was to examined the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools in Ilorin Metropolis, kwara State. Specifically, the study would:
1. find out the instructional resources which are available in upper basic schools in Ilorin metropolis.
2. examine how Upper Basic Technology teachers react to the utilization of instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology.
3. examine the reaction of male and female teachers towards the use of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology.
4. examine the difference between private and public schools utilization of instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools
The following research questions would guide this study:
1. what instructional resources are available for teaching Basic Technology?
2. how do Upper Basic Technology teachers react to the utilization of instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology?
3. what is the reactions of male and female teachers towards the use of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology?
4. What is the difference between private and public schools utilization of instructional resources for teaching basic technology in Upper Basic school?
H01: Is there any availability of Instructional Resources for teaching Basic Technology?
H02: Is there any reaction of Upper Basic Technology towards the utilization of Instructional Resources?
Ho3: Is there any significant difference in the level of utilization of instructional resources by male and female teachers?
Ho4: Is there any significant difference in the level of utilization of instructional resources between private and public upper basic schools?
Significance of the study
The result of this study could be used to improve the teaching of Basic Technology in Upper Basic Schools and as well enhance students’ performance when exposed to facilities that could be used for teaching the subject. The findings of this study might be of benefits to the students, teachers, curriculum designers, government, school administrators, professional organizations, (NGOs) and future researchers.
The teaching learning process would be more enjoyable on the part of the students because of the opportunities to interact with new and existing instructional resources leading to acquisition of new skills that would enable them fit into present world. Instructional resources helps the students to identify a problem and suggest a possible solution to improve teaching.
It would also helps the teachers to have effective teaching during teaching because it is an approach that would enable better performance which are easily achieved than when conventional approach is used.
This findings would be beneficial to curriculum designers to include the use of instructional resources in teaching Basic Technology. Also it would help the government to know the types of instructional resources to be provided for upper basic schools.
This study would also help the school administrators in the day to day activities of running the school as there are need to improve the quality of teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
The result of this study might encourage stakeholders to organize seminars and workshops that would inform individuals on the need to incorporate instructional resources in teaching and learning. The finding of this study would also encourage Non-government organization (NGOs) to provide necessary support to schools in Nigeria by donating facilities that would enhance students’ performance.
The result of this study would serve as a reference point to fellow researchers who are willing to carry out a similar study.
Scope of study
The study focused on upper Basic School’s Basic Technology teachers on availability and utilization of instructional resources in Ilorin Metropolis. This study covered forty nine(49) upper basic schools in Ilorin metropolis, both private and public schools covering three(3) local governments which are Ilorin south, Ilorin west and Ilorin east. The study discovered how Basic Technology teachers utilizes instructional resources for teaching Basic Technology and the types of instructional resources that are available in their schools. The study also found out the importance of instructional resources for teaching and learning Basic Technology.
Operational definition of terms
Availability : The quality of being able to used or obtained instructional resources. The fact that instructional resources can be bought, used or reached.
Utilization : The action of making practical and effective use of instructional resources.
Instruction: This is the Imparted knowledge by instructional resources.
Instructional Resources :These are the materials or tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resources a teacher uses to help him teach his/her students is an instructional material.
Basic Technology: This a subject offered by students at the upper Basic School level.
Upper Basic School :This is the class of J.S.S 1 – J.S.S 3.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This research was designed to assess the availability and utilization of instructional resources in teaching basic technology in upper basic schools in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara state. This chapter presents some relevant studies in relation to instructional resources for Basic Technology . The review of related literature was presented in this chapter under the following sub-titles:
a. Nature, Scope and Objectives of Basic Technology Curriculum in Nigeria .
b. Concept of Instructional Resources in Education.
c. The Importance of Instructional Resources in Teaching and Learning Process.
d. Concept of Teaching and Learning Process.
e. Factors that Determine Quality Teaching and Learning Process.
f. Relevance of Instructional Materials in teaching Basic Technology.
g. Impact of Effective Utilization of Instructional Resources.
h. Guideline for Selection of Instructional Resources.
i. Appraisal of Related Literature Review.
Nature, Scope and Objectives of Basic Technology Curriculum in Nigeria :
According to Olaniyan (2007) Basic Technology was introduced to Nigeria education system, 6-3-3-4 as Introductory Technology in 1982 as a result of the newly defined National Policy on Education that came into being after the National Curriculum conference of September, 1969. The conference held in Lagos to previewed old and identify new national goals for Nigerian Education at all levels with respect to; the needs of individual youths and adults in task of nation building and the social and economic needs, aspiration and well-being of our society.
Basic Technology as a subject in the then Junior Secondary School Curriculum provides significant supports for the implementation of the aim to reduce ignorance about technology and help to lay a solid foundation for the true national development (FRN 2004). Through television, human beings seek to influence each other’s behaviour at every level, in the homes, work places, on the streets, in schools and everywhere (Onasanyan;Adebija, 2007). The Basic Technology curriculum designed to fulfil three specific objectives namely; to provide pre-vocational orientation for further training in technology, to provide basic technology literacy for everyday living and to stimulate creativity (FRN, 2004).
It was hoped that if these laudable objectives are achieved, there would be a great revolution in the science and technology education and consequently and acceleration of technological development of the country. In other to realize these objectives however, there is need to play a lot of attention to the actual implementation process i.e. the teaching and learning situation (Ogungbe, 2002).
However, due to restructuring of curriculum, Basic Technology as a subject was brought out from Introductory Technology in 2012 to impart the knowledge of science and the understanding of the world around, and also imparting practical training of various types of vocational skills. (FRN 2012). Basic Science and Technology are compulsory subject in the nine(9) years basic education program. It purpose is to contribute to the achievement of the national education goals by; developing students interest in science and technology, acquiring basic knowledge and skills in science and technology. applying scientific and technological knowledge and skills to meet contemporary societal needs taking advantage of the numerous career opportunities provided by science and technology, becoming prepared for further studies in science and technology, avoiding drug abuse and related vices and been safety and security conscious (National Curriculum for upper Basic Education, 2012).
The 2012 revised curriculum cover the following five(5) themes for Basic Technology; understanding basic technology, safety, materials and processing, drawing practice and tools, machines and process. (National curriculum for Basic Education, 2012).
Concept of Instructional resources in Education
Instructional materials refer to a great variety of resources, which the teacher can use to instate the points he wishes to emphasize in his teaching to make his lesson vivid and more interesting (Eze, 2000). According to Kunle and Akanbi (2000), instructional materials are information carriers designed specially to fulfil objectives in a teaching-learning situation. SimilarIy, Njoku (2000) defined instructional materials as any human and material resources used by the teacher to promote greater understanding of learning experience. These resources serve as information carriers designed specifically to fulfil objectives in teaching-learning situation. They are used to complement the teacher’s effort in the classroom. They vary from very simple and inexpensive ones, such as the chalkboard, flat pictures, diagram, illustration and maps to more complicated ones like the television, movie projectors, slides and films strip projectors.
Stressing on the importance of instructional materials in the study of Basic Technology ,Onochie (2000) noted that Basic Technology requires plenty of teaching aids without which the subject cannot be taught effectively. This shows that teaching aids actually stimulate interest and motivate learning. They help to develop keen observation, which is needed in arts and quite indispensable in science and technology.
According to Moneme (2000), teachers’ main problem then, becomes how to impart knowledge to the students so that they would understand and comprehend it. Therefore, the duty of the teachers is to resort to ways of imparting the knowledge to the students through mediated instruction. From the above statement, we know that the success of a teacher depends on his ability to use instructional materials.
Researches so far made on teaching-learning communication, understanding and retention of what was taught point at the vary fact that usage of instructional materials is the bedrock of education success. This was the view of Sanders (1974) when he observed that “you remember 10% of what you hear (what I hear I forget): you remember 50% of what you hear and do (what I see I remember): you remember 90% of what you hear, see and do (what I do I know)”.
Onochi (2000) discovered that some teachers find it hard to use instructional materials. May be because of Lack of interest, resourcefulness or inadequate training on how to use materials, these teachers teach without materials. Some factors that must be considered in the selection of instructional materials according to Onyejernezi (2000) are as follows; relevance of instructional materials to objectives, the target population for whom the materials are to be used, the degree of satisfaction derived by children in using the materials and the flexibility in and easiness of using the materials and the cost of the materials in relation to the effectiveness. She also noted the following as the educational values accruing from the usage of instructional materials; they supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless word responses of pupils, they make learning more permanent, they have a high degree of interest for pupils, they offer a reality of experience, which stimulates self-activity on the part of pupils, they develop a continuity of thought; this is especially true of motion pictures, they contribute to growth of meaning and hence to vocabulary development and they provide experience not easily obtained through other materials, and contribute to the efficiency, depth and variety of learning.
On the importance and advantage of improvisation and on using locally made instructional materials in teaching learning process, STAN (2000) noted that homemade materials are very important and have several advantages. They are cheap and effective. They help to make Basic Technology real and concrete. Concerning benefits got from improvisation of instructional materials, Nnolim (2000) stated that there are numerous benefits derived when teachers involve themselves and the learner in the Improvisation of their own instructional and learning materials, The use of five senses thus sight, touch, taste, smell and hearing have much role to play in human leaning..
Onwuegbunam (2000) stated that instructional materials could be referred to as “teaching aids” since it directs the attention of the learner faster to the said or intended knowledge and concepts. To Farrant (1964), instructional materials are aids to learning rather than aids to teaching.
According to Taylor (1991), neither the teacher’s pastoral nor his tutorial functions can be replaced. The most austere approach is to employ a chalkboard and book. A teacher in action is not just function of words. For this sense of activity to be possible, the things that the child is learning from must be there when he needs them. They must have some measure of performance whether contrived or natural, they must provide a collection of physically existing, stable objects from which the child can learn.
Material resources are categorized into projected and non-projected materials. Projected materials are apparatus for projecting photographic images, films, and slides etc. on the screen, Non-projected materials cannot be projected. Such examples are chalkboard, textbook, radio, tape recorders, pictures, postern, cartoon, charts, wall charts, flash cards, periodicals, reference books, fiction and non-fiction. In some textbooks, teaching resources are broadly categorized into three main groups namely: Visual Aids: These are resources that relate to the sense of sight which make a lasting impression on the learner. They include charts, maps boards, pictures, among other. Audio Aids are relate more to the sense of hearing. Examples are radio, tape recorders, and human voice. Audio-visual Aids are combination of the external senses especially seeing, and hearing. They include television, and cinema. All these aids help to sustain attention, retention of information or concept and serve as reference materials. Abioye, (2006).