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Amity institute of forensic science
SUMMER PROJECT
Name: Tanishka VermaEnrollment no.: A5905916004
Programme: B.Sc hons- Forensic Science
Batch: 2016-2019
Mentor: Dr. S.K ShuklaDesignation: Director and Professor
Title of summer project: TYPES OF FORGERY AND ITS EXAMINATION
Field of project: QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINATION
INDEX
PAGE NO.

Certificate………………………

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Acknowledgement ………..

Abstract……………………
Introduction……………….

Forgery………………
Examination……………….

Reference………………….

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled “TYPES OF FORGERY AND ITS EXAMINATION” successfully completed by Tanishka Verma, student of B.Sc (H) F.Sc 2016-2019, of Amity institute of forensic Science under my guidance. The work was carried out at Amity University and itself by the student.

To the best of my knowledge Tanishka Verma bears a good moral character.
SIGNATURE OF MENTOR
Dr. S.K SHUKLA
DIRECTOR, AIFS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to my express my sincere gratitude to my respectable guide & Mentor “Dr S K SHUKLA” for his valuable guidance, constant support and comment during my work.

I specially want to thank my parents who helped me & gave me moral support during the project.

Tanishka VermaABSTRACT
A Forgery could be a criminal act that takes place once an individual falsifies one thing with the intent to deceive another person or entity. There are several styles of forgery, however all area unit thought of crimes. Forgery includes a long history, however it became additional common within the twentieth century as technology has created it easier for criminals to commit the act.

The project is consisting the various styles of forgery consist in the questioned documents. and therefore the differing types of examination techniques that is employed to capture forgery within the specific document.

In this project I have included the literature review about the different types of forgery and their examination which are encountered in questioned documents.

INTRODUCTION
Handwriting
The development of writing is complicated because, it’s basically depends upon the different culture belongs to the different kinds of communities and it undergoes different constant changes. So basically the handwriting basically depends upon the class, system, and characteristics belongs to their communities.

The features of handwriting is basically involves the movement appear at its proper time and place in the line . The particular type of movement represents the habitual features of handwriting which are unique to each individual. The fact is that the habits which is present in writing will become more. Automatic and fluent with the practice and skills. And can be seen in these habits when the writer is writing in subconscious or less conscious stage.

Identification
There are two elementary fields of study concerned to handwriting:
 1.  The study of handwriting as a neuromuscular activity, its development as a skill and the effect upon it of various and external factors.

2.  The study of handwriting identification as a discriminatory process.

Handwriting identification is a complicated process that can get from the nearby collection of of habits of handwriting and evaluation of the the importance of the uniqueness of the characteristics present in the handwritingwriting.

 
Class characteristics
The handwriting characteristics is seen in a group of individuals and are learnt by the childhood at the beginning of learning to write. Following are the features, which are covered in class characteristics: –
Type of motion of hand during writing
2)      Quality of line
3)      Sharpness of characters
4)      Fluency in handwriting
5)      gaps b/w characters, word and line
6)     inclination in writing
7)     arrangement
8)     bridges and strokes b/w characters
9)     Size ; segments of letters
10)   Pressure, pen hold
11)  Coordination of writing muscles
Individual characteristics
The principle which helps to identify the individual characteristics from the particular handwriting are : –
1)                        searchin and distinguishing characteristics which are most dissimilar from the normal copy of handwriting standard are of the most force
2)               the frequently  Repeated characteristics which are seen should be first concerned.

3)                        Characteristics those are created by different writers in different ways. The different physical Twist of hand in the formation of letters shows the individual characteristics of the writer’s writing.

Difficulties in handwriting Identification
 
There are many situation which effect the result which can shown in handwriting examination   These include:
 
?     The quality of lack of the habits created by the questioned document
?     The quantity of lack of the habits that are present in questioned document
?     When the writing skills is poor
?     the intension changes of the questioned handwriting or of the writing characteristics
?     An abnormal condition of the writer or condition of writing of the questioned document
 Factors affecting handwriting characteristics
 1.         Extrinsic: physical deformation, reading and writing proficiency, way of opting education are come under the external factors.

 2.         Intrinsic:  Physical and mental injury, affects of different kinds of drugs and alcohol& and genetic variation etc are comes under internal factors
Forgery
Forgery is a crook act that done when a character falsifies the things  with the means to steel another individual or entity. There are many kinds of forgery which are there to gain the benefits which belongs to someone else
Elements of Forgery
In order for the court system to file the charges against the person with forgery the few factors should be present if more than one factor is missing it can be resulted in different charges.

Making, Altering, Using or Possessing a Forged Item
Basically if the forgery is done by a forger is because of the gaining of financial benefits for himself then it comes under the categories of forgery. Also if during or because of the alteration and obligation the meaning of the statement present in the documents is changed and poi8nt out5 the beneficial gains of the forger then it comes under the category of forgery
Legal Efficacy
Not each and every changed document or letter lies under the catagories an d charges of the forgery. a forged document is basically objectified to be to forgery laws, the false writing need to has prison importance. This includes, but is not limited to:
Government issued identification certificates like fake SC certificates
Demand drafts
Conveyances
Checks
Stock certificates
Patents
Wills
Prescriptions
Other medical documents
Material Alteration
In order for the writing to comes under the forgery. the content which is substitute for doing the alteration must change the meaning of the text present in documents For example, if a person do alteration in the will of another person to achieve the financial benefits for himself, then it comes under forgery. But If a person substitute the wrong statement into a letter, but it does not change the meaning of the context , it does not comes under the forgery.

Types of forgery
1. Free hand/stimulated forgery- free hand forgery is basically that type of forgery in which forger don’t have any idea about the class and individual characteristics of the specimen’s signature still he/she do thee forgery. This type of forgery can detect easily because the class and individual characteristics of the forger’s handwriting is shown in the forged documents.
2. Impersonation: In this type of forgery basically the forger don’t know about the writing characteristics of the person he/she just write or sign on behalf of another person to steel his or her identity basically it can be done to gain the financial benefits or status.

3. Traced forgery: trace forgery is basically done by sketching out the characters present on the paper in the manner of tracing.
The different types  of tracing forgery are:
a. Carbon copy tracing – In this method, carbon paper is placed b/w the original and the blank paper and then sign on the original documents is written over it with the pointed substance with pressure.
b. Indented Tracing _ In this tracing , the original document have the sample signature is placed over the blank document and then the signature is drawn with the pointed object.

c. Tracing paper – In this tracing, tracing paper is put on the real document and a pointed pencil is used for achieving the indentation marks
d. Transmitted Image – in this, real document is put over the upper level of the glass table and a light is passed from below of the table.
e. Scanned Image – In this tracing, scanner is used to copy the real signatures & save the digital characters in computer
4. Forgery by memory: in this type of forgery, the forger seen the original signature and from the memory of the signature he/she done the forgery. In this type of forgery the forger may memorize the broader characteristics of the original sign but can not memorize the individual characteristics and the natural variation is missing in this type of forgery
identification of forger
alterationany kind of alteration or changes which is done to the original documents and can changeor manipulate the meaning of the statement present in the documents is called a fraudulent alteration.

If the alteration cant change the meaning of the statement present in the documents thyen it is not considered as forgery.erasureserasure can be basically divided in to two groups: 1. physical erasuresphysically removal of the impression of the characters present in the documents is called as physical Erasures. Physical erasures are kind of the pointed object. And the type of physical erasures are abrasion.

2.chemical erasures
When the removal of the letters is done with the help of chemicals then it is called as chemical erasures.they may be acids or alkalies as oxalic acid , potassium permanganate ,etc. which is used as chemical erasures.

EXAMINATION
Principles of Forensic Document Examination
These are 3 types of major principles which are used to identify or analyse the different types of forensic documents
(1) Given a adequate quantity of handwriting, no two professional writers showcase identical handwriting features.

(2) every person has a range of natural variation to his or her writing.

(3) no writer can exceed his or her skill stage. That means the writer will not improve his/her writing characteristics if it become more prominent and clear. Basically the practices makes the writing more fluent and detailed and if the writer opt different types of style to make the writing attractive the tremors will be present in such case.

Why and when is forensic document examination used?
Forensic report examiners are called to go through the originality of files in cases such as:
• forgeries
• counterfeiting
• identity theft
• fraud
• suicides
• homicides
• bank robberies
• kidnappings
• extortion
• stalking
• contested wills
• contested contracts
• medical malpractice
• title/deed lawsuits

Tools and techniques which are used for examination
Examination on the basis of type of document
1. Revealing text from indented impressions ? Documents may have contain the indentation marks which can’t be seen by the naked eyes so we can increase the visibility with the help of an (EDD) like (ESDA). An EDD  applied different kinds of  charges and toner to increase the visibility areas of indentation part. These techniques is basically used to reveal the indentations on the documents.

2 Detecting alterations, obliterations, erasures and page substitutions ? thje detects of the Alterations, obliterations and erasures cannot be seen by the naked eyes and can be detect by the photography and the device named (VSC) this devioce can detect various kinds of alteration, erasures,etc by transmitted the different types of lights like UV ligfht, infrared light, visible light etc.

3.Determining individual dye components ? the identification of different types of inks components which are present in ink with which the forgery is done can be now done by the different types of chromatography techniques. Only just small amount of ink parts can dissolve in the solvent and then we can do the chromatography with that mixture.

REFERENCES
Saferstein, Richard. CRIMINALISTICS: AN INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC SCIENCE, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ (2007).

Kelly, J.S.; Lindblom, B.S. SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS, 2ND ED; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 2006.

http://www.santoshraut.com/forensic/questioneddocument.html
https://www.questioneddocuments.com/document-examinations-services/signatures-forgery/

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