Nowadays

Nowadays, there is a strong concern about environmental activities and how it is affecting the planet. The approach of different methods to fight against pollution is a current conversation in daily life to make the planet a better and healthy place to live. Solar and wind energy are becoming popular in some countries to try to alleviate the impact of the human footprint on the earth. However, people have to see what kind of system is better in their location because solar and wind energy work differently. Solar energy and wind energy are two eco-friendly systems to generate electricity that allow people to have more than one option when choosing their preferred system, and both alternative energy sources have advantages and disadvantages that fit better with the people necessities depending on their liking.
Solar and wind energy have a couple of interesting advantages that could be attractive to customers and less harmful to the earth. Solar energy is a source that meanwhile the Sun maintains its existence it will generate all the energy that people needs. It is a cyclic process where not just people are Beneficiating, the earth as well. While oil and fossil fuels have been used on a conventional method of electricity causing a problem for the environment, solar energy does not affect the nature because its systems do not need of those toxic liquids (Conserve energy future,2018). The way that this system works is by solar panels. The solar panels convert sunlight into the electric charge (DC) Direct current to (AC) Alternative current which makes electrify homes (Sparkfun electronics). Due to the powerful sunlight could occur that the system generates more energy that people needs there is when people can reduce their electricity bills because the system saves the energy and act like a reserve that can be useful when necessary.
Wind energy creates energy by the air when it flows through the earth. With a generator called turbines, it creates electricity. When the air past a turbine it rotates converting the wind in energy. The turbines will begin to develop electricity when air speeds achieve approximately 6-9 miles per hour (American Wind Energy Association). Wind turbines do not pollute the air in comparison to power plants, it is a clean source and does not produce gasses emissions (Kohilo Wind turbines).
The disadvantages of these sources are things that experts in this field could work on to improve the use and make it more desirable. Wind energy could be a threat to wildlife because of the space that this source requires to be able to work efficiently. Some species that could be affected by this system of energy are the birds and eagles. Their nature is flying over the sky, and they could collide against the turbines causing their immediate death because of the speed. Solar energy demands too much space, and people are questioning the cosmetic because some of them do not like the way that the solar panels are designed and they are worried about the impact that the design could have on their houses.

What is a DDoS Attack

What is a DDoS Attack?
DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service, and refers to the deployment of large numbers of internet bots which can come from hundreds of thousands different connections. The bots are designed to attack a single server, network or application by continuing to send requests or messages in order to slow it down and deny service to the legitimate users that are trying to access the website or system. DDoS attacks are usually started using just a single computer system that becomes the mastermind and then identifies other vulnerable computers and turn them into the bots which then act like zombies that are being controlled by the master computer.
Many different types of people or cyber-criminals have used DDoS attacks for extortion, politics or to get revenge on a single employer or large networks or websites. The more traffic they tie up with the constant requests or messages sent is measure in bits or binary digits. If a small attack is being launched it may only take a few Mbps or megabits per second but if a larger attack is being conducted it could take several hundred gigabits or terabits. The majority of DDoS attackers use this technic to distract the security system by keeping them busy looking at one issue while planting another type of malware within their system for future use without detection.
What Types of DDoS attacks are there?
There are several different types of methods used to attack a system using denial of service. Botnets are just one type, another is a Teardrop Attack which involves sequential Internet Protocol packets that overlap one another and as the system is trying to reconstruct packets during the process the target system becomes confused and crashes. Another is a Smurf Attack which involves using IP spoofing which make it look like the request was going to one location but it is actually going out to all IPs in the range overwhelming the network and generating huge amounts of network congestion. The final type is called Ping of Death Attack. This attack uses IP packets to ping a target system with a larger than normal amount of packets that the receiver can handle which eventually causes the system buffer and crash eventually.
Most Famous DDoS Attacks
As technology expands so do the ways criminals use it to commit crimes. There have been many attacks throughout the years since computers first became mainstream but here are just a few notable attacks.
1. GitHub: 1.35 Tbps – February 28, 2018 GitHub which is a popular developer platform was attached with an onslaught record-breaking 1.35 terabits per second of traffic. Per GitHub “over a thousand different autonomous systems (ASNs) across tens of thousands of unique endpoints”. It was not expressed why the attack was launched but the company is taking measures to make sure they are not that vulnerable again.
2. Occupy Central, Hong Kong: 500 Gbps – In 2017 an attack labeled PopVote DDoS targeted a Hong Kong based grassroots movement known as Occupy Central which was campaigning for a more democratic voting system. The attackers sent large amounts of traffic to three of Occupy Central’s web hosting services sending packets disguised as legitimate traffic resulting in peak traffic levels of 500 gigabits per second.
3. CloudFlare: 400 Gbps – In 2014, an attack was launched on a single CloudFlare customer in Europe which effected the CloudFlar’s entire network. The attacker used spoofed source addresses to send out a mass amount of network time protocol servers’ responses to the victim.
4. Spamhaus: 300 Gbps – In 2013, a nonprofit threat intelligence provider Spamhaus which is regularly targeted by attackers were attacked by a large enough DDoS attack that it knocked their website offline and part of their email system was affected also. The attacked was eventually identified as Cyberbunker which is a Dutch company that was previously blacklisted by Spamhaus.
5. U.S. Banks: 60 Gbps – In 2012, six U.S. banks (Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, U.S. Bancorp, Citigroup and PNC Bank) were targeted by hundreds of hijacked servers with each creating peak floods of more than 60 gigabits of traffic per second. In 2012 these types of attacks were not as popular so the banks were not equipped to deal with this type of DDoS attack.
How do you prevent DDoS attacks?
Distributed denial of service attacks are on the rise with no plans of going away, they are growing larger and becoming more destructive. Just last year in 2017, an attack that struck Dyn took down Twitter, Amazon, Spotify and other clients of the same DNS provider’s critical infrastructure. Arbor Networks reported that 6.1 million campaigns were detected through September of 2017. That breaks down to 22,426 attacks per day, 934 per hour and 15 per minute. There are many technology firms that will continue to look for and take down DDoS botnets but in order to prevent these types of attacks the client or customer needs to be up to date on what has already occurred and how those systems were infiltrated and by doing so the steps can be taken to prevent the same thing from happening to their network or company.

Rallapalli

Rallapalli, H. (2010) 16, described that building energy simulation has a significant role not only in making new building design but for the existing buildings evaluations such as the operation , diagnostics, and commissioning that will lead them to energy efficient designs. Building energy simulation can also help facility managers and engineers identify energy saving potentials and evaluate the energy performance and cost- effectiveness of energy saving measures to be implemented. There are many building energy simulation software available nowadays. Some are simplified energy analysis tools that only provide a quick analysis of annual energy use of buildings, but some use more detailed models and run on hourly basis that provide detailed hour-by-hour energy analysis of buildings. No matter which software is used, calibration of simulation models is necessary and crucial for the accuracy and usability of energy simulation. The calibration process compares the results of the simulation with the measured data then tunes the simulation until its results closely match the measured data. Whole building simulation tools are widely used and are applied to the entire building as an integrated system; these take into account all parameters and components together.

There is a great diversity in the wild world especially in animal species such as birds

There is a great diversity in the wild world especially in animal species such as birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, etc. Instead this diversity, each animal plays an important role in the ecosystem to maintain the balance of nature (Difference Between Bats and Birds,2015). Unfortunately, many people cannot distinguish between certain animal varieties because of their similarities and commonalities. For example, bats and birds have a lot of similarities. There are approximately 1200 species of bats (Bat,2018). There are many types of birds. In this report, I will compare and contrast between birds and bats in their body and some behaviors to help us to distinguish between them.

The first point, which can help us to differentiate between bats and birds, is their body. To begin with, both birds and Bats are animals, which have wings, and they are characterized by their simple skeleton (Difference Between Bats and Birds,2015). To quote from De(2016), most birds have light, hollow, air-filled bones that connect with the lungs. Furthermore, bats have a flexible wing, resembling a human arm, but it contains a patagium, which is a narrow membrane of skin (HARRIS,2001). Birds are the only ones that cover their body by feathers (De,2016).Figure one show the difference between the forelimbs. Prabhat(2011) shows us that feathers help birds fly, control the body heat and attract the opposite sex. The bats are webbed animal, and possess teeth while the bird has a beak (Difference Between Bats and Birds,2015). According to De. (2016), the beak is from the bird bodybuilding to its outer structure and is sharp (De,2016). Finally, the heart of birds consists of four chambers, similar as the heart of the mammals, and is defined by warm blood (Bat,2018). Also bats have warm blood, and resemble the rest of the mammals in their outer form, which has ears and eyes, except the wings(Difference Between Bats and Birds,2015).

Some behavior of birds and bats are the second important point that can help us to know the difference between birds and bats. Firstly, bats are mammals. Mammals give birth to their babies and feed them with the milk which they produce, while the birds lay the eggs and feed their young with digested food (Prabhat,2011). Most birds incubate their babies until they are able to fly (Bird,2018).This means that young birds stay in the nest with their parents. In addition, as reported by Bird(2018), usually most of the birds are active during the daytime. Therefore, they rely on them senses such as sight to move and look for food. Thirdly, birds have sound boxes called syrinx(Prabhat,2011). On the other hand, TOM(2001) write that the bats are active at night and have the echocardiography, which is a navigational system (Prabhat,2011). By the echocardiography bats can identify the location, size and direction of the prey(Prabhat,2011). During the day, bats gather in large colonies and are suspended upside down, that useful for the bats to help them takeoff, opposite of birds (Prabhat,2011). Moreover, caves, abandoned buildings, tree branches, and rock surface, all are dark and isolated, that are places suitable for bats (Bat,2018). Not like bats, birds build their own nests from sticks, leaves, algae, and plants (Bird,2018). Finally, most birds depend on flying, but there are some species, that depend on walking or jumping to move. (Bird,2018). Different from birds, bats use flight to move mainly(Bird,2018).

To sum up, Similarities and differences between bats and birds and some of their behavior can help us to know if this creature is a bird or a bat. In my view, if you see an object fly at night it will be a bat and the bird you will see it flying at the morning. Usually bats are not harmful to people. Sadly, they are endanger, because of their reproduce habits, since every bat female has one child a year (HARRIS,2001). Since 1680, 80 species of birds have disappeared and a large number of them have become
in danger, due to pesticides and the destruction of their homes and diseases (Bird,2018). Figure two show the causes of bird mortality. I advise everyone not to sell animals and stop hunting to keep them and the environment, because they are so important for us.

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Literature Survey on Super Resolution and its Challenges Murali Krishna Atmakuri Asst

Literature Survey on Super Resolution and its Challenges
Murali Krishna Atmakuri
Asst. Prof,Dept. of ECE
RVR&JCCE,Guntur
[email protected] Kumar Katta
Asst. Prof,Dept. of ECE
RVR&JCCE,Guntur
[email protected] Prasad
professor&Head, Dept. of ECE
GEC,Gudlavalleru
[email protected] In the recent trends, image processing field became an interesting area for researchers due to vast advancements over the few decades. Now-a-days one of the most recent and important trend of image processing is Super Resolution. Super resolution utilizes the features of reconstruction; reconstruction is a kind of producing high spatial image from one or more low resolution images. Super resolution combines the non-redundant information of low-resolution images to develop high-resolution images. This article envisages the recent advances in super-resolution techniques and provides its advantages and disadvantages. This article also explains the challenges of super resolution and the scope further research studies.

Index Terms- Image Resolution, Super Resolution, Interpolation, Wavelet Transform, Learning, Reconstruction.

INTRODUCTION
Vision is one of the most valuable of five senses, so images not only play the important role but also used to make decisions based on human perception. In order to improve human perception, it is important to use high resolution images 1-6. High resolution images are used in various kinds of applications, some of the examples are as follows: Military and Civilian 7-10. The recent trends in image and video sensing have been intensified by the expectations of the user on visual quality of captured-data 11, 12. High quality visual captured-data can be obtained with the help of high resolution cameras. The limitation of using high resolution cameras are: Expensive, Need high power, Need high memory size and limited band width even though the high resolution cameras used, sometimes it is not possible to obtain high resolution image 13. To overcome above limitations, super resolution would be an effective solution. In many of the digital image processing applications, high resolution images are used. High image resolution gives more details about the image 14-18. Super resolution became an interesting area for researcher since more the resolution gives more data about image 19-22. Resolution is generally determined by pixel density 23.

Figure 1 presents the generic image acquisition process, where diverse factors affect the image quality like: Over the air (OTA), Charge-couple device (CCD), Pre-processors and Environment. Optical Blur is a non-symmetric design of the lens and an aperture before or behind the optic center of the lens lead to
image distortions. Motion blur results either due to rapid movement or long exposure of camera. Noise in an image is an undesirable by-product which corrupts the original information.

One way of producing a high resolution (HR) image, is by installing a high resolution sensor. But it is not practicable to do so. It results in increase of a cost as well as increase in power consumption. A simple example of this is satellite imaging system or a medical imaging system, where it is infeasible to use a high resolution sensor. So, to come over these drawbacks, post processing is required to develop a better resolved image that holds more information. One of the promising approaches for this is signal processing techniques to obtain HR image from multiple low resolution (LR) images. Now-a-days such approach is more active in research area, and is called super resolution or Resolution Enhancement 21.

IMAGE sUPER RESOLUTION
Super resolution can be achieved either by processing multiple low resolved images as input and generating a high detail containing a single super resolved image as output or enhancing the details in a single low resolved image and generating a high resolved image for analysis. In SR from multiple LR images, it is a construction of HR image from several LR images, thereby increasing the high frequency components. The basic idea is to combine non-repetitive information contained by multiple LR images.

Fig. 1. Generic image acquisition system
Restoration for noise and blur removal
Registration or Motion estimation
Interpolation onto a high resolution grid
Input: LR IMAGES Output: SR IMAGES
PAGE * MERGEFORMAT 2
Fig. 2. Basic super resolution reconstruction stages
The main advantage of SR approach is that, a HR image can be obtained even with the existing LR imaging with lower cost and less power consumption.

Usually, a super resolution method consists of the following basic processing steps: (1) Registration, (2) Interpolation and (3) De-blurring or noise removal.

Image registration is the process of overlapping more than one images of the same scene which has been taken from different angles by the sensors. In registration two or more images are align geometrically to obtain the information through image fusion or change detection.

Interpolation is a process of estimating the intermediate pixels between the pixel values. When any image is converted from LR to HR, intermediate gaps are introduced and these values have to be estimated and filled with interpolation process.

As the process of interpolation introduces some artifacts the resultant image will be blurred or noisy. Through different filters and techniques noise will be removed and finally a super resolved image is generated.

Approaches to Super resolution
Super-resolution techniques can be classified as (1) Frequency domain approach and (2) Spatial domain approach.

 Frequency domain approach
Transform the LR image into frequency domain by applying Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and combine them according to the relationship between the aliased DFT coefficients of the observed LR images and that of the unknown high-resolution image. The combined data are then transformed back to the spatial domain where the new image could have a higher resolution than that of the input images 3. The principles of frequency domain approach areas follows: i) what is the shift property of the Fourier transform, ii) The aliasing between the continuous Fourier transform (CFT) of an original HR image and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of combined LR images, iii) the presumption that an original HR image is band limited.
Frequency domain approach has some advantages to enhance the details by extrapolating the high frequency information presented in LR images, and it has lesser computational complexity. But the drawback is that it is incapable of handling the real-world applications.

Spatial Domain Approach
The frequency domain approach has few disadvantages like it limits the inter-frame motion to be translational, Also it is very difficult in frequency domain to use the prior knowledge. As the main problem is ill-posed image in SR, prior knowledge is required to overcome this. The main benefit of spatial domain is the support for unbind motion between frames and prior knowledge availability for solving the problems. Some of the methods are interpolation, iterative back projection and projection onto convex.

3.2.1. Interpolation
Interpolation is the process of transferring image from one resolution to another without losing image quality. Image interpolation can be used in several image processing applicatios for image zooming, enhancement of image, resizing and many more. Most common interpolation techniques are nearest neighbor, bilinear and cubic convolution. An image is a two dimensional signal represented as brightness vs spatial coordinates. An analog image can be transformed into digital domain by sampling and quantization process. The basic element of an image is a pixel. When we increase the resolution of image from low to high, it is called up-sampling or up-scaling while reverse is called down sampling or down scaling.

Interpolation is of three types: (i) Bi-linear Interpolation: Bi-linear interpolated point is filled with weighted average of it’s four closest pixel’s. Bi-linear interpolation is recommended for continuous data like elevation and raw slope values. (ii) Bi-cubic Interpolation: Bi-cubic interpolation is recommended for smoothing continuous data, but this incurs a processing performance overhead and (iii) Nearest Neighbor Interpolation: In this method, nearest value is copied for interpolation and this technique has less computational complexity. Nearest neighbor interpolation is recommended for categorical data such as land use classification.

3.2.2. Iterative Back Projection (IBP)
In IBP approach, HR image is estimated by back projecting the difference between the simulated LR image and captured LR on interpolated image. This iterative process of SR does iterations until the minimization of the cost function is achieved.

3.2.3. Classical Multi-Image Super Resolution
In the classical multi-image SR, a set of LR images of the same scene is taken. If enough LR images were available then the equation is determined and a SR image is reconstructed. The assumption here is that the two or more LR images should contain distinguishable features. This approach would give poor results, if distinguishable features in LR images are less.

3.2.4. Example Based Super Resolution
In Example- Based approach, the same rule is applied. This approach is useful when only single LR image is available. In this approach, the image has small patches that redundantly reappear, both within the scale as well as across the scale. Each LR patch in an image is replaced by its corresponding HR patch to generate the SR image. Here assumption is that, the image should have enough HR patches for the correspondence LR patches.

3.2.5. Learning Based Super Resolution
It is a concept of machine learning, where the machine is trained to classify LR images and its corresponding HR patches. In this approach, both LR and HR patches are divided into different classes. Hence, the number of comparisons will be decreased, as it has to compare LR with only HR patches. For an edge-area of the LR image, routine example-based image SR algorithm can be preferred to implement the local and fine SR. For the flat regions of the low-resolution, only interpolation algorithm can be applied for super-resolution. The performance of learning based super-resolution depends on HR patches retrieved from the training data of an input LR patch.

Table 1. Comparison among various super resolution approaches 21.

Categorization Description Disadvantages
Interpolation Based Different interpolation techniques can be used Over-smooth jagged artifacts
Reconstruction Based Reconstruction constraint and image prior Ringing artifacts, imposing additional prior
Learning Based Learning high frequency details from the trained data. High frequency artifacts.

Challenging issues of Super Resolution
In practice developing super resolution image, there are many challenging issues. Some of the challenging issues are mentioned below:
Image Registration
Image registration is a common problem because of ill-posed images. Image registration becomes more and more difficult when the input LR image is having very high aliasing effects. The registration error increases with decrease in the resolution of input images. These registration error affects the quality of an image resolution more than that of interpolation 21.
Computational Efficiency
Real time application is always requires good efficiency. As there are large numbers of unknowns in reconstructing super resolution images, computational complexity of matrix increases.

Robustness
Super resolution techniques are defense-less to motion errors, inaccurate blur models, noise, moving objects, motion blur etc. These effects are not easy to estimate which are not acceptable in many applications.

Conclusion
This paper provides literature review about various techniques used to achieve super resolution image with the help of single image or multiple low resolution images. In this paper, interpolation based, reconstruction based and learning based techniques for super resolution are studied.
The future scope of the super resolution is to develop new methods by extending or integrating the existing methods to address their challenges. Finally images with super resolution can provide more details as compared to low resolution images with low cost.

References
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S. Baker and T. Kanade. Limits on super-resolution and how to break them. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24(9):1167-1183, 2002.

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J. Chung, E. Haber, and J. Nagy. Numerical methods for coupled super-resolution. Inverse Problems, 22(4):1261-1272, 2006.

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S. Farsiu, D. Robinson, M. Elad, and P. Milanfar. Fast and robust multi-frame super-resolution. IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, 13(10):1327-1344, 2004.

P. H. Hennings-Yeomans, S. Baker, and B. V. K. V. Kumar. Simul-taneous super-resolution and feature extraction for recognition of low-resolution faces. In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 1-8, 2008.

K. Jia and S. Gong. Generalized face super-resolution. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 17(6):873-886, 2008.

A. Levin, Y. Weiss, F. Durand, and W. Freeman. Understanding and evaluating blind deconvolution algorithms. In Proceedings of IEEE Com-puter Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pages 1964-1971, 2009.

Frank Lin, Clinton B. Fookes, VinodChandran, and SridhaSridharan. Investigation into optical low super-resolution for surveillance applica-tions. In The Austrilian Pattern Recognition Society Worshop on Digital Image Computing, 2005.

K. Malczewski and R. Stasinski. Toeplitz-based iterative image fusion scheme for MRI. In IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, pages 341-344, 2008.

B. Narayanan, R. C. Hardie, K. E. Barner, and M. Shao. A computa-tionally efficient super-resolution algorithm for video processing using partition filters. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 17(5):621-634, 2007.

N. Nguyen and P. Milanfar. An efficient wavelet-based algorithm for image super-resolution. In Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing, volume 2, pages 351-354, 2000.

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Therefore

Therefore, this datum can’t be denied that the physical amenities in the school venue go a long way to inspire students to learn. Physical accommodations in any school system range from the school plant, the greasepaint of school buildings, classroom, library, laboratories, toilet facilities, learning tools to other infrastructures that would contribute to motivate students towards learning. Experience has revealed that maximum of the physical facilities that are useful to effective learning/academic enactment of students seems not to be adequate in our government schools at present. Those accessible seem not to be of average quality, some seem to lack maintenance culture, whereas some are in tumble-down conditions. The status of physical facilities particularly in our government schools appears to be of prodigious concern to educators. It appears that the endowment of these school amenities have lessened over the years, perchance due to growth in school enrolment ratio which had led to populace explosion in government schools. It has been perceived that school physical amenities are crucial tools to facilitate and encourage learning programs. Teachers need an idyllic working environment. Experience illustrates that if physical facilities are accessible, students incline to have curiosity in learning; this will perpetually lead to extraordinary performance.

ask

ask, “What are you going to do with that in life?,” Also adviced and expected that I would treat my interests and passions as a tool to gain financial stability and social respect. I don’t mean to victimize myself. I believe that everyone is questioned about their interests at some point in their career.

Graduation in Psychology, Delhi University
But of all the art forms, I think fashion, in Indian subcontinent receives undue criticism based upon serious misconceptions about what apparel industry is perceived as. if we created and consumed it more thoughtfully. (More about clothes and culture).
For me, clothes are repositories for memories. They are comfort, too, because it’s easier to construct an outfit than a personality.
This leading to improvising the path to Srishti School of Art Design & Technology

When I use the word fashion it means something very specific to me. Maybe it’s my background in the industry or maybe just my own biased aesthetic, but it comes down to a level of respect for design and the actual art of creating beautiful clothes. The term fashion thrown around so loosely in the blogosphere nowadays, seems to have become what I actually consider just…apparel. For me the main distinction between the two is the focus being either on the design itself or the person wearing it. Or even further, the difference between art and shopping.

For me, clothes are repositories for memories. They are comfort, too, because it’s easier to construct an outfit than a personality.

Designing and styling it is an art, and the resulting masterpiece has the potential to make quite a bit of change if you take the time to develop it.

George Orwell’s 1984 can be seen in many ways

George Orwell’s 1984 can be seen in many ways: As a condemnation of socialism (which he claims it not to be,) as a condemnation of totalitarianism, and as an examination of the repression of humanity inherent in oppression that one can not overcome. In the first, 1984 “served as a sort of an ideological super-weapon in the Cold War” (Deutscher 35). However, the fact that socialism is not inherently totalitarian suggests that it was not socialism itself (an economic model, not a form of government- communism could be considered a form of government, but socialism is decidedly not) which he criticizes, but totalitarianism itself by examining the repression of humanity which occurs under oppression that one can not overcome.
In the world of 1984, the Party has complete control, using the Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love, and Plenty, all of which do the exact opposite of what their names suggest. Winston works in the Ministry of Truth, known as Minitrue in NewSpeak, where he changes currently existing documentary evidence in order to support Party doctrine. This involves changing records of what production was predicted to be, what past production was, and what current production is to support the claims of Miniplenty, the Ministry of Plenty. It also involves creating fictional people who died heroically in the war in order to replace other news stories which contradict the current party history. When the enemy in the war changes in the middle of a Hate Week demonstration, all party members who work for Minitrue are called to the office to fix the documentation. On this revision, “In so far as he had time to remember it, he was not troubled by the fact that every word he murmured into the speakwrite, every stroke of his ink pencil, was a deliberate lie” (184). That is, even before he is brainwashed in the Ministry of Love, Winston is no longer troubled by lying, suggesting a loss of humanity under the basic oppression all party members face. Earlier, “He kicked the thing into the gutter” (Orwell 84), but this thing a human hand. It was severed, and the owner probably killed, by the rocket bomb that fell moments prior. Kicking it into the gutter, considering it to be just an it, is not the action of someone fully in touch with his own humanity. Yet earlier, when writing in the diary, Winston notes that at the movies, when a man is killed, he sees the “audience shouting with laughter as he sank” (Orwell 10). When one prole woman complains about this being shown to children, he calls it a typical prole reaction, not seeing the horror of what is being shown for what it is, not seeing the inhumanity inherent in entertainment generated from this treatment of ones fellow man. The prole woman retained her humanity, but even as Winston was rebelling against the loss of humanity required to survive in the party, he had already lost more of it than he knew.
The effects on someone who grew up in the Party, who was never aware of things like private standards of morals and the humanity that is lost in the world of 1984, is even greater. Look at Julia for proof. When Winston tries to describe a human moment involving his mother and sister, she responds with ‘”I expect you were a beastly little swine in those days”‘ (Orwell 165 ) . This is not the reaction of someone who grasps the point of his story, but of someone who does not herself possess the humanity required to comprehend the meaning of his story.
None of this is accidental. “The outstanding feature of Orwell’s superstate is a monumental inefficiency the purpose of which is to ensure the futility of all human endeavor and in effect, to rob existence of its organic semblance: growth, becoming (Lief 15), that is, to rob people of that which makes them human. Also along these lines, the slogans of the Party are:
WAR IS PEACE.
FREEDOM IS SLAVERY.
IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH
(Orwell 17). The whole Party ideology is based on contradictions that require doublethink to keep in one’s head, and this doublethink is what keeps people in line. It is how people modify the past and believe that the past has never been modified. By making a perversion of how reality works, the Party creates a space where “It is ‘no longer “natural” to be a man’; it is an actual perversion” (Carter 178). The purpose of NewSpeak is to make thought crimes impossible; it is to restrict language choices so that there is no way to put unorthodoxy into words, no way to communicate anything besides basic utilitarian needs and the Party doctrine. Carter also claims that “NewSpeak is the language of the they-self” (Carter 199), a language designed to make it so that only the doings of the Party are possible. In a sense, the purpose of NewSpeak is to deprive people of the higher intellectual pursuits that set us apart from the beasts. This may be part of why Winston seems to love Oldspeak so: “NewSpeak, he senses, in effect creates a conspiracy of silence about all the horrors of the life he sees going on around him” (Watt 106). It does this by making it impossible to call these horrors what they are: If it is caused by something the Party deems good, the word for it in NewSpeak will include the fact that it is good. If it is not good, it is probably under the umbrella of thoughtcrime, the only crime there seems to be.
Ingsoc seeks to dehumanize on all levels, not just in the area of language. “Indeed, the aim to which Ingsoc is committed is the abolition of a personal interior and the elimination of all sense of the mineness of individual existence” (Carter 181). By condemning the “ownlife,” the NewSpeak word for the near-heretical individuality and eccentricity, and by enforcing their orthodoxy on all Party members, they are making sure that Party members do not even have time for the intellectual pursuits, even if they did have the language for them. Needing to volunteer for extra party activities a certain number of nights each week is simply a part of this, as is the Junior Anti-Sex League, where people deny what is a fundamental part of most people’s existence.
Another piece is the constant surveillance. Yes, this surveillance allows the Thought Police to infer what you are thinking, and yes, it allows the Thought Police to know every move you make, but that is not the only purpose. “Under surveillance a man nessesarily plays a role. He cannot be himself” (Lief 87). This, too, is a part of the telescreen’s job. Winston notably writes in the diary in a position where the telescreen can not see him, a location which is not supposed to exist. He knows that it is wise to wear an expression of quiet optimism when facing a telescreen (Orwell 6-7). Essentially, he knows that he is always acting for the telescreen, that he can never truly be himself, which is an essential part of his humanity.
Yet opposing the oppression does not return their humanity to them. When rebelling in secret with Julia, having their single outdoor meeting in the so-called Golden Country, Winston says, ‘”I hate purity. I hate goodness. I don’t want virtue to exist anywhere. I want everyone to be corrupt to the bones”‘ (Orwell 127). All traits normally associated with humanity, and all traits that Winston wishes away when attempting to rebel against the Party which also makes having such traits impossible. One might argue that the rules of sexual relations and marriage the Party holds its members to are related to purity, virtue, and goodness, but this relation is in the actions only, not the intent behind them. The intent is to control Party members, to make sure that they are not getting satisfaction anywhere besides the corrupt Party itself, and so those so-called morals are in fact a symptom of the corruption of the Party. Thus, it is corruption and inhumanity that Winston turns to in order to fight the corruption and inhumanity that the Party dresses up as morals.
To follow the goal of eventually defeating the Party, both Winston and Julia agree that they are willing ‘to lie, to steal, to forge, to murder, to encourage drug-taking and prostitution, to disseminate venereal diseases, to throw vitriol in a child’s face’ (p. 273) when attempting to join the Brotherhood, but this is only a trick of the party. Here Winston learns that the Brotherhood is a fiction which O’Brian helped to create, that O’Brian was helped write the book which convinces him that the future belongs to the unimportant proles, and that his induction into the Brotherhood is a trick to get him to promise that he is willing to perform all of these inhuman acts.
Of course, Winston and Julia are eventually caught and brought to the Ministry of Love to be made sane, as the Party would put it. At this point, Winston is not allowed any contact with Julia, so the reader is not aware of what is happening to her. O’Brian claims that she turned very quickly, which may be true. It may also be an attempt at disheartening Winston. There is no real way to know. Here the inhumanity of the Party is made yet more obvious. Winston is tortured in the Ministry of Love, confessing to everything the Party wants him to confess to. During the torture, while he implicates Julia in many crimes, he continues to love her. This love can be seen as his final act of rebellion against the inhumanity the Party pushes for. In all other senses, the Party wins when Winston believes them, as he will no longer actively rebel. However, the inevitability of Room 101 is clear from the moment Winston is brought to the Ministry. “Never again will you be capable of ordinary human feeling. Everything will be dead inside you. Never again will you be capable of love, or friendship, or joy of living, or laughter, or curiosity, or courage, or integrity” (259-260), O’Brian tells Winston while working to “cure” him of his “insanity” of believing the past to be immutable and the Party to be fallible. This is perhaps the most explicit mention of the inhumanity of the Party which is made in the novel, though O’Brians’ description of the future: “If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face- forever” (271), perhaps comes close. The purpose of power is to keep power, and anything that is done to keep power is justified. Winston understands this, and later writes “FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. TWO AND TWO MAKE FIVE. GOD IS POWER”(Orwell 280). He now believes the Party doctrine, though he does not yet love Big Brother. He still has a shred of humanity, and O’Brian still calls him the last man.
Winston’s final break, when he does, in fact, betray Julia, comes in the feared Room 101, which contains the worst thing in the world. For him, it is rats. By pushing Winston with something that is unendurable for him, O’Brian forces Winston to realize that the only way out is to put another human in his place. Thus, in panic, he repeatedly shouts, “Do it to Julia!” (Orwell 289), finally betraying her. At this point, he loses his remaining shred of humanity, and he is safe to release.
At some point after release, he encounters Julia. She betrayed him too. Explaining,
“‘Sometimes’, she said, ‘they threaten you with something – something you can’t stand up to, can’t even think about. And then you say, “Don’t do it to me, do it to somebody else, do it to so-and-so” . . .” (Orwell 295).
That’s how the Party wins, in the end. They make people see that there is something which they would have their loved one suffer before going through it themselves, and that breaks them.
In contrast, the proles are allowed to retain their humanity because they are considered not to matter by the Inner Party. The Inner Party knows that historical revolutions have all been started by the middle class, even if the fighters were largely from the lower class. The spark comes from the middle class, and the Inner Party prevents the Outer Party from ever providing that spark using the tactics they used on Winston and Julia. Winston is aware of this when he notes that nothing likely happened to the prole woman who complained about the movie, and he notes it again with Julia. “The proles are human beings”, he said aloud. “We are not human” (Orwell 166). That is key: Because the proles have no power, they can stay human. It is only those who might be able to provide a spark who are forced to become inhuman- that is, only members of the Party, be it Inner Party or Outer Party.

Another section is gender wage differential which is the difference between the wages earned by men and those earned by women

Another section is gender wage differential which is the difference between the wages earned by men and those earned by women. In developing countries like Ghana, the agricultural sector is a dominant source of employment. Women in this sector in these economies are faced with low earnings and low productivity since this sector is attributed to insecure employment situations. Also, as a result of feminization of the labour force, most newly created jobs are being occupied by women. A significant number of women in member states of the European Union participates in typical labour relations such as temporary employment, part-time employment and unusual schedule employment involving inferior and hazardous labour settings (Meulders et al, 1997). Plantega (1997) also reports that the United Kingdom and Denmark have the highest women labour force participation level as a degree of segregation by gender, other countries like Greece and Spain have low labour force participation. Nations should consider economic involvement of women which has potential significant for economic development.

Little contributions have been made as far as economics, gender and household variables are related, even though some sociologists have highlighted on some aspects of this notion. The fundamental reason for intra-household and gender disparity is related to income of male and females. Studies elaborates that women would be realized to have a large mouth piece and dominance in household decision making if income levels appreciate. Dwyer and Brunce (1988) and Blumberg (1991) asserted that women have obligations towards their household, most –significantly to their children.

Also an increase in female earnings can reduce current poverty and stimulate short-term growth through higher consumption expenditures, and another path it could reduce future poverty and stimulate long-term growth through higher savings. Also to some extent that increased female earnings leads to higher bargaining power for the woman in the household, increased earnings has an indirect effect of promoting increased child well-being. Children’s health status and welfare is another channel through which increased gender equality could be related to poverty reduction and growth. A child’s welfare, health and educational status would be improved when women have control over household resources allocation and an increase in their education and that would lead to the increase in the child’s productivity and cognitive ability (Hoddinott et al. 2005; Behrman and Alderman, 2006). Therefore, when women’s level of household decision making increases, it leads to the capability of acquiring earnings and in effect expands the tendency for poverty reduction and growth.

Furthermore, Goldin (1995) and Tam (2011) employed a U theory to explain the link between women labour participation and economic development. Income effect is defined on the declining portion of the U shape, where household produced goods are not profitable to sell relative to factory produced goods. In the same way, technology advancement in agriculture sector may reduce their demand as wage laborers. This could be as a result of social, cultural and religious barriers which could be an inhibition. The rising part of U explains substitution effect. Women obtains broader access to higher level of education and new technologies when income effect remains constant and they are offered improve positions in the service sector such as white-collar jobs as high paid workers. When substitution effect dominates income effect, it induces women to join the labour force. The initial stage of economic development is indicated by income effect dominating substitution effect. The relationship between women’s educational attainment and advances of economic development is hypothesized about U (Goldin, 1995). The advances in male education relative women is as result of incomes effect dominating substitution effect at the prior stages of economic development. But then when there is access to higher education attainment for women that ultimately makes substitution effect greater than income effect, and that creates an upward bending labour supply function, and this U theory mostly applied in developed countries. Women labour force participation and economic growth is also influenced by urbanization and unemployment (Tinsel, 2001). The argument progressed to a point that if added worker effect dominates discouraged worker effect, the effect of unemployment on labour participation rate may be positive and when male unemployment is high, women come in to take up the responsibility to earn income for the household and that is added worker effect. The influence of educational level on labour force participation rate is inverse such that discouraged worker effect dominates added worker effect. Women are impeded to join labour market since discouraged worker effect is economic and psychological costs for searching job is high.

Identify the factors that influence the vision and strategic direction of the team “Strategic planning is the process by which members of an organization envision its future and develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future

Identify the factors that influence the vision and strategic direction of the team
“Strategic planning is the process by which members of an organization envision its future and develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future.” Pfeiffer, Goodstein, Nolan, 1986 and Rothwell, 1989

Strategic planning is also “a process of defining the values, purpose, vision, mission, goals and objectives of an organization. Through the planning process, a jurisdiction or agency identifies the outcomes it wants to achieve through its programs and the specific means by which it intends to achieve these outcomes.” Factors that tend to influence the vision and strategic direction of an organization or team are:

? The ability of the team to identify factors that may impact the way it conducts its business e.g. Staffs skills, resources and needs, and external factors like resourcing, partnerships and award of contracts.

? The use of surveys to gather information from clients and institutions, and the results used to priorities the expectations as a basis for setting objectives.

? The formulation of a mission statement that would define the organisation’s/teams’ existence and scope.

? The general objectives which will broadly describe what the organisation seeks to achieve in the light of the identified needs, and activities to carry out and directions designed to reach the objectives established.

In order to fulfil of St Marys mission, aims and objectives the service setting should have updated care plans for service users, which meet their needs in all areas of their lives. I had discussed with my staff members during our staff meeting how important is updated our service users care plan, report immediately changes that they encounter with the users such as mobility, skin integrity, appetite, etc… update and record monthly observations.

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