Stephen Matolo Kyalo

Stephen Matolo Kyalo, P.O Box 1002, Kangundo, Kenya

[email protected]
27th January, 2018
Human resource,
African Economic Research Consortium,
P.O Box 62882-0200
Nairobi, Kenya.

Dear Sir/Madam,
RE: Application for the procurement assistant job
Following the procurement assistant vacancy that was advertised on website, I hereby apply for the position believing that my professionalism, good analytical skills and training in purchasing and supplies makes me your preferred candidate to fill the position.

Coupled with my academic qualifications I have had a chance to work with Kangundo Level Four Hospital for three months as a procurement intern. During my internship, I ensured smooth flow of purchases between the hospital and its more than ten suppliers and provided accurate Stores Inventory Database and reports for the hospital, among other roles assigned by my supervisor. I also had a chance to work as an IEBC constituency logistics officer in the just concluded general elections.

I am a former student of the University of Nairobi with a Bachelors Degree in Commerce (procurement and supply chain management option) and I believe I have the necessary skills and abilities for this job. I am a confident, ambitious, self-driven and result oriented individual.
I strongly believe I have the all the qualities you require for the mentioned post and I am looking forward to hear from you. My resume is attached for your review.

Yours sincerely,
Stephen Matolo.

ID.NO 27064350
E-MAIL [email protected] +254-728-989-728
I am a dedicated, hardworking, and self-disciplined person who is result-driven. My objective is to contribute to the growth of your organization that puts to test my competence in bringing to birth its goals and achievements.

To be a competent team player, goal oriented, determined, and organized in my field of work ensuring achievement of organization goals.

To add value to corporate goals through my services and to my career development through self-motivation and integrity in my work.

To gain exposure and maximize my potential in the job market and at the same time acquire skills and knowledge in my work while enhancing my personal growth, practical application, and job development.

To strive for excellence in every aspect of my work.

Proficiency in computer skills, computer program installations, and data recovery.

Strong communication and interpersonal skills.

A team player with a flexible approach and a willingness to learn.

I also hold a drivers license.

IEBC constituency logistics officer (July – August 2017)
Duties performed
Drawing material distribution plan for Kangundo Constituency.

Drawing and implementing route maps of material distribution.

Arranging of election materials to be picked by POs/DPOs and their retrieval.

Identifying gaps in materials received, distributed, and addressing the gaps.

Maintaining records of all the materials received, distributed, and retrieved.

IEBC Ward Based Voter Verification Educator/Nomination clerk (June 2017)
Duties performed
Educating the public about the importance of voter verification.

Helping in the nomination process of aspirants of Kangundo Constituency.

Sales manager/logistics officer – Malili Distributors (July 2015 – May 2017)
Duties performed
Drawing and planning product distribution in Makueni County.

Packing and arranging products for distribution.

Receiving and offloading products ensuring the right quality and quantity from the source to our warehouse.

Distributing products to customers in the right time, quality, and quantity and issuing receipts to them.

Kangundo Level Four Hospital as an attaché'(January 2015 – March 2015) Duties performed
Raising of goods received notes (S13s).

Posting receipts and issued into the bin cards.

General stores issues to end user departments.

Raising local purchase orders (LPO) and local service orders (LSO).

Analyzing of quotations.

Assist in filling of user request forms.

Computer lab supervisor-University Of Nairobi/School of business (2011-2012)
I worked as an untrained teacher-Pearl Gate Academy (2007-2008)
2009 to 2014: Bachelor of commerce (management science option-procurement and supply chain management option University of Nairobi
2003 to 2006: Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Machakos School
1995 to 2002: Kenya Certificate of Primary Education Kangundo D.E.B Primary School
sports(weight lifting)
reading inspirational books
1. Hannington Mutua
Dean of students
KAG East University
2. Geoffrey Kelli
Procurement officer
Kangundo Level Four Hospital
3. Ruth Maingi
Kangundo Level Four Hospital

CL2A1 THE VALUE OF PLAY TO YOUNG CHILDREN CL2A1-1 Understand the Value of Play to Young Children’s Development CL2A1-1

CL2A1-1 Understand the Value of Play to Young Children’s Development
CL2A1-1.2 Explain the value of play for young children in the following development areas:
Value of Play for Young Children:
Children undergo many developmental changes from the moment of their birth until they reach five years of age. These first years are very important in children’s growth especially because they determine the personality of the children. Play supports the cognitive, physical, social, emotional growth and well-being of children and youth.

Children development includes:Physical Development: Physical activity helps children to develop and practice movement’s skills which include: ability to move, balance, coordination and object control. Movement skills help children develop awareness of what their bodies can do; children learn how much space their body needs to take. When developing traveling skills, the child learns how to move the body from one location to another running, hopping, skipping, sliding and walking. Activities involving foot-eye coordination, For Example: kicking a ball; activities involving hand-eye coordination, For Example: throwing or catching a ball. Balance is also a very important skill and children learn to control their balance and to gain posture. Balancing activities involves the body, For Example: walking on a beam will help children learn that putting one foot in front of the other help children maintain their balance; or balancing on one leg will help them to control their posture. Object control involves movements such as catching, throwing, kicking and children learn how to catch, throw and kick objects. Physical activity is linked with every other area of development.

Emotional Development: involves learning what feelings and emotions, understand how and why they happen, recognizing one’s own feelings and those of others, and developing effective ways of managing them. For example: dramatic and imaginative play including dressing up or role play such as being a ‘mummy’ or ‘daddy’ , pretending going for shopping etc.. Show the object at circle time and have the children pass it around the circle say, “William passes the car to Harry.” Play “Stop and Freeze” games with children by having them freeze when you stop the music blow a whistle or ring a bell. It will help to develop positive social and emotional skills and values by providing opportunities for children.

Social Development: children can become more sociable when they interact with their playmates and different toys. Through play games, children can gain significant experiences in their abilities actions and roles. When exposed to play, children can easily learn how to make decisions and master important skills. Play helps children to learn to share their toys with others. Social development is supported by playing team games, copying games, turn taking games and role play games. For Example: Team Play like “Bed sheet Ping Pong game” players stand and hold a bed sheet on opposite ends. A ping pong ball is placed onto the sheet then the sheet is raised or lowered and the object of the game is to get the ping ball game is to fall off the other team’s side of the sheet. Copycat games like, “show your actions to child to copy by putting hat on, wiggling fingers, shaking head and sticking tongue out describe what you are doing. Let him/her mimic sounds too, like a ticking clock or a door bell. These games encourage interaction, sharing and language skills.

Intellectual Development: including the exploration of new objects such as toys, picking up things and disarranging them, making reason inquiries. For Example: “why some things are the way they are.” Children’s intellectual development as it helps then begin to understand important mathematical concepts such as: number, matching, ordering, sorting, making and recognizing pattern, adding, subtracting and measuring. For Example: sorting puzzles and shapes sorter. Role play helps children to explore aspects of their real life. For Example: a visit to the hairdresser, going to the beach to play on sand with funnels, tunnels, tubes and beakers. Constructive allows children to practice and develop reasoning and problem solving skills.

Language Development: we can promote language development by suggesting new vocabulary while children are playing and labeling areas of the play environment as all play involves communication. Language development in children can also be enhanced by playing with blocks. During play children interact with their peers and as such they are forced to concentrate and pay attention in order to hear and understand the conversations they have with one another. Language as benefitted as the children learns and uses new words. Thus, early language development will in turn benefit children as they later learn to read and write.
For Example: they learn how to write by copying letters, and in role play children copy the way they have observed others behave in certain situation, reading stories, singing songs and rhymes, making animal sounds also the example of language development.

Play can also motivate children to broaden the scope of their actions and enhance their confidence as well as linguistic abilities.

“Introduction to Early Year Education ; Care” Author: Carolyn Meggitt. 174, 175 & 176.

Work Shop Slides:
Ms. Lynne workshop slides (Development of young Children).

A large part of the reason that Google ranks #1 on the top “100 Best Companies to Work for 2017” according to Fortune is due to their competitive compensation strategy

A large part of the reason that Google ranks #1 on the top “100 Best Companies to Work for 2017” according to Fortune is due to their competitive compensation strategy. Google is known not only for their innovative technology breakthroughs but also their innovative compensation policies. Google Human Resources performed a survey to determine what type of pay is preferred by their employees such as base pay or bonuses. Managing Human Resources and compensation strategies effectively is vital to organizations within the modern and fast paced business world. Google had created a strategic compensation that gives them a competitive advantage among their competitors by attracting, retaining, and motivating highly talented employees.

The speedy improvement of education

The speedy improvement of education, economy and social progress are great significance changes of living standard and life style also. There are huge differences between My Grandparents’ who are over 80 years old childhood Life and now . Life today is consistently changing much more comfortable and easier than it was in my grandparents’ youth for some reasons.
One of the obvious changes of earlier generation is they spend their free time to get involved in social activities, such as parties, travelling, sporting events, talking to friends and going to a park. Nowadays spends a lot of time watching TV, chatting with their friends on their mobile phones , online chatting and in front of using computer which play an important role in the daily life .In college teachers can upload course and assignment then students can download the resources and hand in homework while E-mail. The material life has a noticeable improvement and convenient format is differ from the past.
If I consider my grandparents age at the time of children then I have to go back about 80 to 70 years back. At that time there was no such huge facilities were available by the government. Everybody has to work hardly to make their life comfortable such as they didn’t have washing machines, refrigerators ,microwaves, toaster ovens, blenders, mixers ,vacuum cleaners and so on .So they had to cook ,wash with their hands and clean .At the present time we can easily buy these kitchen tools which to quickly prepare the foods any time .
In today’s life is so easy to do these all work. For example Suppose I have to pay electricity bill, telephone bill , purchase air tick, fund transfer to others, online shopping and so on which possible to pay all these things with in a minute. These all facilities is not possible to get before 80 to 70 years back . They must go respective office to pay bills and buying the things within one day was very difficult because for each bill you had to go different places and online service may them easier for us now.
Lastly, today’s hospital facilities are so modify and improve .There are so many hospital , doctors and health care assistant which can provide in our home service and just need to dial a phone call emergency help .Nowadays transportation facilities are available everywhere in more frequency. You have more chance transportation option like take bus , taxi, car, train, airways etc. All these make our life better and easy to travel and safely If we compare these all facilities with previous 80 years back then now we much better than previous .
In conclusion, I am of the opinion that my grandparents enjoy a much more relaxed , comfortable and easy life than their childhood life before. Hope they get these all facilities to make their life more easy and comfortable which is absolutely different from ever before time .

When people are involved in a disaster of some type

When people are involved in a disaster of some type, they usually experience an emotional reaction of some kind. Everyone’s experience is peculiar to themselves and everyone’s reaction is unique. The definition of disaster often means one thing to one person and something else to another. A fire, weather disasters such as tornadoes and hurricanes and fatal car crashes are obvious disasters to everyone, but the death of a pet, losing a wedding ring, or losing a job can be just as traumatizing to others. Whatever kind of disaster it is, people have different emotional responses at different times. These emotional responses to these disasters can have a wide range of reactions, including denial, deepening faith, and extreme anger. These emotional responses to tragedy in one’s life have created subject matter for authors for hundreds of years.
Sometimes people who have experienced a disaster may simply deny the event ever happened. The denial can take place in multiple ways, including pretending as if nothing happened and ignoring the consequences of the disaster. Pretending as if nothing happened is simply going about your life without acknowledging the disaster at all. A good literary example of that is the character of Henry in Mark Twain’s “The Californian’s Tale.” Henry’s wife died 19 years ago, yet he lives about 362 days a year of his life as if nothing happened. He functions and goes about his daily activities like nothing is wrong. In “Death of a Salesman,” Willy continues to try to kill himself. Yet his wife acts like nothing is happening, even replacing the water heater hose after she removed it. Denial can be a good survival skill if it is temporary for people for short term, but once the mind and or body have adjusted to the shock or grief that goes with the disaster, it is healthy for them to deal with the situation.
Deepening or changing faith are a very typical reactions to disasters. World-wide, when a natural or man-made disaster strikes a country or community, people all over will hold prayer vigils and put unknown folks on prayer chains. If the disaster has some type of personal meaning to someone, they may participate in the vigils or join a prayer group even if they otherwise aren’t very religious. When a tragedy strikes home, some people may turn against their faith, believing that if there was a God, he would never allow this to happen. Others, increase their prayer time, change their lifestyles to be more “Christian like,” or as in the poem, “Lines Upon the Burning of Our House,” by Anne Bradstreet, they may reexamine what is important in their lives. In Bradstreet’s poem, the narrator determines that all her earthly things are just that, things. But what is important in life is getting to heaven. Others may examine their lives and decide that the time they spend with loved ones is what is important, because time spent and love can be synonymous. Another literary example of deepening faith after tragedy is the character of Mack Phillips in “The Shack,” by William P. Young. After losing his daughter to abduction and murder, he is mysteriously summoned to a shack in the woods where he reexamines his faith. Deepening faith is a very typical response to disasters because people need something to believe in to get them through it.

After a death or some type of tragedy that alters life as it was once known, anger often forms in people’s minds and hearts. They don’t know how to deal with the trauma and shock and it comes out in angry outbursts of irrational behavior. Young children often have temper tantrums when they don’t get what they want and they can’t comprehend why they couldn’t have it, like a candy bar or why they had to leave the park early. When a young child does this, it is called acting out. When teenagers and adults are faced with deep disasters such as losing a loved one, having a house burn, having life altered by a tornado or some other natural disaster they don’t understand, just like a child, they act out. But when an adult or adolescent or teen acts out, it is often socially irrational behavior. Unfortunately, often in times of irrational anger, it leads to yet another tragedy, such as a mass shooting or murder suicide. A good example in literature about phenomenon of irrational behavior is the poem, “After the Disaster” written by Abigail Deutsch authored shortly after the 9-11 attacks. It is a short poem, with only 3 stanzas, describing how someone enters a train car, squeezes the author’s head and runs out. The very last line, after the 3 stanzas is: “Such things were common after the disaster.” Not understanding what caused a tragedy or in some cases, knowing the cause but not understanding why, can cause people to react with extreme anger and do completely irrational things.
In conclusion, everyone reacts quite differently, yet very much the same, when it comes to dealing with a traumatic experience. The reaction is unique to that individual person. Ironically, the uniqueness in so many makes it common in all. For while everyone reacts in his or her own way, denial, questioning one’s faith or belief system, and acting irrationally out of anger at not understanding are common behaviors, and these behaviors have been recognized, analyzed, and written about for hundreds of years by some of the best authors known to man.

We often think of quality improvement as a high-level goal that affect highly visible and easily measurable organizational outputs

We often think of quality improvement as a high-level goal that affect highly visible and easily measurable organizational outputs. Employees should be encouraged to take responsibility for improving the quality of goods and services because I believe encouraging employees to make their own decisions/strategies does assist initiative and responsibility to work independently brings in very positive result. Most people perform best when given work that involves a degree of challenge. We could help the employees by giving them an opportunity to develop the skills that they need to fulfill, satisfied and motivated. Employees who are able to exercise their own initiative will be more aware of quality issues and will make choices that designed to support quality issues.

Causes of disrespectful people to others during online gaming The new generation nowadays were all of people are now addicted in games and online games especially teenagers were in their ages of having fun and studies with their friends

Causes of disrespectful people to others during online gaming
The new generation nowadays were all of people are now addicted in games and online games especially teenagers were in their ages of having fun and studies with their friends. Furthermore, all these teenagers who like to playing games also knowns as ‘Gamers’. But there are some of gamers are like to condemn, provoke others gamers as some of them playing poorly during gaming sessions as a results of losing the game. There are three causes of disrespectful people to others during online gaming which are lack of attitudes to other gamers, bullying other gamers and disrespect gamer to others in different countries.
Firstly, causes of disrespect to others in gaming sessions is lack of attitudes to other gamers. As in the gaming sessions these gamers are like to focus when playing for winning the game but because of some players who are playing poorly that cause the game losing. These cause the gamers condemn the other gamers which are poorly on playing a games. As they said that these poor gamers are supposed not the play this kind of games because they did not know how to play. As I disagree because not gamers are born to become a professional gamers. As Addiction Blog (2009) Top 10 negative effects of video games on children said “An increase in and behavioral disorder symptoms” where the gamers having poor behavior cause of stressful of playing games. By that the effect can cause fighting with others as some of hey condemn about their life like condemning their family.

Secondly, the cause of bullying other gamers. When the professional gamer likely to bully the poor gamers for fun as examples in shooting online gaming sessions where these professional gamers loves to find poor gamers for killing them and also like to provoking them to fight with them. As effect of leaving the games during gaming session for the poor gamers. As they said that they are just joking to others gamer, I strongly disagree about the statement because not all of them know that it was a joke. And they should have aware of making jokes to others as some of them does not like to be joking at that time. As Marybeth Hicks (2011) HICKS: Video Games and Bully, The Washington Times “At the forum, Mr. Obama revealed that his big ears were, in childhood, a source of teasing and humiliation. He acknowledged the difficulty of being perceived as different from others, especially during the formative middle school years. He called on all adults to consider the role they play in ensuring a safer environment for children.” Where other gamers should have making a good role to the others gamers.

Lastly, cause of disrespectful gamers to others in different countries. When the words are online gaming, this shows that all the players are playing the games which consist from different countries. As they play the games there must have a quarrelling among of them. As that some of them who quarrel using their mother tongue when saying vulgar words. Thus, this make other gamers know where they from and make fun of their country about economy, languages and culture. As an effect that cause condemning other countries


1.2 Statement of the Problem The following statements are the current problems that are manifested in the La Mamita’s Bakery. The proponents came up with the following:
General Problem How to create a Computerized Point of Sale System that will help La Mamita’s Bakery for processing their daily transactions more efficiently and accurately? -The proponents’ general problem is how to create a Computerized Point of Sale System that will enable the company to accomplish and monitor their daily transactions in a more efficient and accurate way. Specific Problems How to create a module that can add and maintain records of available products? -The system must have a module that can maintain records of available products. How to create a system that can secure files? -The system must be able to protect the files of the company. How to create a system that can secure reports? -The system must be able to protect the reports of the company. How to create a system that can generate an accurate sales report to the owner of the company? -The system must be able to generate an accurate, efficient yet detailed report to the owner of La Mamita’s Bakery daily, weekly, monthly and yearly. How to create a system that can generate a receipt to customers? -The system must be able to generate a receipt to the customers La Mamita’s Bakery if necessary. How to create a system that can automatically calculate the daily sales of the company? -The company needs a computerized system that has the ability to calculate their total sales automatically and accurately.


1) Privet Limited Company
Private limited company is held by few individuals privately having a separate legal entity. In this, the shareholders cannot trade publicly shares. It restricts its number of shares to 50. Shareholders cannot sell their shares without the approval of other shareholders. It is a company which restricts the right of its members to transfer its shares and it doesn’t send the invitation to the public for subscription of its shares. The private limited company is a proven, successful business model. The business owners hold all shares of the company privately. Shareholders may operate the business themselves, or hire directors to manage the company on their behalf. Forming a private limited company results in protection of personal assets, access to more resources, financial assistance and greater tax cuts.
Private Limited Company is a more complex business structure than a sole trader or ordinary Partnership. A company limited by shares is simply referred to as a Private Limited Company. A private company limited by shares indicates that the company has shareholders whose liability is limited to their capital investment. The shares of a private limited company may not be offered to the general public, unlike those of a public limited company (plc.) and cannot be traded on a public exchange.
Private limited company has main nine characteristics. These characteristics help to control the Private Limited Company. There are;
i. Members – To start a company, a minimum number of 2 members are required and a maximum number of 200 members as per the provisions of the companies act 2013.
ii. Limited Liability – The liability of each member or shareholders is limited. The personal, individual assets of the shareholders are not at risk.
iii. Perpetual succession – The company keeps on existing in the eyes of law even in the case of death, insolvency, the bankruptcy of any of its members. This leads to the perpetual succession of the company. The life of the company keeps on existing forever.
iv. Index of members – A private company has a privilege over the public company as they don’t have to keep an index of its members whereas the public company is required to maintain an index of its members.
v. A number of directors – When it comes to directors a private company needs to have only two directors. With the existence of 2 directors, a private company can come into operations.
vi. Paid up capital– It must have a minimum paid up capital or such higher amount which may be prescribed from time to time.
vii. Prospectus – Prospectus is a detailed statement of the company affairs which is issued by a company for its public.
viii. Minimum subscription – It is the amount received by the company which is 90% of the shares issued within a certain period of time. If the company is not able to receive 90% of the amount, then they cannot commence further business. In the case of a private limited company, shares can be allotted to the public without receiving the minimum subscription.
ix. Name – It is mandatory for all the private companies to use the word private limited after its name.
In the case, if any private limited company doesn’t follow any of the above mentioned characteristics, it ceases to be a private company. Private Limited Company have a more valuable advantages and some drawbacks.
? Advantages of Private Limited Company
? A Private Limited Company is a legal entity; the company’s finances are separate from its owner’s finances.
? The Private Limited Company structure is suitable for profit or non-profit use.
? Protection from personal liability to Limited company owners.
? Private Limited Companies have a reliable legal precedent to guide and direct the shareholders and directors.
? Private Limited Companies have an unlimited life.
? Ltd companies’ may bring additional taxes benefits, and are subject to lower corporation tax.
? Added credibility for Private Limited Companies, which can make it easier for a Private Limited Company to borrow money, raise capital and achieve financing without personal risk.

? Disadvantages of Private Limited Company
? Private Limited Companies must hold annual meetings and the shareholder and directors have specific formalities to observe.
? Owners of the limited companies have less personal control over the company compared to sole traders due to compliance issues.
? A Limited Company is more expensive to set up than a sole trader or partnership.
? Private Limited Companies pay annual fees and have periodic filing obligations.

2) Public Limited Company – PLC

A public limited company (PLC) is the legal designation of a limited liability company which has offered shares to the general public and has limited liability. A PLC’s stock is offered to the general public and can be acquired by anyone, either privately, during an initial public offering or through trades on the stock market. The appellation PLC is more commonly used in the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries. The mandatory use of the PLC abbreviation after the name of the company serves to instantly inform investors, or anyone dealing with the company, that the company is public and probably fairly large. A company that trades on the stock exchange. The shares can be traded and sold by any member of the public. It is governed by a set of strict regulations. They are required that they publish a true financial position so investors can determine the exact worth of any shares that they hold in the company. In the PLC if demand is increase its automatically increase the price.
PLC shared have a two types of values.
1. Normand value
2. Market value
While a PLC is also a limited company and shares the advantages of that structure, there are additional benefits. As with any company formation there are some disadvantages for changing to a PLC.
? Advantages of Public Limited Company
? A PLC can, first and foremost, raise capital by selling shares in the company. This is usually a lot greater than the amount which can be raised when you are only a limited company
? Having Company stock listed on a recognized exchange.
? If organization have a large number of shareholders, its essentially spreading risk in the company which can be useful. If managed properly, it can also prevent just one individual holding so many shares that they have an unreasonable control over the future and growth of the business
? The tag of PLC can be a more attractive proposition when it comes to finding finance for growth or for certain new projects. Because creditworthiness is increased. That means banks and other avenues of finance might be more willing to offer loans and credit arrangements than they would if just dealing with a limited company
? That availability of readily available finance, particularly in difficult economic periods, can enable a company to push forward with expansion plans, acquire other businesses and to fund research and development which would otherwise have to be put on hold
? Shareholders benefit from the fact that shares can be bought and sold and there is better liquidity overall.
? There is more prestige and people feel more confident about a business and its reputation and that acts as a form of free publicity

? Disadvantages of Public Limited Company
? The focus is more on protecting the shareholders. That means there are more statutory and legal requirements that your company now has to adhere to
? The level of transparency required for a PLC is much higher than with a limited company. Accounts need to be audited, providing fuller information concerning performance should be made available to anyone who wants to see them
? While with a limited company can maintain control over who has shares, this is a lot more difficult to achieve with a PLC.
? Organization may become far too focused on the short term benefits of the share price, particularly when the business is initially floated on the stock exchange. That could mean compromising or missing out on business overall strategic plan for growth
? The amount of finance that is required to go PLC is higher than with a limited company.
The pros and cons of becoming a Public Limited Company (PLC) mean that most businesses opt for this solution when they have forged a strong enough path in the market and their future success is more or less guaranteed. Getting it right can seriously improve the financial strength of business and move forward to the next stage of company development. Getting it wrong can be catastrophic and always get the best advice before going down this route.

3) Limited Liability Partnerships
A limited liability partnership (LLP) is basically a general partnership, but with the addition of giving the partners at least some limited personal liability. There is only one class of partner. The degree of liability limitation for an LLP varies from state to state. Some states provide a limitation of personal liability that is similar to a corporation. Some states only limit personal liability for the negligence of a partner. Some states take a middle ground, and limit personal liability for a partner’s negligence, as well as for partnership contracts and other debts. Because an LLP is a partnership, it must have two or more owners. A business partner is a co-owner of the business. A limited liability partnership is designed for businesses that usually operate as a traditional partnership. This tends to be accountancy firms, solicitors, dentists, veterinary practices, architects, chartered surveyors, medical practitioners and other professional services firms.
There are no general partners in a limited liability partnership, but an LLP is similar to a general partnership. Each limited liability partner contributes to the everyday business operations. However, each partner enjoys limited personal liability for the other partners’ acts. All states allow some form of LLP, though state laws vary. Note that some states only allow LLP status for professional partnerships, like accountants, lawyers or architects. In all states, limited liability partnerships can only be formed by registering with the appropriate state office.
Limited Liability Partnerships also have a pros and cons.
? Advantages of a Limited Liability Partnership
? The main advantage of an LLP is the limited personal liability provided to each of the partners. Generally speaking, each partner’s personal liability for another partner’s acts is limited to the partnership’s assets.
? Liability protection for all partners. The main advantage of an LLP is that all partners are protected by some form of liability protection, but this also means each partner gets a say in how the business is ran.
? Securities laws. Since all members of an LLP are considered general partners, security laws do not generally come into play when the members change ownership.
? Required by law. In some states, certain professions are not allowed to form other types of business structures, and are required by law to become a limited liability partnership.
? Disadvantages of a Limited Liability Partnership
? Multi-state considerations. Some states recognize LLPs formed in other states, and some do not. This could affect the limitation of liability in the other states.
? Liability protection. Although an LLP offers all members some form of liability protection, corporations and limited liability companies offer more comprehensive protections and are very popular with business owners.
4) Guarantee Company/ Non-profit Company
Limited by guarantee companies are most often formed by non-profit organizations such as sports clubs, workers’ co-operatives and membership organizations, whose owners wish to have the benefit of limited financial liability. A company limited by guarantee does not have any shares or shareholders but is owned by guarantors who agree to pay a set amount of money towards company debts. Furthermore, there will generally be no profits distributed to the guarantors as they will instead be re-invested to help promote the non-profit objectives of the company. If any profits are distributed to the owners, then the company will forfeit its right to apply for a charitable status.
Guarantors can certainly take a portion of company profits for themselves, but most of the time this does not happen because limited by guarantee companies are usually set up for non-profit purposes. This means that all of the money generated by this type of company is kept in the business or used to promote its non-profit purpose and activities. If guarantors do keep any profit for themselves, the company will no longer be considered ‘non-profit’ and it will be ineligible for charitable status. There is nothing to prevent someone setting up this type of company to run a profit-making business in which the guarantors will keep the profits, but a limited by shares structure simply makes more sense for that purpose.
? Advantages of Non-profit company.
? Eternal Life: Nonprofit organizations can exist long after their founders leave as long, as their purpose stays relevant and they continue to generate revenue
? Organization at Scale: If organization a mission-driven individual who wants to make the world a better place, organizing a nonprofit around their chosen cause is the best way to build a team to expand their efforts and make a bigger impact.
? Protection from Personal Liability: Employees of nonprofits are not personally liable for the debts of the nonprofit.
? Tax-Exempt Status on Net Income: Nonprofits do not pay taxes, so all earnings can be cycled back into the organization to improve it.
? Public and Private Incentive to Help Out: Donations made by individuals and corporations are tax-deductible, thereby incentivizing people to contribute to nonprofits.
? Grants Eligibility: An additional source of funding for nonprofits is through government grants.
? Employee Benefits: If nonprofit has enough employees, it may qualify for group discounts to health or life insurance benefit programs.
? Volunteer Board Members: Typically, nonprofits do not pay their board members, which can save a lot of money.
? Highly Motivated Employees: Research shows nonprofit employees are highly motivated by intrinsic rewards like achievements of their clients and a good work/life balance, rather than pay.
? Disadvantages of Non-profits company
? Continued Maintenance: All nonprofits are required to submit annual filings and comply with all laws of incorporation.
? Public Scrutiny: Anyone may request copies of any nonprofit’s filings and review their expenditures, salaries, and income.
? No Profits: No individuals or shareholders can receive profits from nonprofit. This can make it more difficult to generate interest from potential investors. Volunteers and Volunteer Board Members:
? Volunteers are a pro and a con: From a con perspective, sometimes it may be had to find willing volunteers to help you achieve mission and even when do, they can be difficult to manage.
? Funding Difficulty: While listed as a pro before, getting funding for nonprofit can be a constant struggle.
? Overworked Employees: Small to medium-sized nonprofits typically have tight budgets and only a handful of employees, meaning more work for less pay. It’s a scenario some are calling “The Plight of the Overworked Nonprofit Employee.”
? The “Nonprofit Employees Should Get Paid Less” Trap: Many people justify paying nonprofit employees less, because they “should be dedicated to the cause rather than the salary”.
If the advantages and disadvantages of nonprofits line up with personal values and goals, then almost ready to take the first step to jump into a nonprofit role. But before, consider these five pieces of advice from seasoned nonprofit professionals.

To validate this hypothesis

To validate this hypothesis, and to elucidate the dynamic and functional role of microtubules in cell mechanics, we investigated their properties during wing development. Live cell imaging of EOS-?-tubulin (EOS-Tub) showed that microtubules were not static but engaged in complex and dynamic rearrangements. An analysis of microtubule straightness showed that in wing cells, virtually all microtubules along the P–D axis were bent (Fig. 2a–d; Supplementary Movie 5), consistently undergoing short wavelength buckling (~3 ?m) near the cell cortex (Fig. 2b,e; Supplementary Fig. 1b). We further observed that growing microtubules remain straight and only start to buckle after they reach the cell cortex (Fig. 2g; Supplementary Movie 6), exhibiting local short wavelength buckling near these sites. This result indicates that microtubule polymerization can generate considerable compressive forces to induce microtubule buckling.


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