-552450-704850Name: Fatimah Nur Hadi
0Name: Fatimah Nur Hadi
The Use of Flashcards in Improving Vocabulary Mastery of Students with Disability
(A Classroom Action Research On Fifth Grade Students of SLB Negeri Surakarta In 2018/2019 Academic Year)
Fatimah Nur Hadi
Sebelas Maret University
Vocabulary is one of the important elements that must be mastered by English learners if they want to be fluent in English. The aim of this study was to check whether the use of Flashard could improve the students’ vocabulary mastery or not. This study used Classroom Action Research (CAR) which using the model of Kemmis and Mc Taggart with four phase which consists of planning, action, observation, and reflection. The subject of this study were students with the disability at first grade in Junior High School. The data was collected through qualitative and quantitative methods. For the qualitative data, the data are analyzed by interview, observation, document analysis and test. While the quantitative data are analyzed by finding and comparing the mean scores in pre-test and post-test (descriptive statistics). The finding of the study showed that there was an improvement of the students’ vocabulary mastery. After used flashcard in the first cycle and the second cycle, the students are more enthusiastic during the teaching-learning process in the class. Therefore, the use of flashcards could improve the students’ vocabulary mastery. The finding of the study implies that by the use of Flashcard in teaching learning process can stimulate the students understanding of vocabulary.
Keywords: Vocabulary, Flashcards, Teaching Vocabulary
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Backgrounds of the Study
Nowadays, English is one of the important languages that have to be mastered around the world. The reason why English is very crucial nowadays, this is because English is now considered as the international language. It means that English is used broadly in the whole world.
In this era, MEA is taking part in our everyday life. Such as the using of English language itself. As a result, we should master English if we want to compete in the era of MEA. Moreover, English has become to be more crucial and very important nowadays. Besides that, English is also important if we want to get a good job. In another way, English has proven to be one of the must requirements that should be had by every candidate who wants to apply for a job.
In this era, English has been taught at any level. For examples are, from the level of kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school and senior high school. In each level, English has been taught indifference level of difficulty, and every level is having difference method and material. Also, they have a different purpose too in each level. In addition, it adjusts the syllabus of the school competence in every level of school. For instance, if we learn English at the level of kindergarten, then it talks about English as the beginner. Therefore, it discusses the simple thing in English, such as simple vocabulary combining with the interesting picture to make it easy to understand.
There are four skills that we have to be mastered in English, they are speaking skill, listening skill, reading skill, and writing skill. Every skill in English is very important and crucial because they are completing each other. One of the supporting factors on linguistic competency is vocabulary mastery. Therefore, vocabulary is a must if we want to learn four basic skills in English. Besides that, if we have a minimum vocabulary then we can not speak or write in English well. In the other words, it will be good for the students if they can master vocabulary as much as they can.
River (in Nunan, 1995: 117) states that without an extensive vocabulary, one will be unable to use the structure and functions that may have learned for comprehensible communication. Therefore, this is the reason why vocabulary should be taught, because if there is no vocabulary mastery then the students will have a difficulty to learn English. In the other words, vocabulary is one of the important elements that must be mastered by the students if they want to be fluent in English. Mastering vocabulary is very helpful to learn the four basic skills in English. Such as: listening, speaking, writing and reading. Therefore, vocabulary is the first foundation if we want to learn English in our daily activity.
According to Fries (1975:38) vocabulary is the essence of language learning that contains the types of vocabulary that is content words in the form of a noun, adjective, verb, and adverb which will make language meaningful. Moreover, if the students want to be able to use English both in spoken or in written form, then the students must be mastery the vocabulary well. Besides that vocabulary mastery is very crucial to support the learning process in English class.
As we know that, everyone has a right to get an appropriate education. Therefore, the students with the disability also have the same right with the non-students with the disability. The students with disability need special attention or inclusive education which is appropriate to their condition. Moreover, the students with the disability have a right too to access and to be facilitated by the school that applies inclusive education.
According to Forts (2008: 1) In Maharani, teaching vocabulary is quite difficult because there are thousand hundred words in English. In some cases, there were some problems related to the students’ vocabulary, such as the students with the disability said that they have difficulty in learning vocabulary because the media that they used is not appropriate with their need. Some of them said that they feel bored with the media that the teacher used. While some of them agree that learning vocabulary is not only memorizing the words, which make them feel lazy to memorize the words that they got from their teacher in the class. Moreover, they also said that learning vocabulary must be fun and not giving pressure to their students. Besides that, the students with the disability tend to have a low participation in English class.
One of the teaching strategies that can improve students’ vocabulary in the classroom is that an activity that involves the students in an active situation. Alexakos (2001) states that student’s knowledge and understanding is reinforced in special classrooms when the teacher involves students in active learning. As a result, the teacher must use the media that suit the need of the students with disability and to use a media that create an active situation. Moreover, the teacher must apply a media which is suitable for the students with the disability such as flashcards.
Flashcard could facilitate the students with the disability to improve their vocabulary mastery in English. Cross (1991) notes that flashcard is a simple picture on a piece of card or paper, which is probably the most widely visual aids in language teaching. By using flashcard, the students with the disability are expected to easily understand and to comprehend the words that the teacher give to them. Therefore, they will feel easy to memorize every word. Besides that, Flashcards can be used as a tool to play a game in the classroom. As a result, by applying flashcards to the students with the disability it can create an active situation, and motivated them in teaching learning process in the classroom.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher is interested to conduct a study on “The Use of Flashcards in Improving Vocabulary Mastery of Students with Disability” ( A Classroom Action Research On Fifth Grade Students of SLB Negeri Surakarta In 2018/2019 Academic Year)
This study focused on a certain problem related to the effort to overcome the difficulties in teaching vocabulary. Based on the explanation above, the researcher is attempting to investigate the answers to the following question research, as follows :
Is teaching vocabulary using flashcards improve vocabulary mastery of the students with the disability?
Is the class situation change when teaching using flashcards?
The Objective of the Study
The objective of the research is to answer the problems which are mentioned in the problem statement above. The objectives are :
To know whether flashcards can improve vocabulary mastery of the students with the disability?
To describe the class situation when teaching using flashcards?
The Benefit of Study
The writer expects this study will give the benefit in English teaching-learning process, especially in teaching vocabulary mastery to the students with the disability.
The result of this study is possible for helping the teacher to decide the appropriate media in teaching vocabulary mastery especially for the students with the disability in Elementary school. By choosing the suitable media for teaching vocabulary mastery, it is expected that the students with disability can get the higher score in English vocabulary.
By using flashcards, the students with the disability will be attracted to a new word in English. Therefore, it will motivate them to study more about vocabulary In English. Through flashcards, it will help the students in memorizing some new words. In the other words, they will feel happy can enjoy the teaching-learning process in the classroom.
For other researchers
It is expected that the result of this study could be one of the references that could be used for the similar studies.
REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE
Review on Vocabulary
The Definition of Vocabulary
There are some definitions of vocabulary according to some experts. Hornby (2004:1447) stated that vocabulary is a total number of words in a language that is used by a person. It means that vocabulary is all of the words that the people used in a language. Therefore, words and language are linked to each other. Another expert states that Vocabulary is a list of words and their combination in particular language (Joklova, 2009). It means that vocabulary consists of words in which combining with each other in a language.
According to Evelyn and Cheryl (1995: 1) stated that vocabulary is a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. It means that vocabulary is a set of words that used by a person in a language. While according to Ur (1998: 60), vocabulary can be mean as the words we teach in a foreign language. It means that vocabulary is written or spoken unit of language as a symbol of an idea in a foreign language for the learners.
From all of the definition above, it can be concluded that vocabulary is a list of words or a set of words that individual speakers of a language might use which also mean as the words we teach in the foreign language.
Kinds of VocabularyDoff (1990:19) states that there are two kinds of vocabulary, they are:
The active vocabulary is words which students need to understand and also use themselves. The teaching active vocabulary is by giving examples and some questions, so the students know how to use the words.
The passive vocabulary is words that the students want to understand (e.g. when the reading text), but it does not need to use by themselves. Learning vocabulary must be through a process, it is impossible to get a lot of vocabulary without study. The students learn vocabulary since they were children, so when they are adult, they have a lot of vocabulary, Herry (1990:6) state that there are two methods in learning vocabulary, they are: They listen to the words from parent, older friends, friends, television, and radio, their environments, place of playing, shop or department store. They improve their vocabulary from their experiences, such as they say any goods, they eat, they feel, they smell, and they drink.
Hatch and Brown (1995), indicate two kinds of vocabulary, namely receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary.
Receptive vocabulary is words that learners recognize and understand when they are used in context, but which they cannot produce. It is vocabulary that learners recognize when they see or meet in the reading text but do not use it in speaking and writing (Stuart Webb, 2009).
Productive vocabulary is the words that the learners understand and can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing. It involves what is needed for receptive vocabulary plus the ability to speak or write at the appropriate time. Therefore, productive vocabulary can be addressed as an active process, because the learners can produce the words to express their thoughts to others (Stuart Webb, 2005).
Good (1959) divides vocabulary into four kinds, they are: 1) Oral vocabulary refers to words that a person employs them in expressing ideas orally and actively; 2) Writing vocabulary refers to words that commonly used in writing; 3) Listening vocabulary refers to word that a person can understand when they are heard; and 4) Reading vocabulary refers to words that someone can recognize them when he finds them in written form.
Schil (1967) states that there are three kinds of vocabulary, namely active, reserve, and productive vocabulary. Active vocabulary refers to words that we use frequently in speeding. Reserve vocabulary refers to words that we know but rarely used we are not sure. Productive vocabulary refers to a word that we use vaguely but we are not sure their meaning. We never use them either in speaking or writing. We know that because we have seen them previously.
According to Webster (1992) mastery refers to (1) a. the authority of a master: dominion, b. the upper hand in a contest or competition; superiority, ascendancy and
(2) a. possession or display of great skill or technique, b. skill or knowledge that makes one master of a subject comment. While Hornby (1995) defines mastery as complete knowledge or complete skill. Rivers (1989) stated that vocabulary mastery refers to the great skill in processing words of a language. It is an individual achievement and possession.
From the definition above, it can be concluded that vocabulary mastery is a great skill in processing words of a language which is an individual achievement and possession.
Aspects in Vocabulary
According to Cameron (2001:78), vocabulary aspects included: pronunciation, spelling, grammar, and meaning.
Pronunciation is one of the aspects that have a great influence on vocabulary. “Pronunciation is the way in which a particular person pronounces the word of a language” (Wehmeler, 2003:1057).
Children also need to know the letters and syllables that make up the word that is called spelling. “Spelling is the act of forming words correctly from the individual letter or the way that a word is spelled” (Wehmeler, 2003:1293).
Grammatical information is tied to words, and learning words can take students along the way into grammar.
Nation and Cameron (2001:85) argue ways to explain the meaning of new words in the young learner classroom that is by using an object, a cut-out figure, gesture, performing an action, photograph, drawing or diagram on the board, and pictures from story books. Actually, finding the meaning for the new foreign language word is the amount of mental work done by the learner affects well a new word is engraved in memory, the students have to think it’s about word and meaning, the more likely they are to remember it.
Ur (1996: 60) states that there are some items need to be taught in teaching vocabulary as follows:
Form: pronunciation and spelling
A learner has to know what word sounds or its pronunciation and what it looks
or its spelling. These are obvious characteristics and one or the other will be perceived by the learner when encountering the item for the first time. In teaching, teachers need to make sure that both of these aspects are accurately presented and learned.
The grammar of a new item will be necessary to be taught if this not obviously
covered by general grammatical rules. An item may have an unpredictable change of form in certain grammatical context may have some idiosyncratic with other words in sentences; it is important to provide learners with this information at the same time as teachers teach based form.
The typical collocation of particular items is another factor that makes a particular combination becomes „right? or „wrong? in a given context. Collocation is word partners, for example, make mistake not do a mistake and do homework not make homework.
The aspect of meaning: denotation, connotation, appropriateness
The meaning of a word is divided into two aspects, denotation and connotation. Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the dictionary definition. For example, the word snake in a dictionary, its denotative meanings is any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes a venomous reptile having a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions.
The aspect of meaning: meaning relationship
How the meaning of one item relates to the meaning of others can also be useful in teaching. There are various meaning relationships, for examples: synonym, antonym, hyponyms, etc.
Review on Flashcards
The Definition of Flashcards
According to Kasihani (2007:109) Flashcards is cards measure A4 papers amount to 30 to 50 cards. In each card are contain one picture and one name of the picture. It divided according to the categories of theme, such as : picture of fruits, vegetables, part of body, animals, transportation, family members, clothes and etc. While according to Halliwel (1992:41) states that flashcards are kinds of cards contain pictures, words, instructions that are arranged in various combinations. It means that flashcards are a kind of card that consists of pictures, words, and instruction which has a mean in give a clear concept what a word or picture is.
According to Finocchairo (1974: 105) flashcards are cards with individual words (either printed or in manuscript) it can be prepared and field within the same categories and in some order as the individual pictures. Wright (1968:73) also stated that flashcard is printed with words and pictures which can be handled easily by the teacher. It means that the teacher can create their own flashcards by the size, the color, the picture and etc. While according to Komachali ; Khodareza, 2012 Flashcard is a cardboard consisting of a word, a sentence, or a simple picture on it. Azabdaftari and Mozaheb (2012) define flashcards as “a cardboard consisting of a word, a sentence, or a simple picture on it”(p. 4).
Based on the definition above, Flashcards is card measure A4 papers amount to 30 to 5o cards which contain pictures, words or simple sentence within the same categories or field.
Type of Flashcards
There are some types of flashcards. Haycraft (1978: 102-106) divided flashcards into word flashcards and picture flashcards.
Word Flashcard is a card with printed words on it can help up rapidly. When practicing word order, the teachers can use a number of cards representing all the words in a sentence. The cards also can be used to demonstrate exactly what the teacher wishes. General uses of word flashcards as follows:
1) Write each target of language word on one of a small card about three by six centimeters. Leave the other side of the card blank.
2) Place each card face down on a table in the middle of a group of students. As the game begins, one student picks up any one of the cards, shows it to the others, read it aloud, tries to give its equivalent in the other language, and returns it face down to the table. She or he then does the same thing with second cards. If the two cards happen to match, she or he removes them from the center of the table, places them in front of her, and takes another turn. If they do not match, the next player with the largest number of cards “wins”
Picture flashcards are most suitable for representation of a single concept, such as an object or an action. It is best to use picture flashcards for the revision and practice or previously taught for the presentation of new items.
Make cards, which similar, but a little bit different.
Make two copies of each. Each pupil has one card, which they look at, memories, and leave face down on the desk.
Everyone then talks around trying to find the person with the identical card just by talking to each other.
When they think they have the same cards, they check by looking at their cards and sit down at their places.
If people have more than two copies of each card, then the activity will continue until all the matching cards have been found.
The Advantages of Flashcards.
Based on some experts (Cross: 1991:120, Haycraft: 1978:102, and Suyanto: 2007) the advantages of flashcards are:
Flashcards make the class time is saved. It is because of the students find it easy to understand the material by using media.
Flashcards make the students motivated and eye-catching. Colorful flashcards can motivate them to pay attention to teaching and learning process.
Flashcards are easy to make because it can be done at home, carefully, and the quality of the drawing is higher than the blackboard and it can be used repeatedly.
Flashcards are used mainly for presenting new lexical items, though they may also be used for review.
Flashcards are used to introduce and fix the concept.
Flashcards are attracting in students attention.
Flashcards give some variations in teaching and learning process in English lesson.
Flashcards are helping children relate words to image.
Pairs of flashcards can be used to practice comparatives.
Flashcards can be used for consolidating vocabulary. They are great to present, practice and revise vocabulary.
Review on Disability
The Definition of Learning Disabilities
According to “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1977)” the term “specific learning disability” means those children who have a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. While according to “Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (1986)” Specific Learning Disabilities is a chronic condition of presumed neurological origin which selectively interferes with the development, integrations, and/or demonstration of verbal and/or nonverbal abilities.
According to “Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities (1987)” learning disabilities is a generic term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, mathematical abilities, or social skills. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (e.g., cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction, psychogenic factors), and especially attention-deficit disorder, all of which may cause learning problems, a learning disability is not the direct result of those conditions or influences. While according to “National Joint Council on Learning Disabilities (1997)” learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, are presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the lifespan.
From the definition above, it can be concluded that learning disability is a generic term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, mathematical abilities, or social skills.
Common Types of Learning Disabilities
The most common types of specific learning disabilities are those that impact the areas of reading, math, and written expression. They may co-occur with other disorders of attention, language, and behavior, but are distinct in how they impact learning. Here are types of Learning Disabilities :
is the term associated with specific learning disabilities in reading. Although features of LD in reading vary from person to person, common characteristics include:
the difficulty with phonemic awareness (the ability to notice, think about and work with individual sounds in words)
phonological processing (detecting and discriminating differences in phonemes or speech sounds)
difficulties with word decoding, fluency, the rate of reading, rhyming, spelling, vocabulary, comprehension and written expression
is the term associated with specific learning disabilities in math. Although features of LD in math vary from person to person, common characteristics include:
the difficulty with counting, learning number facts and doing math calculations
the difficulty with measurement, telling time, counting money and estimating number quantities
the trouble with mental math and problem-solving strategies
is the term associated with specific learning disabilities in writing. It is used to capture both the physical act of writing and the quality of written expression. Features of learning disabilities in writing are often seen in individuals who struggle with dyslexia and dyscalculia and will vary from person to person and at different ages and stages of development. Common characteristics include:
tight, awkward pencil grip and body position
tiring quickly while writing, and avoiding writing or drawing tasks
trouble forming letter shapes as well as the inconsistent spacing between letters or words
difficulty writing or drawing on a line or within margins
trouble organizing thoughts on paper
trouble keeping track of thoughts already written down
the difficulty with syntax structure and grammar large gap between written ideas and understanding demonstrated through speech
Auditory Processing Deficit (or Auditory Processing Disorder)
is the term used to describe a weakness in the ability to understand and use auditory information. Individuals with these types of difficulties often have trouble with:
auditory discrimination (the ability to notice, compare and distinguish the distinct and separate sounds in words — a skill that is vital for reading)
auditory figure-ground discrimination (the ability to pick out important sounds from a noisy background)
auditory memory (short-term and long-term abilities to recall information presented orally)
auditory sequencing (the ability to understand and recall the order of sounds and words)
spelling, reading and written expression
Visual Processing Deficit (or Visual Processing Disorder)
is the term used to describe a weakness in the ability to understand and use visual information. Individuals with these types of difficulties often have trouble with:
visual discrimination (the ability to notice and compare the features of different items and to distinguish one item from another)
visual figure-ground discrimination (the ability to distinguish a shape or printed character from its background)
visual sequencing (the ability to see and distinguish the order of symbols, words or images)
visual motor processing (using visual feedback to coordinate body movement)
visual memory (the ability to engage in a short-term and long-term recall of visual information)
visual closure (the ability to know what an object is when only parts of it are visible)
spatial relationships (the ability to understand how objects are positioned in space)
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities
is the term used to describe the characteristics of individuals who have unique learning and behavioral profiles that may overlap with dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia but that differ in significant ways. Most notably, these individuals often have strengths in the areas of verbal expression, vocabulary, reading, comprehension, auditory memory and attention to detail. They have trouble with:
math computation and problem-solving
visual-spatial tasks and motor coordination
reading body language and social cues; seeing the “big
picture” in social and academic contexts
Executive Functioning Deficits
is the term used to describe weaknesses in the ability to plan, organize, strategize, remember details and manage time and space efficiently. These are hallmark characteristics in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are often seen in those with LD.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
is a brain-based disorder that results in significant inattention, hyperactivity, distractibility or a combination of these characteristics. It is estimated that as many as one-third of those with LD also have ADHD, and like learning disabilities, this disorder is linked both to heredity (genetics) as well as to brain structure and function. Unlike LD, features of this disorder can be attributed to neurochemical imbalances that can be effectively treated with a combination of behavioral and, as needed, pharmacological therapies.
This study takes place in the fifth grade of SD Negeri in 2018/2019 academic year. SD Negeri is located. SD N has six grades, from the first to six grades. The researcher used class 5 as a subject of the research. The English class started on Friday and began at 7 a.m until 8 40 a.m.
This study was conducted through teaching-learning process in the classroom by using flashcards to teach vocabulary. The research was conducted to 35 students (13 girls and 12 boys) fifth-grade students of the elementary school. This class was chosen because the students of this class still had difficulty in learning English words. The research carried out in February-Juni 2019
Method of the Research
The research method used in this study is an action research, which is the process through the teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice; raise awareness of their personal theory, articulate as shared conception of values, try out new strategies to render the values expressed in their practice more consistent with the educational values they expose, record their work in a form which is readily available and understandable by other teachers, and thus develop a shared theory of teaching by researching practice. The classroom action research is the process of teaching, in which the teaching-learning process is recorded through the stages of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting the result of the teaching-learning process.
According to Patricia Cross (1987, 499), classroom action research is geared to self-improvement since it designed, conducted, and used by teachers themselves. And classroom action research bridges the gap between research and practice because researchers and practitioners are in one: the researcher asks questions that the practitioner thinks are important; the practitioner is eager to use the results of the research.
While Kemmis and McTaggart (1988, 5) action research is a form of collective self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices, as well as their understanding of these practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out.
In this study, action research was conducted in order to improve the vocabulary mastery for the students with the disability by using flashcards. This research is carried out by involving the English teacher as the observer.
The Model of the Research
The model of action research used by the researcher was developed by Kemmis and McTaggart (1999: 32), saying that action research occurs through a dynamic and complementary process, which consists of four essential moments: planning, action, observation, and reflection. The steps can be illustrated as follows:
53100731132700Figure 1.1. The Model of Action Research
Action Research Spiral (Kemmis and McTaggart in Burns 1993: 33)
The Procedure of Action Research
The procedure of action research can be explained as follows:
Identifying the Problem
The first step in doing an action research is identifying the problem in the classroom. From the observation of teaching and learning process, it showed that vocabulary mastery of the students’ with the disability was still under average. The interviews result also supported the data that students’ with the disability feel lazy and bored when they have to memorize new words in English.
At this phase, the researcher plans everything related to the action as follows:
Preparing the lesson plan, materials, and the teaching technique
The researcher makes some flashcards that related to the materials that will use in the teaching-learning process. Which each cards containing a picture; such as fruits, transportation, vegetables, animals and etc.
Preparing the students’ name and score report
The researcher makes an attendance list and scoring list
Preparing sheets for classroom observation
The observation was conducted by the researcher in the class. The researcher observes the students’ activity during the lesson.
Preparing a test
The researcher preparing a test for the students to know whether flashcard can improve the students’ vocabulary mastery or not.
Implementing the Action