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Assignment 1
According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “DOI\t10.1023/A:1011440125207”, “ISBN” : “1388-1957 (Print) 1572-8439 (Online)”, “ISSN” : “13881957”, “abstract” : “Moral reasoning traditionally distinguishes two types of evil: moral (ME) and natural (NE). The standard view is that ME is the product of human agency and so includes phenomena such as war, torture and psychological cruelty; that NE is the product of nonhuman agency, and so includes natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, disease and famine; and finally, that more complex cases are appropriately analysed as a combination of ME and NE. Recently, as a result of developments in autonomous agents in cyberspace, a new class of interesting and important examples of hybrid evil has come to light. In this paper, it is called artificial evil (AE) and a case is made for considering it to complement ME and NE to produce a more adequate taxonomy. By isolating the features that have led to the appearance of AE, cyberspace is characterised as a self-contained environment that forms the essential component in any foundation of the emerging field of Computer Ethics (CE). It is argued that this goes some way towards providing a methodological explanation of why cyberspace is central to so many of CE’s concerns; and it is shown how notions of good and evil can be formulated in cyberspace. Of considerable interest is how the propensity for an agent’s action to be morally good or evil can be determined even in the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. The thesis defended is that the notion of entropy structure, which encapsulates human value judgement concerning cyberspace in a formal mathematical definition, is sufficient to achieve this purpose and, moreover, that the concept of AE can be determined formally, by mathematical methods. A consequence of this approach is that the debate on whether CE should be considered unique, and hence developed as a Macroethics, may be viewed, constructively, in an alternative manner. The case is made that whilst CE issues are not uncontroversially unique, they are sufficiently novel to render inadequate the approach of standard Macroethics such as Utilitarianism and Deontologism and hence to prompt the search for a robust ethical theory that can deal with them successfully. The name Information Ethics (IE) is proposed for that theory. It is argued that the uniqueness of IE is justified by its being non-biologically biased and patient-oriented: IE is an Environmental Macroethics based ou2026”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Floridi”, “given” : “Luciano”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sanders”, “given” : “J W”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Ethics and Information Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2001” }, “page” : “55”, “title” : “Artificial evil and the foundation of computer ethics”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5e2190d3-2dd9-4d7c-ada4-46d0d8c83c4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Floridi and Sanders, 2001)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Floridi and Sanders, 2001)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Floridi and Sanders, 2001)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Floridi and Sanders, 2001) “Evil is the most comprehensive expression of ethical disapproval.”
In computer ethics , “Ethical theory” as stated by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/JICES-07-2014-0033”, “ISBN” : “9781920538002”, “ISSN” : “1477-996X”, “PMID” : “27760356”, “abstract” : “It is now widely acknowledged that students of computing, as prospective professionals, need to be aware of the broader issues surrounding the design, deployment and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Courses in ethical, social and professional issues have consequently been integrated into computer science, and related degrees, for some time. A common framework for teaching and analysing computer ethics has emerged, and can be identified in various key texts which offer similar pedagogical approaches and address common topics (Kallman and This paper critically reviews key aspects of this framework from four main angles; ethical theories, professional codes of conduct, the law, and social issues. Some of the limitations of these approaches are considered. A revised framework is then outlined, and an alternative methodology proposed for doing ethics in a teaching context. This approach draws on the practical experience of teaching computer ethics to a culturally diverse body of computing undergraduates, both in the UK and at several international sites.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jones”, “given” : “Simon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “33-48”, “title” : “Doing the right thing: computer ethics pedagogy revisited”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=31c0bdc9-675e-4e50-bf5a-189333f95075” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jones, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jones, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jones, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jones, 2016), occupies a central place.

The methodological framework for conducting this study consists of a description of the nature and type of data; search and retrieval experiments conducted; data analysis methods used; and the information visualization tools employed.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “Library and Information Science Source”, “ISBN” : “9781476621890”, “ISSN” : “1061-9321”, “PMID” : “502972706”, “abstract” : “Information ethics is a multi-faceted and multilayered concept that covers such issues as social responsibility, citizenship, global information justice, freedom of speech, copyright, and privacy, to name a few. The International Review of Information Ethics lists the Internet, computer science and library and information science as areas that are concerned with research and devel? opment in the discipline of information ethics. It is evident that the discussion and discourse of information ethics cuts across various scholarly and disci? plinary boundaries. To provide a coherent and integrated perspective of the scholarly activities in information ethics, a comprehensive analysis and pres? entation of publication trends will prove particularly useful. This kind of analysis will make a contribution to the development of a knowledge map of scholarly activities in information ethics and encourage collaborative research and scholarship.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shiri”, “given” : “Ali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Information Ethics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “17-37”, “title” : “Exploring Information Ethics A Metadata Analytics Approach”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “25” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e6c30d41-81a7-4e98-9756-b8b76f88ea93” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Shiri, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Shiri, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Shiri, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Shiri, 2016)
Information systems (IS) as a field of academic research and business practice has long considered the importance of ethical considerations, including questions of what counts as right and wrong, good or bad, moral or immoral.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.im.2014.01.001”, “ISBN” : “0378-7206”, “ISSN” : “03787206”, “abstract” : “The discourse concerning computer ethics qualifies as a reference discourse for ethics-related IS research. Theories, topics and approaches of computer ethics are reflected in IS. The paper argues that there is currently a broader development in the area of research governance, which is referred to as ‘responsible research and innovation’ (RRI). RRI applied to information and communication technology (ICT) addresses some of the limitations of computer ethics and points toward a broader approach to the governance of science, technology and innovation. Taking this development into account will help IS increase its relevance and make optimal use of its established strengths. ?? 2014 The Authors.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stahl”, “given” : “Bernd Carsten”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eden”, “given” : “Grace”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jirotka”, “given” : “Marina”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Coeckelbergh”, “given” : “Mark”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Information Management”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “810-818”, “publisher” : “Elsevier B.V.”, “title” : “From computer ethics to responsible research and innovation in ICT. The transition of reference discourses informing ethics-related research in information systems”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “51” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b13eb63b-10d9-49a6-82c6-9c0773eeadaa” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stahl <i>et al.</i>, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stahl et al., 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Stahl <i>et al.</i>, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stahl et al., 2014)
The increasing ambiguity of computing technologies and artifacts lead to the growing relevance of ethical aspects of computing ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1145/2871196”, “ISBN” : “9781476621890”, “ISSN” : “03600300”, “abstract” : “Computing technologies and artifacts are increasingly integrated intomost aspects of our professional, social, and private lives. One consequence of this growing ubiquity of computing is that it can have significant ethical implications that computing professionals need to be aware of. The relationship between ethics and computing has long been discussed. However, this is the first comprehensive survey of the mainstream academic literature of the topic. Based on a detailed qualitative analysis of the literature, the article discusses ethical issues, technologies that they are related to, and ethical theories, as well as the methodologies that the literature employs, its academic contribution, and resulting recommendations. The article discusses general trends and argues that the time has come for a transition to responsible research and innovation to ensure that ethical reflection of computing has practical and manifest consequences.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stahl”, “given” : “Bernd Carsten”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Timmermans”, “given” : “Job”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mittelstadt”, “given” : “Brent Daniel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “ACM Computing Surveys”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-38”, “title” : “The Ethics of Computing: A Survey of the Computing-Oriented Literature”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “48” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=49a24f79-4f3b-452a-82c4-c414ffd7fff7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stahl, Timmermans and Mittelstadt, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stahl, Timmermans and Mittelstadt, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stahl, Timmermans and Mittelstadt, 2016)
References
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Floridi, L. and Sanders, J. W. (2001) ‘Artificial evil and the foundation of computer ethics’, Ethics and Information Technology, 3(1), p. 55. doi: DOI 10.1023/A:1011440125207.

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Jones, S. (2016) ‘Doing the right thing: computer ethics pedagogy revisited’, Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 14(1), pp. 33–48. doi: 10.1108/JICES-07-2014-0033.

Shiri, A. (2016) ‘Exploring Information Ethics A Metadata Analytics Approach’, Journal of Information Ethics, 25(1), pp. 17–37. doi: Library and Information Science Source.

Stahl, B. C. et al. (2014) ‘From computer ethics to responsible research and innovation in ICT. The transition of reference discourses informing ethics-related research in information systems’, Information Management. Elsevier B.V., 51(6), pp. 810–818. doi: 10.1016/j.im.2014.01.001.

Stahl, B. C., Timmermans, J. and Mittelstadt, B. D. (2016) ‘The Ethics of Computing: A Survey of the Computing-Oriented Literature’, ACM Computing Surveys, 48(4), pp. 1–38. doi: 10.1145/2871196.

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