1. The treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI), including acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis .
2. For the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and nosocomial pneumonia.
3. Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis can be treated.
4. Can be used to treat skin and skin structure infections, including diabetic foot ulcer, surgical incision site infections, animal bite wounds, and necrotizing infections.
5. Enteric infections, including acute gastroenteritis and infectious diarrhea can also be treated with it.
6. The treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea (e.g., cervicitis and urethritis) and mild to moderate acute sinusitis
7. For the treatment of prostatitis caused by susceptible organisms. Like bacterial conjunctivitis.
8. It can be used for anthrax prophylaxis after exposure to Bacilus anthracis (postexposure prophylaxis, PEP)

Passion vs

Passion vs. Propriety: Positioning education in the paradigm of development
I. Background
The objective of education is varying, constructed from one society, then onto the other. Through its extensive variety of objectives, its significance will never wear out. Looking at the consistent increase of candidate to educational organization every year, education appears to end up as a standout amongst the most acknowledged social currency. Some say that education is liberating. Because of its association to countermeasures poverty. For some, education is even considered a part of human right, and is believed as the key part of development. Its role in development and how people view its importance made the society need education as their basic commodity, and through schooling, education has discovered its way to participate in the society.
Indonesia, however has an immense and diverse educational system. With more than 50 million students and 2.6 million educators in excess of 250,000 schools, it is the third biggest education system in the Asia region and the fourth biggest on the planet (behind just China, India and the United States). Though become the home for one of the biggest system in the planet, the internal framework is still rather fall short. With 10,5% of the total population still live below the poverty line, and the state is categorized into the worst 6 economic inequality in the world.
In a survey back in 2015, The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), discovered Indonesia is positioned 62nd from general 72 nations for its educational quality. This reality is viewed as disturbing since the urgency of education is composed down in the constitution and the nation disseminated 20% of its state spending budget for educational purposes. Moreover, with the findings that Indonesian students by large don’t appear to value or see openings in turning into a researcher. When in fact, research is seen as a distinguished and competitive strength claimed by many nations or in its smaller unit, by universities.
Education’s role in improving the society is linked closely with development. It become the most fundamental factor, since it’s the human’s mind that made it possible from wellbeing progresses and agrarian developments to efficient public administration and private sector growth. For nations to receive these rewards completely, they have to release the capability of the human mind. Furthermore, there is no preferable device for doing as such over education

This assignment introduced will explore why clinical reasoning is essential and why it is valuable in nursing and midwifery practices

This assignment introduced will explore why clinical reasoning is essential and why it is valuable in nursing and midwifery practices, as well as how the clinical reasoning process works and how important it is.

Clinical reasoning is vital in nursing and midwifery practises because it is all the information that should be processed by the patient’s needs. There are many principles that nurses and midwives must address in clinical reasoning to fulfil these clinical reasoning standards, and these are taking action, morality, review results of patients, valuable information of patients, consider their needs and problems. Nurses and midwives therefore need to have a clear health understanding of clinical reasoning.

Clinical reasoning is all the crucial information that is needed based on the clinical presentation of your patients so that the correct decisions are made as to how to treat the patient’s health. Therefore, the clinical reasoning process should be met according to the patient’s needs and assistance. The clinical reasoning process should involve continuous data collection of the patient’s health issues.

To sum up, it is clearly seen that clinical reasoning is critical and vulnerable in nursing and midwifery practices, and therefore it should be promoted through practice at all times. The importance of the clinical reasoning process should also be followed and addressed at all times during clinical Training.

Pelin Do

Pelin Do?an, the speaker, examined and analyzed Scholar and Gypsy in terms of self-realization. The representer went on with context of the story, and she pointed out that this short story is about American couple, Pat and David who travelled to India. The couple had various problems in India, and she mentioned that the story observes the couple’s reaction with their experiences, and then she supported her ideas by reading her work. As far as I understand from this short story, it handles with the class conflict along with self-realization that occur under a new and divided environment. The speaker gave also a information about the title of the story. The title ‘Scholar and Gypsy’ is an ironic play on the definitions of the words, and it implies directly that one is educated, and civilized, while the other is uncivilized and uneducated. When we look at the story, as far as I can understand, David does not like gypsy ways and steps of Pat. As for Pat, she dislikes the urban social life of Bombay as she considers that it is primitive and boring. As they move from the city to hills, Pat prefers to join Hippies in their search for Nirvana so David feels strange from her, and he decided to return Delhi for his thesis.
In conclusion, I understand and comprehend that the story tries to exhibit that an American woman’s selfdiscovery and newly awakened religious awareness occurs despite the fact that her husband has a rationalist perspective and bad attitude to rural life.

Defense Expenditure of Pakistan Course title

Defense Expenditure of Pakistan
Course title: Public Economics
Dept/Semester: BPA-4
Submitted by:
Sania Saeed
Alishba Ahmed
Zaina Hameed
Javeria Khan
Table of Content:
Defense Expenditure———————————————————————-1
Pakistan’s Defense Budget—————————————————————–2
Defense Expenditure in Times of War—————————————————-5
Defense Expenditure In Different Regimes———————————————-7
Pakistan Military Expenditure: (1956-2018) ——————————————-9

Defense Expenditure:
A military expenditure or military budget is also known as defense budget. It is the amount of money or other financial resources devoted by the state to rise and maintain the armed forces or some other methods necessary for defense purposes.

It often reflects how strongly a country perceives the possibility of threats against it, or the amount of violent behavior it can handle. It also gives a proposal that how much of financial resources should be provided for the next fiscal year. This budget size also suggests the ability of the country to fund military actions. Government of Pakistan put military pensions under the civilian budget. Defense expenditure is an undesirable spending and burden on an economy because expenditure on defense diverts the resource allocation of that economy from development projects. Pakistan is poor country with a ranking of 156th in world per capita, and stands 35th in defense spending ranking. Defense expenditure of Pakistan remains high and takes a large portion of gross domestic product (GDP) 4.5% on average from 1995 to 2009 due to longstanding conflicts and arms race with India and its geopolitical position in Afghan war and internal incidents of terrorism.
Defense expenditure can affect the economy either positively or negatively. They are considered as unproductive, have higher opportunity costs and crowd out investment. They slow down the speed of the economic growth by distorting the resource allocation. But opposite to this view, they also have growth-promoting potentials, cause increase of aggregate demand, employment generation and production. They show spread out effects on the economy.

Factors include:
the size of the economy of a country,
willingness of the government and people to spend on military activities,
other financial demands on those activities
Generally, spending on international law enforcement is excluded from defense expenditure.
Pakistan’s Defense Budget
In fiscal budget 2012-13, the Government of Pakistan allocated additional Rs.50 billion for the defense budget. According to official defense budget documents for fiscal year 2012-13, about 10% or nearly Rs.545 billion (about $5.82) compared with Rs.495 billion in 2011-12 was allocated for defense. The main cause of Pakistan’s defense budget deficit is the reduction in US defense aid.
Defense Expenditure of Pakistan by South Asian Countries as Percentage of GDP 1988-2010 
Year Pakistan India Bangladesh
1988 6.2 3.6 1
1989 6 3.5 1.1
1990 5.8 3.2 1
1991 5.8 3 1
1992 6.1 2.8 1.1
1993 5.7 2.9 1.2
1994 5.3 2.8 1.2
1995 5.3 2.7 1.3
1996 5.1 2.6 1.3
1997 4.9 2.7 1.3
1998 4.8 2.8 1.3
1999 3.7 3.1 1.3
2000 3.8 3.1 1.3
2001 3.9 3 1.2
2002 3.7 2.9 1.1
2003 3.6 2.8 1.1
2004 3.4 2.8 1.1
2005 3.3 2.8 1
2006 3 2.5 1
2007 2.8 2.3 1
2008 2.8 2.6 1
2009 2.8 2.9 1.1
2010 2.8 2.7 1.1

This graph shows different trend in south Asian countries.

Pakistan’s economy has passed through many critical challenges such as the sharp rise in food and oil prices combined with natural disasters in 2010 and 2011.  Governance and security issues pose the most serious challenges to achieving decent growth rates and investment to GDP which was the lowest for 37 years. In 2011-12, Pakistan’s economy grew by 3.7 percent against the targeted growth rate of 4.2 percent. The country faces high public debt and the rate of inflation was double-digit for the last five years. Pakistan’s defense and debt servicing expenditures have declined during the last two decades. Debt serving consumed about 39.9 percent of total revenues. During the last fiscal year the country’s public debt stood at Rs.856 billion, while debt servicing stood at Rs.1, 024 billion out of which Rs 821 billion was on account of domestic debt servicing. During the Musharraf era, Pakistan’s total public debts increased from Rs 3,200 billion to Rs 6,700 billion. “The present government has pushed the tally to Rs 12,800 billion.

Defense Expenditure in Times of War:
The military expenditure is an extremely important part of any country. It shows how much a country feels vulnerable to the outside world. There has an upward trend in the defense expenditure, especially after the World War II and the significant change in the geopolitical scenario. Over the last fifteen years, It is highly observed declining trend followed by development expenditure of Pakistan because of huge defense expenditure in comparison with health, education and other developing expenditure , defense spending stands with higher percentage.

Due to the internal security and terrorism, there is seen an increase in the defense expenditure in Pakistan. At present, internal security issues particularly that of ever more violent domestic terrorism is costing even more on the government expenditure towards defense sector. According to the documents of budget, for the fiscal year 2014-2015, the defense budget amounts to Rs. 700.2 billion as compare with Rs. 627.2 bn allocated in the previous fiscal year, which shows an increase of Rs 73 bn (these figures do not include Rs 163.4 bn for the pension of military personals). Almost 1113 billion has been allocated for military which is about 28.2 percent of country’s total fiscal budget. This has lead to the spending of money for the much-needed development projects. As in the total budgetary outlay the share of the current expenditure is 80.5 percent. Military expenditure slows down development by diverting government resources that could be used for infrastructure, public services, or lower taxes.
According to the UN Committee for development planning, the most immense barrier to the development is the worldwide expenditure on the national defense activity. The bad effects of defense expenditure in the developing countries like Pakistan are expected to worsen poverty because almost all of the military hardware is imported. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), military expenditure of the world in 2012 is estimated to have been $1756 bn, which is 2.5 percent of World’ total GDP. In the fiscal year 2012, Pakistan spent Rs 507.159 bn on the defense sector which comprise 12.9 percent of total government expenditure.
Unluckily, Pakistan is still among the poorest countries and is facing many problems such as poor infrastructure, poor health status and poverty. This might be due to the fact that Pakistan spend a great amount on military expenditure which crowd out growth-leading expenditures such as education and health expenditure. A large portion of population i.e. 45.7 percent people in Pakistan are living below poverty line. And out of these, 36.5 percent of the total population is living in chronic poverty. On the other hand, the large size of defense expenditure in presence of high budget deficits, declining development expenditure and increasing debt services on account of blowing up public debt got the attention of researcher on the subject. Besides these factors, Pakistan’s quest of nuclear capability, its arms race with its India and rate of poverty also got the attention of foreign researchers.
Defense Expenditure In Different Regimes.

center1960245Pakistan due its geographicla and strategic importance has faced internel and externel threats , due to which its defense budget has been fluctuating ever since . Pakistan has also seen militry rule and ever since the war on terror began the defense budget of pakistan has kept on increaing over the years. Being a militarily vulnerable country pakitanhas always had the need of generous amout of defense spending .

Iskandar Mirza regime (1956-1958)
Iskander Mirza was the first president of Pakistan and the defense secretary from 1947 to 1950.During his regime several troop were deployed in East Pakistan (Bangladesh). In 1951, he subsidized the liaquat administration’s decision of appointing the local chiefs of group of workers of the navy, air force, navy, and marines, and disregarded deputation appointments from the British navy. Hence the initial defense budget was neither to low nor too high. He declared Marshall law. After general Ayub khan took control of the office.

Ayub khan’s Regime (1958-1969)
During his era nuclear issue was focused and recommendations for army use of nuclear technology whereas Rs.721 million were spent on civil use of technology and nuclear plants were initiated. Furthermore the physicals size of Pakistan’s army grew from 5.79% (1960s) to 9.78% (1966) until being brought down to 6.1% (1967). Pakistan during Ayub’s regime was provided with generous donations from the U.S along with aircrafts and weaponry. However in the 1950’s Pakistan defense budget was reduced drastically.

Yahiya khan (1969-1971)
Despite all fiascoes he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general by Ayub’s khan. He commanded the 1965 war. After which an embargo was imposed upon both India and Pakistan further the U.S had clearly stated that it will not fund the both states in matter of war anymore. Hence Pakistan then turned to china for military aid. The Percentage of GDP has risen by Yahiya’s regime.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1971-1973)
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was known in history for taking initiative steps for nuclear program making Pakistan a nuclear state despite of the consistent oppositions of the U.S. Air operations were launched and other Naval operations were also carried out with Iranian Military Cooperation. Military budget further had to increase when SSG troops were deployed as a result of the intervention of Iran Iraq war. Due to the support given to Baluchistan Liberation Army by Saddam Husain’s administration. He military police arrested the Iraqi foreign representative. These entire incidents were the cause of increase in the military budget during Bhutto regime.

Zia-ul-Haq (1978-1988)
Zia-ul-Haq was military dictator and four-star general and served as the 6th President of Pakistan after declaring martial law in 1977.A military coup also took place with his regime which was to have been planned by him against Z.A Bhutto .The intervention in Afghan -soviet and active collaboration with U.S during then required the deployment of armed troop around Pak-afghan borders. All these happening increased military budget.

Pervez Musharraf (2001-2008)
General Pervez Musharraf had several military challenges when he was appointed as president after the declaration of the fourth marshal law. With the uprising of the Taliban in the region and unpopularity he received after the Lal –masjid incident. Furthermore he also has a significant role to play in the ongoing proxy war.

Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan people’s party tenure):
During her tenure as the first women prime minister, a small unite of Pakistan army was sent to Afghanistan. While this happened the Taliban had taken control of the afghan government. Under her government, Pakistan had recognized the Taliban regime as legitimate system of government. In 1989, the Pakistan Army exposed the alleged Operation Midnight Jackal against the government of Benazir Bhutto. When she learned the news, Benazir Bhutto ordered the arrest and trial of former ISI officer Brigadier Imtiaz Ahmad and Major Amir Khan, it was later revealed that it was General Beg who was behind this plot during her rule she allowed the Taliban to open an embassy in Islamabad. Her relation with the army had seldom been at peace.

Nawaz Sharif(Pakistan Muslim league (N) Tenure):
The government of the former and recent Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the interest of his government had seldom been in harmony with the military of Pakistan. His government was first overthrown by the Marshall Law following the appointment of General Pervez Musharraf and for the second time by the judiciary and the opposition. The military spending in his regime was neither too high nor too low but was balanced enough other than the Line of control violation done by the Indian forces.

Pakistan Military Expenditure: (1956-2018)

Explanation of graph:
We make a military expenditure graph from 1956 to 2018. We take USD Million on Y-axis and the Year on X-axis. Military expenditure in Pakistan averaged 4145.99 USD Million from 1956 until 2017 reaching all time high. But in the year, 1957 military expenditure in Pakistan are recorded low of 546 USD Million because of low GDP (gross domestic product). But in the year of 2008 the military expenditure in Pakistan are recorded as 6851.6 USD Million are high as compare to 1956. In the year 2009, the expenditure in Pakistan are recorded high of 7060.9 as compare to 2008. In 2010, the expenditure in Pakistan is recorded as 7322.3. In 2011 to 2017 there is minimal increase in expenditure whereas after that the expenditure has increased rapidly. In 2017 the military expenditure are recorded as 10378.2 USD Million
Pakistan Government Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit
Government Debt to GDP 67.20 66.50 87.90 56.40 Percentage
Government Budget -4.90 -5.30 8.80 -8.80 Percentage of GDP
Government Budget Value -1349.30 -1456.70 0.00 -1833.90 PKR Billion
Government Spending 1587677.00 1405639.00 1587677.00 840345.00 PKR Million
Government Revenue 4447.00 3931.00 4447.00 2566.50 PKR Billion
Government Debt 22691.00 21860.70 22691.00 9266.90 PKR Billion
Fiscal Expenditure 5796.30 5387.80 5796.30 732.50 PKR Billion
Credit Rating 19.90 Military Expenditure 10378.20 9973.80 10378.20 546.00 USB Million

Explanation of Table
This table show that the government debt to GDP in previous data is low that is 66.50 and the highest that is 87.90 and the lowest is 56.40 because of expenditure in Pakistan and it is recorded in percentage. In the previous data the government budget is low that is recorded in -5.30 and the highest budget is 8.80 and the lowest budget that is recorded in the previous one is -8.80 and it is also measure in percentage of GDP. In government budget value the pervious data is recorded in -1456.70 and it is low as compare to highest value and is recorded as 0.00 that is there is no increase and decrease in government budget value but the lowest data that is recorded as -1833.90 and it is low as compare to the previous one and the values are recorded in PKR Billion. The next is government spending the previous data shows that 1405639.00 are recorded and the highest government spending is 1587677.00 and the lowest data is 840345.00 and it is also recorded in PKR Billion. Government revenue the previous data shows that there is low revenue government that is 3931.00 and the highest government revenue is recorded as 4447.00 PKR Billion but the lowest government revenue is 2566.50 as compared to previous one. The next is government debt the previous data shows that there is low debt as compare to highest one and the lowest data is recorded as compare to previous data that is 21860.70. The fiscal expenditure of previous data is 5387.80 are recorded and the highest data of fiscal expenditure is 5796.30 and the lowest data is 732.50 and it is also recorded in PKR Billion. The credit rating of the current year is 19.90 there is no unit. The last one is military expenditure and the unit is USD Million. The previous data of military expenditure is 9973.80 recorded but the highest data that is recorded in the current year is 10378.20 but the lowest data that is recorded 546.00 and is low as compare to previous one.

. It found the relationship between long run relationships is not only in the case of Pakistan, but exists for all Asian countries, namely: China, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Pakistan badly needed to be self-sufficient in domestic defense industry, which can lead to curtail in defense budget, it will create employment resources and funds will be available for developing programs. Although, because of political and regional instability bound this region to pick guns not butter from guns verses butter dilemma. Although scarcity and inefficiency in productive sectors indicated to choose butter instead of guns. Internal and external terrorism are not allowed to curtail in defense budget, especially in the current situation where India is trying to create another big dispute against Pakistan. It was suggested Pakistan’s defense industry needs to be self-sufficient with long-run sustainability by providing essential military equipment to armed force, through this import expenditure will reduce and it can provide support to overall military spending. Furthermore, another policy which needs to be done is to achieve efficiency level or increase efficiency in all economic sectors, by this Pakistan will be able to get rid of International Monetary Fund (IMF’s) fund, which is the root cause of less developing expenditure.

In the end, we conclude that defense spending direct effects on economic growth. It ignored possible indirect effects, such as employment, investment, law and order and political aspects of defense spending. Economic growth can   limit the growth of public debt burden and expenses and avoid future debt traps and stronger taxation mechanism.

Defense Expenditure, factors
Pakistan’s Defense Budget Expenditure in Times of War Expenditure In Different Regimes.…/08-Military-Spending.pdfPakistan Military Expenditure: (1956-2018) › Countries › Pakistan › Countries › Pakistan › Military Expenditure

Interactive Documentary This article provides a timeline of what interactive documentaries

Interactive Documentary

This article provides a timeline of what interactive documentaries (i-docs) are, where they come from and what they could become. The audience for the article is anyone who is interested in exploring interactive documentaries and anyone in the media industries who might encounter documentaries. The article demonstrated that interactive media helps to create a relationship between users and technology. It is clearly distinguished between the contemporary form of i-docs and other artistic forms of interactive documentary. As for the validity of the article, the author is Sandra Gaudenzi and Judith Aston who are leading experts. Dr Sandra Gaudenzi is an expert in interactive narratives. She is Senior Lecturer at the University of Westminster in the new Digital and Interactive Storytelling LAB – a place to explore, experiment and excel in the storytelling forms of our digital culture.

Key Definitions
1. The conversational mode- is a type of interactivity that wants to replicate the interaction between two human beings. In this mode of interactive documentary, reality is not objective as it is created by an apparently limitless number of scenarios.

2. The Hypertext mode- Hypertext mode is interactive relationship between the user and the documentary. It is based on the investigation of a finite database of audio-visual content. Hypertext interactive documentary are divided in segments which have been pre-determined by the author and stored.

3. The Participative mode- Participative mode requires a direct engagement from the user mode, the user becomes a part of the events. Participative mode expects a specific form of inter-action from the user.

4. The Experiential mode- Is a process whereby the user learns through there experiences.

5. Idocs –

Media Content

Practice based solutions
The proposed practice-based solution is to give the public of Northern Ireland a set of questions about Ireland and record their response. Once the responses have been recorded use a split screen and play the different responses alongside each other, so this is taking participative mode from the article into action as the it is using people’s opinions.
Motions Graphics
The motions graphics article looks at how viewers interact with motion graphics. The article is based around two theories which are theory of naïve realism and cognitive load theory. Each theory describes aspects of the motion graphic viewing experience. The article was showing how viewing motion graphics from naïve realism theory point of view affected the motion graphics. The point of the article was to figure out how individuals respond to large amounts of detail. The motion graphics was broken into two levels of fidelity which are high and low. The individuals were researched on how they were able to process information based on their experience to sequences of graphics. The author is Dr. Spencer Barnes Assistant Professor School of Media and Journalism University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has written many articles on motion graphics for example studies in the efficacy of motion graphics: The impact of narrative structure on exposition. Digital Journalism. The audience for this article would be anyone interested in cognitive load theory like physiologists or anyone in the media industry who is interest in motion graphics like a graphic designer.

Key Definition
Cognitive load- Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) is an instructional design theory that reflects the way in which our minds process information
Motion graphics- Motion graphics is animation which create the illusion of motion, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects
Naïve realism- Naïve realism originated from cognitive physiology, it focuses on people’s interactions with visual stimulation like motion graphics. There are three important variables when talking about Naïve realism.
Visual effects- is the process by which images are created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in film making
Practice based solution…..
Selfies Visual Cultures
This article looks at the cultural appeal with social media forms, known as “sel?es,”. The article pays interest in the self-imaging strategies of young women in their teens and early 20s. It demonstrates how social media sites like Instagram and Facebook have become a powerful means for self-expression, encouraging its makers to share the most intimate and private moments of their lives. The article also looks at how the impact of technology and social media to broadcast and share images. The article looks at whether the idea of taking selfies is for aesthetics and narcissism or if there is a political value behind the imagery. The target audience for this article is feminists who are interested in issues in contemporary society and media students who are interested in social media and it’s affects. The article was written by Derek Conrad Murray he is an interdisciplinary theorist specialising in the history, theory and criticism of contemporary art and visual culture.
Key Definitions
Selfie- A photograph that one has taken of themselves, typically taken with a smartphone or webcam and shared via social media
Visual Culture- Visual culture is when you express yourself or aspects of culture using visual images.
Male Gaze- The male gaze is the act of portraying women and the world, in the view from a male heterosexual perspective that presents and represents women as sexual objects for the pleasure of the male viewer.
Female Gaze – The female gaze is a response to the male gaze from a feminist named Laura Mulvey’s. The female gaze is about presenting views and perspectives that reflect women’s attitudes in society.

Practice Based Solution
Augmented Reality
This paper investigates how the practice of vision constructed through a locative-based augmented reality (AR) browser creates and reveals values and meanings connected to geographies of the place. The paper uses the cultural consciousness formed from the legacy of the Titanic. They develop an augmented reality that contains historic photographs of Titanic with the modern-day view of the Belfast shipyard in which the ship was built, this is to explore the narrative reason of what is seen and understood through the AR browser. The paper demonstrates how the reader enters the world of the author’s experience. The audience for the paper would be anyone who is interested in augmented reality and the experiences that it can provide for its audiences. The validity of the paper does not come into question as the author is a Senior Lecturer in Interactive Media at the School of Media, Film and Journalism, and researcher at the Centre for Media Research, Ulster University, Northern Ireland. The author has also received international awards, involves practice-led enquiry into the cultural, economic and social impact of emerging media in contemporary visual cultures.
Key Definitions
Augmented reality -Augmented reality often abbreviated to AR is a collaborating experience of a real-world environment whereby the objects that exist in the real-world are “augmented” by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities.
Photography- Photography is the art. Photography can be taken either electronically by means of an image sensor camera, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Autoethnography- Autoethnography is a form of research. It is a self-reflective form of writing used across multiple disciplines such as communication studies, education, English literature and anthropology. Autoethnography focuses on the subject’s experience.
Titanic-The Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City
Media Content

Practice based solution

Fake News Paper
This article explores the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The article looks at the spread of misinformation and the willing engagement of mainstream media to perpetuate biased. The article shows how frame can be obtained through spreadable media because citizens could express their opinions online which expanded the media display of the U.S. presidential elections. The author Paul Mihailidis has featured in the New York Times, the Washington Post, Slate Magazine and others. Mihailidis oversees a program that gathers over 60 students and a dozen faculty from five continents for three weeks every summer to create multimedia media literacy products that are used in over 100 countries around the world.
Key Definitions
Mainstream – Mainstream media is a term referring to television networks (especially broadcast), newspapers, magazines, radio, and often the movie industry.
Spreadable media- Spreadable media looks at fundamental maps in modern media environment. Spreadable media is when the media corporations cannot control the media distribution so tightly and many members of the public get involved in circulating the content.
Memes- A meme is a virally-transmitted symbol or social idea. Most modern memes are captioned photos that are intended to be funny, often to publicly ridicule the way someone has acted
Fake News- Fake news is the deliberate misinformation spread by news media and usually seen across social media websites.
Social Media- Social media can be defined as websites and applications that allow users to create and share content while also allowing people to social network. Social media is usually defined by most people as apps on their smartphones

Practice based Solution

The Sexual Harassment and Assault Response Program reinforces the Army’s commitment to eliminate incidence of sexual harassment and sexual assault through a focus and concerted effort that includes prevention

The Sexual Harassment and Assault Response Program reinforces the Army’s commitment to eliminate incidence of sexual harassment and sexual assault through a focus and concerted effort that includes prevention, training and education, victim advocacy, response, reporting and accountability. The goal of the program is to foster a culture where all soldiers, family members, and DoD civilians and contractors treat each other with dignity and respect, and where members of our military community can leave free of the threat of sexual harassment and sexual assault.
Sexual harassment is usually a precursor to sexual assault and involves unwelcome sexual advances, request for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when it interferes with an individual’s with job performance, promotion, and pay, or when it contributes to the creation of a hostile work environment. On the other, hand Sexual assault is the intentional sexual contact characterize by the use of force, physical threat, of abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent. It can occur without regard to gender, spousal relationship, or age of victim.
Sexual assault occurs in the army because of soldier access to drug and alcohol consumption. According to a report its estimate that 26,000 service members experienced “unwanted sexual contact” that includes rape, attempted rape and unwanted sexual touching out of which 12,100 were women and 13900 were men. Majority of this incidents involved drugs and alcohol consumption. (FRONTLINE: by Sarah Childress).
Sexual assault is a criminal offense punishable by state laws and the Uniformed Code of Military Justice (UCMJ). The Department of the Army’s position on sexual assault is that it is incompatible with the Army’s high standards of professionalism, discipline, and Army values, and will not be tolerated among the ranks. Sexual harassment, a precursor to sexual assault, will also not be tolerated. A climate that promotes this message is to be encouraged by Soldiers, DoD Civilian and contractors.
There are two types of reporting options. Soldiers and Family members, 18 years of age and older, are eligible for SHARP assistance and for restricted and unrestricted reporting options. The restricted (confidential) reporting option allow eligible individuals who have been sexually assaulted to get medical attention, to include a Sexual Assault Forensic Exam (SAFE), advocacy assistances and counseling without triggering an official investigation. In order to file a restricted report, victims can only speak to Sexual Assault Response Coordinators (SARC) or SHARP Victim Advocates (VA), Medical Treatment Facility and Chaplain.
For Unrestricted reporting individuals who want to access services and hold the offender accountable. It triggers law enforcement and command involvement. Individuals can file an unrestricted report by speaking to SARCs or Vas, MTF Staff, Law Enforcement, and command.
Bystander intervention can reduce the risk of sexual assault and harassment by implementing standard prevention procedure. Measure safety not just assault. It means military leaders must change norms, not just administer justice. Training and education, victim advocacy, response, reporting and accountability.

We all have a responsibility to report sexual harassment and sexual assault as proud members of the army team, our values of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity and personal courage compel to say “NO” to sexual harassment and sexual assault. As members of our Army community, we must work together to eradicate the problem. We are duty bound to intervene, act and motivate. Each one of us should stand up and say “I AM THE FORCE BEHIND THE FIGHT.”

Chapter Two

Chapter Two: ARDUINO

2.1.1 Meaning of Term Arduino
Arduino is a platform used for making electronics projects. Arduino consist of two units
in whole , one is the physical or hardware programmable circuit board (often referred to as
microcontroller) and second is the piece of software, or IDE (Integrated development
environment) that runs on computer used to write and upload computer code to the physical
Arduino works as brain of the projects made on it ,and act as the controller of the project.
Arduino was first made at Ivera interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast
connections for students without a background in electronics and programming.
Unlike most older programmable circuits boards the arduino does not require a separate part
of hardware in order to program a new code onto board you can just use a USB cable.
Arduino uses a basic version of c++ , making it simpler to learn the program. Arduino boards
offers a typical form factor that breaks out the function of microcontroller into a more
variable package.

There are different types of arduino boards available according to the processor,
memory, digital I/O, analog I/O used in these boards.
The list of arduino board include :

*Arduino Uno(R3)
*Lilypad Arduino
*Red Board
*Arduino Mega(R3)
*Arduino Leonardo
Arduino Board Processor Memory Digital I/O Analogue I/O
Arduino Uno 16Mhz ATmega328 2KB SRAM, 32KB flash 14 6 input, 0 output
Arduino Due 84MHz AT91SAM3X8E 96KB SRAM, 512KB flash 54 12 input, 2 output
Arduino Mega 16MHz ATmega2560 8KB SRAM, 256KB flash 54 16 input, 0 output
Arduino Leonardo 16MHz ATmega32u4 2.5KB SRAM, 32KB flash 20 12 input, 0 output

TABLE 2.1(Different Arduino Boards)
The term “open source hardware” in defining of arduino means that these arduino boards can
be modified further for more form factors and functionality. There can be more derivatives
of these boards.
2.2Board Used (Arduino Uno R3)
2.2.1Reason To Choose Arduino Uno R3
The Arduino Uno R3 is a best choice for us because it is the best for the students to get
started initially in this field of Arduino.
It has got everything which are useful for initial start such has 14 digital input/output pins out
of these 14 pins, 6 can be used as PWM output pins. 6 Analog input pins, a USB connection ,
Power Jack, Reset Button , Power Led Indicator, TX RX Leds, Main IC, Voltage Regulator.
2.2.2Components of Arduino
1) Power USB (USB Connector)
Power USB acts as a way to connect the power source with Arduino . If the power supply
is coming from the USB then we use power USB as a connector.
It is also used to load code into Arduino board.
2)Barrel Jack (Power Connector)
Barrel Jack is also used as a way to connect power source with Arduino . If the power
supply is coming from wall power then we use Barrel Jack as a connector.
Do not use the power supply greater than 20 volts. If the supply is greater than 20 volts there
is overpowering of Aduino and due to this Arduino can destroy.
Suitable operating voltage for most Arduino boards is between 6 and 12 volts.
The pins are the places on Arduino where we connect the wire coming from breadboard in
order to implement a circuit.
Made up of black plastics headers that allows you to just plug a wire right into the board.
3)Ground Pins (GND)
There are two ground pins on Arduino which are used to ground the circuit we are making
on breadboard.
4)5V Pin
The 5V pin supplies a power of 5 volt which is used to drive different components such as
5)3.3V Pin
The 3.3V pin supplies a power of 3.3 volt which is used to drive different components such
as sensors.
6)Analog Pins
The Analog pins as shown in Arduino given by “Analog In” from pin A0 to pin A5 on
UNO used only as Analog input pins.
The pins are used to read signal/values from the the Analog sensor and convert it to a digital
value that is understandable by microcontroller of Arduino.
Each of analog input pins provide 10 bits of resolution(i.e 1024 different values of sensor).
By default they measure from ground to 5 volts though it is possible to change upper end of
this range by using AREF pin.
A4 and A5 are also known as SDA(Serial data) and SCL(Serial clock) pins for TWI
communication using wire library. These are the two wires for communicate using I2C bus
between I2C master and I2C device , and hence communication is know as Two wire
7)Digital Pins
The Digital pins as shown in Arduino given by “Digital (PWM~)” from pin 0 to pin 13 on
UNO can be used in both ways as Digital input pins or Digital output pins. Out of these 14
pins some are also used as PWM output pins, Interrupts pins(2 and 3) to trigger interrupt at
low values or rising edge or falling edge or due to change in value, pin 13 an inbuilt led and
TX RX pins(used for serial communication).
8)PWM Pins
The PWM output pins denoted by the symbol of “~” with the some of the Digital pins on
UNO. These pins are 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 on UNO.
These pins normally acts as Digital pins but can also be used as PWM pins. The pulse width
modulation allow us to vary how much time the signal is high in analog fashion. The PWM
pins are able to simulate analog output.
9)Analog Reference(AREF)
AREF pins used to set an external refrence voltage as an limit for the Analog input pins.

10)Reset Button
The Reset Button on Arduino will act as a switch. When the switch is pressed it will
temporarily connects the Reset pin to the ground and restart any code that is loaded in
arduino at that time.
This pin can be very useful if your code does not repeat but you want to test it multiple times
. Reset button will reset microcontroller when low.
11)Power Led Indicator
The Power led indicator is the small led located just below the point on the Board where
UNO is written.
This led always light up whenever we plug the Arduino to the Power source. If this light
does not turn on there is a good chance that there is a fault in the circuit.
The word TX stands for transmitter and RX stands for receiver. These types of definition
of TX and RX are frequently used in electronics to indicate pins responsible for serial
In this Arduino board there are two times these TX and RX appear i.e one time by the digital
pins 0 and 1 , and second times on the indicator leds.
These Leds will provide the information when the Arduino is transmitting data or receiving
data by glowing that Led at the moment (for ex : when we are loading new program onto the
board RX led will glow).
13)MAIN IC (Microcontroller IC ATMEGA328)
The black thing with metal legs is know as the main IC also known as ATmega328 is a
microcontroller which is the Brain of arduino. The IC is made by ATMEL.
Main focus to understand that the Arduino board includes a microcontroller, and this
microcontroller is what executes the program instruction. If you know this the there is a
difference between Arduino and ATmega328.
The ATmega328 microcontroller is the microcontroller used in Arduino UNO as a
controller. ATmega328 belongs to family AVR , it is an 8-bit device means it has data bus
of 8 bit, internal registers are designed to handle 8 parallel data signals.
ATmega328 has three types of memory:
*Flash memory: 32KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing codes)

*SRAM memory: 2KB volatile memory.(for storing variables used at time of running the code)

*EEPROM memory: 1KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing data that will be needed Arduino is switched on)

?Pin diagram of Atmega328

Pin Number Description Function
1 PC6 Reset
2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX)
3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX)
4 PD2 Digital Pin
5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM)
6 PD4 Digital Pin
7 Vcc Positive Voltage (Power)
8 GND Ground
9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator
10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator
11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM)
12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM)
13 PD7 Digital Pin
14 PB0 Digital Pin
15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM)
16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM)
17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM)
18 PB4 Digital Pin
19 PB5 Digital Pin
20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power)
21 AREF Reference Voltage
22 GND Ground
23 PC0 Analog Input
24 PC1 Analog Input
25 PC2 Analog Input
26 PC3 Analog Input
27 PC4 Analog Input
28 PC5 Analog Input

?Features Of Atmega328

CPU 8-bit AVR
Number of Pins 28
Operating Voltage (V) +1.8 V TO +5.5V
Number of programmable I/O lines 23
Communication Interface Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface(17,18,19 PINS) Can be used for programming this controller
Programmable Serial USART(2,3 PINS) Can be used for programming this controller
Two-wire Serial Interface(27,28 PINS)Can be used to connect peripheral devices like Servos, sensors and memory devices
JTAG Interface Not available
ADC Module 6channels, 10-bit resolution ADC
Timer Module Two 8-bit counters with Separate Prescaler and compare mode, One 16-bit counter with Separate Prescaler,compare mode and capture mode.
Analog Comparators 1(12,13 PINS)
DAC Module Nil
PWM channels 6
External Oscillator 0-4MHz @ 1.8V to 5.5V
0-10MHz @ 2.7V to 5.5V
0-20MHz @ 4.5V to 5.5V
Internal Oscillator 8MHz Calibrated Internal Oscillator
Program Memory Type Flash
Program Memory or Flash memory 32Kbytes10000 write/erase cycles
CPU Speed 1MIPS for 1MHz
RAM 2Kbytes Internal SRAM
Watchdog Timer Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
Program Lock Yes
Power Save Modes Six ModesIdle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby
Operating Temperature -40°C to +105°C(+105 being absolute maximum, -40 being absolute minimum)

14)Crystal Oscillator

The silver colour plate behind barrel jack is known as crystal oscillator. Crystal
oscillator is available with a frequency of 16 MHZ.
In Our project we have main use of this oscillator in calculating time taken by the level
sensor signal in twice leg travel ,first leg before deflection from object and second leg
after deflection from the object.

14)Voltage Regulator
The work of voltage regulator is similar as it name suggest. It will fix the voltage entering
the Arduino. If the voltage greater than
voltage given by voltage regulator trys to enter Arduino , it will be stopped by this Voltage

15)Icsp pin
Icsp pin generally consist of MOSI, MISO, RESET, VCC, GND, SCK all these things
together makes icsp pin which is nothing but AVR (small program header for arduino).
The oher name given to iscp pin is SPI(serial peripheral interface). SPI can be taken as
expansion of the output. The output device is a slave to the master of SPI bus which is used
for programming this microcontroller.

2.3Arduino Advantages
1) Inexpensive: Due to this less cost of Arduino can be used by students easily to make DIY
2)Less hardware: During the period of code uploading it does not require extra hardware,
uses a bootloader of 0.5 kb of space which allow program to burn directly to ckt.
3)Compatibility : Can be used with all types of operating system such as windows, linux etc.
4)Open Source Hardware : This is the thing which help the user to make their individual kit
by taking guide with available kit.
5)Open Source Software : This is the thing which help the programmers to merge the
Arduino code with existing programming language libraries.
6)Convenient : All the peoples who are using arduino for the first time it is easy to
understand and people get used to it in less time due to this quality.
Therefore people who are starting from their first project are generally advised to work on
Arduino than any other microntroller.
7)Easy Connections : The uno can be connected easily with the computer cpu by using the
usb port of cpu and can transfer code by using serial communication.
The serial communication is decided by the transmitter and receiver pins on the Arduino.
2.4Arduino Architecture

Arduino processor uses the architecture in which the program code and program data have
individual separate memory. There are two memories one is program memory and the other
one is data memory.

The code is stored in the memory which is known as flash program memory and the data is
stored in the data memory.
Atmega 328 has 32kb of flash memory for storing code out of this 32kb , 0.5kb is used for
the storing code by the bootloader, 2kb of SRAM, 1kb of EEPROM and operates with clock
speed of 15MHZ.

2.5Programming of Arduino
In Arduino is the program can be directly loaded to the device without usng any hardware
programmer to burn the program, this all is done by 0.5kb bootloader which makes the
program to burn into the circuit directly.
All we need for direct loading is Arduino software IDE on which code is written.
1) Declaration of variables.
2) Inialization: written in setup() function.
3) Control code: written in loop() function.
4) Sketch is saved with .ino extension.(in sketch book directory).
5) Choose the proper board from tool menu and the serial port number. And then click
6) on the upload button then code uploaded by bootloader onto the microcontroller.
?Arduino Basic Functions
• digitalRead(pin): Reads the digital value at the given pin.

• digitalWrite(pin, value): Writes the digital value to the given pin.

• pinMode(pin, mode): Sets the pin to input or output mode.

• analogRead(pin): Reads and returns the value.

• analogWrite(pin, value): Writes the value to that pin.

• serial.begin(baud rate): Sets the beginning of serial communication by setting the bit rate.

2.6Making of Arduino

Parts needed to make an Arduino are Breadboard, a Led, a Power Jack, a IC socket, a
Microcontroller atmega328, few resistors , 2 capacitors, 2 regulators.


1) First of all put Power Jack and IC socket on board by soldering.

2) Then by using capacitor and regulators make 5v and 3.3 v regulator ckts.

3) Make power connection to MCU pins.

4) The reset pin of IC socket attached with 10k resistor and then to reset puch button.

5) Attach crystal oscillator to pins 9, 10.

6) Connect the Power led.

7) Attach the pins with female headers.

8) Alternative should be kept with 6 male headers to upload program.

9) Upload the code on MCU of readymade Arduino.

The outfield lines seem to be converging on each other Players in the outfield seem to be smaller than they actually are The fence in the outfield looks so small you could walk over it My foot seems to be the same length as the first base line if you compared them together

The outfield lines seem to be converging on each other
Players in the outfield seem to be smaller than they actually are
The fence in the outfield looks so small you could walk over it
My foot seems to be the same length as the first base line if you compared them together

All pregnancies start when a sperm fertilises an egg

All pregnancies start when a sperm fertilises an egg. This fertilized egg is called a zygote.
Sometimes a woman’s ovaries release two eggs, and two separate sperm fertilise each egg. This forms twins. These twins are called fraternal twins, dizygotic twins (meaning two zygotes) or non-identical twins.
During pregnancy the baby gets food and oxygen from the placenta. Fraternal twins have separate placents and umbilical chords. The name for this is dichorionic.
Fraternal twins can be the same or opposite sex and their genes are different. Same sex fraternal twins usually look different – they might have the same hair or eye colour. Sometimes they might look quite similar.
Fraternal twins happen in around 1 in 40 pregnancies in Australia.
Very rarely, fraternal twins share a placenta. These types of twins are called chimaeric twins.


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