Over the last few decades, the public concerns toward the environmental problems/ disasters have progressively escalated (Heesup Han & Yunhi Kim 2010). Lately, Malaysia has been confronting several environmental issues which are deforestation, climate change, and global warming. Malaysia’s temperatures are predicted to rise by 0.6 C to 4.5 C by the year 2060 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) (Zam Zuriyati 2014). According to (Julia 2015), 5% of the global carbon emissions and 14% of total greenhouse emissions are caused by the tourism around the world. Thus, tourism have deal big impact to the environment. Most of the countries their major source of income and employment are came from tourism and contribute to the growth of GDP. Tourism depends intensely on environmental resources which include clean air, warm atmosphere, and landscape formation among others (Nor Azila 2014) To deliver comprehensive accommodation services/supplies to the tourists, services such as lighting, laundry, heating, cooling, swimming pools and ventilation, has lead hotel industry into a high consumption of water, energy, non-durable goods and produces substantial waste and emission of carbon dioxide which these activities constitute a threat to the environment (Chih-Ching Teng 2017) According to (Zam Zuriyati 2014), hotel industry has been considering as the most environmentally harmful sector that has disproportionate consumption of energy, water, and non- durable goods which possessed 75% of its environmental impact. In recent years, numerous customers have been aware of the harming of environmental resources and environmental damages caused by the hotel industry. (Heesup Han ; Lee Tzang 2009). A great alteration in consumer buying behaviors and attitudes towards eco-friendly business establishment has occurred due to these environmental concerns and awareness (Heesup Han ; Yunhi Kim 2010). Many customers had realized that their buying behavior might bring harm to the environment and has begun to change their purchasing habits by inquiring and purchasing for eco-friendly products (Mei-Fang Chen 2013). Subsequently, hotels are ending up more concerned towards keeping the balance between ecological issues, resources consumption issues, moral and societal concern and productivity. An attention to environmental issues particularly in the tourism sector has prompted the expanding number of the green hotel (Zam Zuriyati 2014). The Green Hotels Association (2014) characterized that Green hotel is a pro-environmental lodging property whose managers are keen to execute diverse green practices/programs that are water saving, energy saving and reduce the use of solid waste while saving cost to help secure our planet. ( Dr. Imran Rahman 2016). In recent years, numerous hotels around the world are putting intensive efforts in searching for compelling approaches to become “green” so as to position themselves distinctively within the competitive hotel industry and Malaysia is not an exception to this (Tilikidou Eirini 2014). In the recent past, (Punitha 2011) indicates that Malaysia is one of all the earliest countries within the world that have taken serious consideration relating to the environment by enacting the Environment Quality Act 1974. Likewise in other countries, many hotels in Malaysia had incorporated the green concept in their business operations. There were several most known green hotels in Malaysia which are Sukau Rainforest Lodge in Sabah, Shangri-La Hotel in Kuala Lumpur, Shangri-La’s Tanjung Aru Resort and Spa in Sabah, and Shangri-La’s Rasa Sayang Resort and Spa in Penang, Malaysia. These hotels have been awarded the eco-certification standards and environmental management standards like ISO 4001.
Ben Brown ILM assignment 1
Describe the factors that will influence the choice of leadership styles or behaviours in workplace situations
In the workplace there are many different factors that will influence leadership styles, being a maintenance shift supervisor, these factors change from day to day, and a combination of styles is required to do the job to the best I can. A team of engineers can have different personalities therefore may need different leadership styles. At the most negative a team member could be lazy or unmotivated, where as at the most positive a team member could be willing and very motivated to work. This is described using the x and y theory. People’s behaviour can require a mixture of leadership styles, with the laissez-faire approach for the more motivated and an autocratic approach for the less motivated. The work environment is also a factor in this where the task at hand could be very repetitive or boring, a team member could easily lose interest, this would bring out a more autocratic leadership style. In a maintenance environment a breakdown situation may call for a democratic style for best results drawing on all team members experience to find the best possible solution to a problem before commencing work. From a maintenance prospective leadership day to day can be very laissez-faire, with engineers attending reactive breakdowns with little or no input at all from a manager or team leader. Saying this a more autocratic approach may be required when managing a daily, weekly and monthly service schedule where routine is important, and work must be completed to a timescale. In conclusion a wide variety of leadership styles can be applied in the workplace to achieve the best results with a team of engineers. The obvious answer is to use a situational leadership style (Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard 1969) this is a theory that leaders use a range of styles in the workplace to empower a team depending on the current and changing work environment. Although applicable this leadership style can be challenging to apply and can at times delay decision making processes. I think this kind of leadership would be applied by more experienced managers and leaders as it may be difficult to gauge which style to use in different situations.
Explain why these leadership styles are likely to have a positive or negative effect on individual and group behaviour
Positive and negative affect on people’s behaviour in the workplace can depend on what leadership style has been implemented, which is also affected by tasks being carried out by a team. In the maintenance workplace the leadership roles of laissez-faire, autocratic and democratic are the 3 I personally would use. (creating a situational leadership role overall) For getting a job done on time and to a tight schedule an autocratic leadership style can be used, although this may ensure the job gets done it may also have negative affect on a team. Team members may become bored with monotonous tasks, leading to them taking time off, having poor time keeping and ultimately leaving the company. Where an autocratic leadership style is good to get the job done, employees may feel undervalued and look for a job where creativity can be nurtured more. Whereas the opposite approach being the laissez-faire is employed for the reactive side of maintenance cover allowing team members to effectively self-manage and carry out tasks mainly unsupervised. This can have a positive affect where workers feel valued in their job and trusted. Also, this allows a more creative side to the job as team members can make their own choices in how to approach certain tasks. Saying this a negative side to this leadership approach may be that the leader be lazy and is resented by their team for not taking more responsibility for day to day work. This in turn could lead to lower productivity and poor team morale in the long run. A democratic approach is useful in breakdown situations where a leader can use a team’s different skills and knowledge to find the solution to a problem or issue on the shop floor, this can give team members more job satisfaction and higher morale as they are taking on more responsibility in the workplace and are self-managing to a certain degree, also there would be a sense among the team that they are on more of an equal standing with the manager or team leader. Although good this style can also have the negative affect that important decisions will take longer to make as input and discussion from more than one person can take time, in the long run this could lead to more system downtime.
Assess own leadership behaviours and potential in the context of a particular leadership model and own organisations working practices and culture, using feedback from others
To assess my own leadership behaviours, I had a frank discussion with my team on how they view me as a leader, and asked them to highlight any strengths and weaknesses that I may have, areas of improvement and general feeling of team morale. The results of this meeting pointed toward a feeling that I was a democratic leader, who used the team’s knowledge to come to decisions as a collective, and that this was a good approach that worked well for everyone. William Lowe was quoted in saying “we work well as a team as everybody opinion counts and although Ben is the shift supervisor there is not always a clear hierarchy of power at times which leads to a good atmosphere on the team as we come to decisions as a collective on major issues such as breakdowns” Other quotes by the team suggested that I used a laissez-faire leadership style, Jas Gill was quoted in saying “Ben allows us to go about our day to day reactive maintenance without him needing to give us any real direction, this gives a feeling of trust in the team as he knows we are going about are jobs to the best of our ability” I believe these quotes are a good summary of my own leadership style, which I try to make as applicable as possible to our day to day jobs, peoples personality’s within the group and my own personality. Although my team see me in this way I also at times have to adopt a more autocratic leadership approach, as we do have daily routines and schedules of planned maintenance to keep to, these jobs simply have to be done on time with no real movement or flexibility on time scales. Also, our day to day tasks can be at times dangerous with live electrical components, working at height and moving machinery all part and parcel of our day to day work. This requires a very bureaucratic approach to health and safety, where rules and regulations must be followed out to the book, or people could end up being seriously injured or worse. I am very passionate about this and always strive to ensure that risk assessments and method statements are followed correctly, correct PPE is worn by all staff at all times and all safety procedures, rules and regulations are adhered to at all times. Although the bureaucratic approach is used here the team are well aware of the importance of health and safety, and this approach isn’t detrimental to team morale.
Describe appropriate actions to enhance own leadership behaviour in the context of particular leadership model
After holding the team meeting as described in the previous section I then reviewed the results to cite areas of improvement to make me a better leader and perform my job to a higher level than previous. One of the main areas of improvement for myself would simply be experience as I am new to management and am yet to experience all aspects of the position, so every day brings a new challenge, this is the main reason for me undertaking the ILM level 3 course, to expand my skillset and have a better understanding of what it takes to manage a team of individuals on a daily basis. Another area of improvement would be how I deal with individuals on a personal level, as I previously stated I tend to lean toward a more democratic\ laissez-faire leadership style as I find this suits my personality and creates a lot less conflict in a team, when the more autocratic or bureaucratic approach is required when dealing with individuals not performing there jobs as they should be I may struggle as it is not in my personality to create conflict or to be authoritarian. These situations going forward will be challenging for me, and I hope to learn from experience, also to draw from colleague’s experience. My line manager John Darby is an excellent source of advice in these situations and is always on hand when I need advice on how to deal with a certain individual or situation. John is very experienced in the industry, people like him and others are a valuable source of knowledge going forward. I also believe that embarking on advanced I.T courses for packages such as Microsoft excel would be extremely beneficial for my future development as I.T is a large part of the job we do today, it is also ever changing so ensuring my skills are at there best is vitally important.
INCOTERMSSubmitted By: Muhammad Fahim
Student ID: N01258772
Submitted to: Lawrence Mitchell
INCOTERMSSubmitted By: Muhammad Fahim
Student ID: N01258772
Submitted to: Lawrence Mitchell
History and Development of Incoterms
The development or introduction of term Incoterms introduced by ICC in early 1920’s. Group of traders developed the trade standards to do business globally that would become known as the Incoterms.
The ICC (International Chamber of commerce) was created in 1919. The ICC saw the opportunity/need to create global system of rules for trading. In 1920, ICC conducted study for understanding of trade terms to help buyers and sellers in international trade. This study introduce 6 common trades’ terms in only 13 countries and then published the study results in 1923.
After first publish, in 1928, as second initial survey and improvement was done, more than 30 countries were expanded in the clarification of trade rules. After examine the finding and tested in 30 countries, finally the first version of the Incoterms was published in 1936. The six trade terms that were tested and examine in 1920 and 1928 includes FAS (Free alongside Ship), FOB (Free on Board), C&F (Carriage and Freight), Ex Ship and Ex Quay. The first version of Incoterms was issued in 1953. After trade increased in rail mode, the three new Incoterms of non-marine transport were examined and created. DCP (Delivered Costs Paid), FOR (Free on Rail) and FOT (Free on Truck) were added. As trade increased, two more trade rules were introduced DAF (Delivery at Frontier) and DDP (Delivery at destination) to overcomes delivery issues in international trade.
In 1974, due to raising trade in air transportation there was need to introduce Incoterms in air mode to solve trading issues. Thus 1974 ICC introduced new term of trade “FOB Airport” was introduced especially for air transport. In 1980, ICC introduced FRC (Free Carrier) for rise of container traffic. In late 1980’s ICC decided to completely revised all Incoterms that have been introduced in order to take on them to modern-day commercial practice. In 1990 new version were published in which transportation modes like FOR, FOT and FOB Airport were eliminated and introduce FCA (Free Carrier). In 1990 version, there 13 individual Incoterms. In 2000, ICC did modification in Incoterms and amended some customs clearance obligations in order to resolve issues in import and export in international trade.
2010 Incoterms is the current and final version of trade terms that companies are using now and it address almost all the issues of international trade. 2010 Incoterms edition merged D-family of rules by removing DAF, DES (Delivered Ex Ship), DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay) and DDU (Delivered Duty Paid) and added two new Incoterms: DAT (Delivered at Terminal) and DAP (Delivered at Place), reflections on the modern trade landscape. Incoterms 2010 came into effect in 2011. Currently companies using 11 Incoterms for trade internationally and also domestics. – EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP and DDP, FAS, FOB, CFR and CIF. CITATION IncotermRulesHistory l 1033 (Incoterm Rules History, 2018)
Role and Purpose of Incoterms
When we talking about International Trade, we are importing and exporting goods from different countries. We need to fulfill different countries requirements in order to trade in other countries. Incoterms plays an important role to make simple and effective for trader to do business internationally. Incoterms are important part of international trade but many business concern groups misunderstood it. Some people think Incoterms only related to freight charges like used for clarification of who will be responsible for various charges of international transportation from point of origin to point of destination. Incoterms are more than just deciding defining freight charges. Incoterms reduce the risks during shipments of goods/services. Its provide secure payment of goods, timely delivery schedules, reduced the cost and time by adopting standard rules of international trade all over the countries. It enables to protect the buyers and sellers from constant changes in shipping practices and countries terms and conditions. Incoterms rules are applied by governments, the legal authorities and the freight forwarders and are acceptable in all the countries of the world. CITATION flashglobal p /flashglobal l 1033 (2017, p. /flashglobal)In business especially global, people facing different language barriers and different implications and types of fees in different countries, sometime federal government. For example in some countries tariffs, fees, any other surcharges enforced by federal body and in some countries it imposed by local governments. By using Incoterms, companies eliminate all these limitations because Incoterms provide all parties same classifications of specific terms and conditions in trade agreement. Companies can reduce level of risk during freight of any mode transportation. The main purpose of developing Incoterms is trade will continuous without any difficulties across boarder. CITATION freightindustrytimes l 1033 (Mike Josypenko,Director of Special Projects | The Institute of Export, 2015)In international trade buyers and sellers choose Incoterms in order to clarify who will pay the cost of transportation, who part is loading or unloading of goods, who will bears the risk of loss/damage at any given point during international trading and which terms performed by particular parties. CITATION NeciainGeneralG l 1033 (Genera, 2012)Usually buyers and sellers reduces uncertainties or discrepancies of country-specific sales and transport contracts in Incoterms. This will effect on cost and liabilities of shipping freight between source and delivery destinations. Sellers facing minimal liabilities when using Group E Incoterms, which essentially transfer most responsibilities to buyers. Sometime it effect negatively on importer like in Group C Incoterms generally bare the buyers to inflated costs, because the seller bears the duties for giving freight and insurance costs, particularly if the exporter chooses to quote the final figure without detailing the individual entries for freight, insurance and currency fluctuation costs. Buyer accounting for an inventory of expensive shipments may experience delays as Incoterms do not cover the transfer of titles or ownership. This can be disappointing, because an inventory of expensive goods can help a business push down expenses and report higher income. CITATION ColeIngait l 1033 (Cole-Ingait, 2017)Incoterms Groups
ICC published Incoterms are recognized globally by all authorities and governments of every countries. Usually sometimes buyers and seller are unaware of the different trading practices in their particular countries, results in disputes and misapprehension. The integration of Incoterms in international sales agreements reduces this risk. Basically Incoterms is about costs, risks and responsibilities of a seller/exporter and buyer/importer. ICC developed 11 Incoterms and these are defining specific guidelines for particular issues depending on the choose of mode of transportation, departure, mode of payment or good delivery destination and buyer/seller agreement. The 11 Incoterms are classified into four main groups according to the first alphabets if every Incoterms.
International Commercial Terms, or Incoterms, were introduced to provide standard references for buyers’ and sellers’ freight, insurance and tax responsibilities in cargo transportation. E Group Incoterms define the departure term of trade like EXW (Ex works free carrier) Incoterms defines that seller is not responsible for any costs and risks, instead buyer is responsible for pays for the freight, insurance and for importation of goods and using any mode of transportation. F group Incoterms defines Shipment Terms – Main carriage unpaid like FCA (Free Carrier) explain that seller fulfills his responsibilities to delivery when he handed over the goods but all the freight charges, insurance and importation of goods are buyer obligation. Group C Incoterms related to Shipment Terms – Main carriage paid, seller not assuming risk of loss or damage of the goods after ship or consignment. Group D Incoterms define the arrival terms in which seller almost accept all the costs and risk to bring the goods to the country of destination. Carriage is organized by the seller. CITATION searates l 1033 (https://www.searates.com/reference/incoterms/, 2018)
Incoterms play significant role in international trade. It almost fulfill all the buyers and sellers requirement of trade include different modes of transportation. Incoterms clearly defines who is responsible for freights charges, insurance as well as pays for importation. These Incoterms almost answer all queries about cost, risk and transportation of goods. Both buyers and sellers follows the 11 Incoterms and agree on terms and condition and help traders (buyers and sellers) by understanding one another and making domestic and international trade. ICC continuous trying to do amendments in order to better accommodate both buyers and sellers. Without these Incoterms, it’s impossible to do trade internationally.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Cole-Ingait. (2017, 09 26). https://bizfluent.com/info-8660596-advantages-disadvantages-Incotermss.html. Retrieved 05 24, 2018, from https://bizfluent.com: https://bizfluent.com/info-8660596-advantages-disadvantages-Incotermss.html
Genera, N. i. (2012, 12 4). http://www.worldwidecargo.com/general/the-importance-of-Incotermss/. Retrieved 28 5, 2018, from http://www.worldwidecargo.com/general/the-importance-of-Incotermss/: http://www.worldwidecargo.com/general/the-importance-of-Incotermss/
https://flashglobal.com/blog/4-reasons-why-Incotermss-understanding-is-vital-for-a-undisrupted-global-supply-chain/. (2017, 03 11). Retrieved 05 28, 2018, from https://flashglobal.com: https://flashglobal.com/blog/4-reasons-why-Incotermss-understanding-is-vital-for-a-undisrupted-global-supply-chain/
https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/Incotermss-rules/Incotermss-rules-history/. (2018, 1 1). Retrieved 5 29, 2018, from www.iccwbo.org: https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/Incotermss-rules/Incotermss-rules-history/
Mike Josypenko,Director of Special Projects | The Institute of Export. (2015, 10 31). http://www.freight-online.co.uk/sectors/sea/opinions/importance-Incotermss%C2%AE-international-trade. (f. i. times, Producer, & http://www.export.org.uk/shop/Incotermssr-2010-training) Retrieved 05 25, 2018, from http://www.freight-online.co.uk: http://www.freight-online.co.uk/sectors/sea/opinions/importance-Incotermss%C2%AE-international-trade
The age of Gua Musang formation is from Permian to Upper Triassic where it is estimated to be 65 m thick with crystalline limestone, shale, chert that interbedded with mudstone as well as conglomerate. According to Aw (1974), Kuala Betis area is located at the western part of Gua Musang with similarities in term of lithology that had been identified in Gua Musang formation. The Gunung Ayam conglomerate contains conglomerate sandstone sequence. Aw (1974) also stated that, the western part of Gua Musang which is Kuala Betis and Nenggiri area had the rocks aged Permian to Triassic which are including argillite, limestone and conglomerate. There are about seven tectonic packages within suture zone rocks can be found which are phyllite, schist, melange, sandstone, mudstone, chert as well as serpentinite that had stacked imbricate structure in Ulu Kelantan (Tjia, H. D & Almashoor, S. S, 1993).
At the North part of Kelantan, the area is dominated by Quaternary sediment such as silt, clay, sand, peat and some minor gravel. For the middle area of the state, its dominated by Triassic sedimentary rock such shale, siltstone, sandstone and limestone followed by Permian sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rock such as sandstone, limestone, phyllite and slate. The study area is located in this Permian region. There also some acid to intermediate volcanic and intermediate to basic volcanic rocks which is located at Gua Musang and Kuala Krai district.
As adults we all share a responsibility to safeguard children in our care and to do this as individuals and as an organisation we must protect ourselves from the possibility of being accused of being negligent, abusive or putting our pupils in danger.
In question 3.2 we looked at some policies and procedures that would help teaching staff and support staff to avoid accusations of inappropriate behaviour and negligence such as procedure on physical contact, procedure on the supervision of children, intimate care procedure, procedure for photographs, internet use and informing colleagues of whereabouts. By following these policies and procedures, along with government legislation such as Child Protection Act and Data Protection Act we are not only safeguarding our young people in our care but also ourselves.
In life we favour individuals over others, whether it is because these individuals are more pleasant, share similar interests or look up to you as a mentor or role model. As a result, as teaching or support staff these individuals are treated differently from time to time where their behaviour is not as often punished as more disruptive or least favourite pupils. Regardless it is important to avoid favouritism in everyday practices in the work setting as we have to be professional and treat students equally otherwise we are opening ourselves up to be accused of victimising against others. I would recommend you practice a greater awareness of who you may show a greater bias towards and maintain an open communication channel to avoid the perception of favouritism.
In the previous paragraph I mentioned how certain pupils may look up to teaching or support staff. These viewpoints may be observed by others or transferred by the pupil into feelings of infatuation. If a member of staff becomes aware that a pupil may be infatuated with him/herself or another colleague, they should disclose this at the earliest opportunity with a senior teacher so that appropriate action can be taken. This way steps can be taken to avoid hurt and distress for all concerned. The staff member should also avoid situations or conversations that may further encourage the student and not place yourself into a situation that could lead to nasty rumours circulating amongst the student body or the staff proceeding to concerns about your conduct.
One to one contact is a dangerous situation for an adult. In some cases, tutors, school teachers and support staff are required to work with children in these circumstances but to avoid issues or accusations of concern it is vital that a full and appropriate risk assessments have been agreed ahead of contact or at the start of the academic year before the commencement of the school year. Risk Assessment steps that could be followed include avoid meetings with pupils in isolated area and always inform colleagues and/or parents about one to one contact beforehand, assessing the need to have them present or close by. In any case consider the need of the student during one to one situations and always report any problems where the child becomes distressed or angry towards you
School staff members should always be prepared for incidents on and off campus. In question 3.2 I discussed procedures for school outings. When planning a school outing it is important for the trip organiser to assess all risks prior to the trip to safeguard the pupils and the school itself. In terms of transport it’s vital that the vehicle being used meets the requirements around seat belts and car seats, details of the journey must be recorded e.g. pick up points, drop off points and a record of comfort stops in case of an unseen incident. Parental consent must be acquired ahead of any outing after all the aims of the procedures are to outline the expected behaviours of the children and staff, supervisory arrangements which are needed to conduct a safe visit.
The greatest method how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off site visits is to complete Checklists for absolutely everything. Checklists can help you stay up to date with assessing risks in the classroom, building and surrounding areas, the state of equipment and can assist with drawing up action plans to eliminate the risks.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk of 1918 was the first major alteration in Russian international relations. Russia left World War I as a result, however the repercussion of the Russian Revolutions, especially October, was the Russian Civil War. Former allies, dreading Bolshevism and having felt betrayed by the Russian retreat from WWI, as well as subsequent inattention to tsarist debts, allied with the White Russians in the new battle. Despite the Red Russians obtaining victory in the end, thereby safeguarding the revolutionary government, the new Soviet Union was without international partners or official concession.
The first major breakthrough for the Soviet Union came in the form of new relations with the postwar Germany with the Treaty of Rapallo, signed on 29 July 1922. Its goals, which were reconfirmed with the Treaty of Berlin in April 1926, stipulated the revocation of diplomatic animosity and financial obligations, but in reality signalled the beginning of a much more productive relationship. It led to the establishment of powerful military and economic partnerships, as well as the Soviet Union and Germany becoming more acknowledged on the international level. It also resulted in the countries gaining military hardware and experience, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles in the case of Germany.
With a new government in the Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, Russo-German relations were officially brought to an end in May 1933. With its foreign policy, and that of its neighbours, in disarray, the Soviet Union initiated relations with the United States in November of that year. While small-scale commerce had been occurring even when their relations were not as amicable, the recognition by the United States of the Soviet Union also brought an end to the ideological battle between the two, the US having been a long-standing stronghold against communism. This contributed strongly to the Soviet Union’s admission into the League of Nations in 1934.
However, only six later the Soviet Union astonished the world community with the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, authorised on 19 August 1939 as a result of the threat of fascism, especially from Germany, the volatility of the European continent and Joseph Stalin’s distrust of Britain and France, especially after their leaders appeased Hitler and ceded Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland in 1938, The agreement, which not only specified mutual neutrality but also defined their spheres of influence, gave the Soviet Union both enough time for its armed forces to prepare for inevitable war with Germany but also allowed the invasion of its neighbours, including Finland. However, in what would become the Winter War, Soviet forces, superior in both numbers and technology, gained only a pyrrhic victory, influencing Hitler to arrange and commence Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia, in June 1941.
Operation Barbarossa had several drastic effects for the Soviet Union. It not only marked its official entry into World War II, but also prompted offers of aid from the United States and Britain, who extended diplomacy and the Lend-Lease programme to the Soviet Union. With its acceptance of assistance, the Soviet Union was formally an Allied Power, a position maintained until the end of WWII and the beginning of the Cold War.
During the civil rights movement, there was an enormous effort to desegregate schools. Since the 1930s the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People have argued, that separate is unequal and every child regardless of race deserves a first-class education (“School Segregation and Integration | Articles and Essays | Civil Rights History Project | Digital Collections | Library of Congress,” n.d.). Intelligence is the world’s ultimate weapon making education a constant war a privilege that many people would say not all individuals deserve. In my opinion, we should absolutely retain the right to education no matter race, creed, sex, or social class. The educational system needs to focus on Integrating all races and social classes, providing a quality education that is equal for all individuals is what America and our world deserve. Without a doubt, diversity plays a critically vital role in fortifying the minds of tomorrow by preparing them for a very diversified world full of color, not just black and white.
Today the more fortified the mind the more powerful the weapon, and to able to utilize our minds to our maximum potential to show the world equality is possible. Looking at the statistics data points to resegregation of America’s schools, like in the 2014 report from The Civil Rights Project at UCLA that noted, In 1993, black and Latino students were in schools with 52% and 58% poor children, respectively, and no racial/ethnic group attended schools of overwhelming poverty, on average; by 2012, blacks, on average, attended a school that was two-thirds poor children and Latinos a school more than 70% poor. Latino and African-American students are isolated in schools with lower graduation rates, less availability of college preparatory courses, the overuse of suspensions and the number of experienced teachers. By contrast, almost half of Asian American students and about 40% of white students attend schools that rank in the top 20% of Academic Performance Index test scores. Black and Latino’s attend schools that on average have more than two-thirds poor students, while whites and Asians typically attend schools with most middle-class students (“California The Most Segregated State for Latino Students — The Civil Rights Project at UCLA,” 2014). With these depressing statistics, we should want to fight for Diversity with the knowledge of why it is no longer a luxury, but necessity helping our youthful minds of tomorrow get ready for the world they will encounter after high school, and increasingly, throughout their lives. Currently, our schools are failing to promote equality and social mobility. Therefore, I would like to begin this journey with a few reasons on why diversity is significant in school and in life.
To begin with, diversity requires students to learn alongside one another Children, benefit if they learn from and are guided by a variety of adults with unique experiences and perspectives.
Second, it discloses developing minds to viewpoints and thoughts that broaden their worldviews. Victory nowadays requires acing the craftsmanship of working profitably with people whose encounters are distinctive from your own. Third, our kids need to be ready for a more established world with more fiber-optics and fewer fences. Children wish to grow up to work at Google, Facebook, or develop video games, they better be able to relate to people around the world as well as knowing how to code. Fourth, A more diverse teaching workforce. Fifth, treating students equally, giving them equal chances for success, and equitable access to the curriculum, teachers, and administrators must recognize the uniqueness and individuality of their students. We must work to promote the kind of diversity that reflects our American values as Rose (2011) states, “The stakes go beyond the economics to the basic civic question: What kind of Society do we want to become?”(p.195). Finally, we need to promote and support socio-economic and racial diversity, creating real economic mobility and provide access to opportunities for every child in every community. Achieving it by developing strategies to increase socioeconomic diversity in America’s public schools.
Carson writes, “In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms”(p.225). Throughout our history, we have depended on our academic facilities to signify a place that prepares developing minds no longer only for academic success, however for citizenship, for participation in our wealthy civic life. Academic facilities have represented the location where we prepare youthful minds no longer simply to adapt to social and monetary changes, however, to aid our country towards an extra successful future. Moreover, we need to work jointly to promote all types of diversity within our academic system, not just of race, but of national origin, gender, disability, and creed. The decision in the Brown case makes clear diverse schools benefit students of color and that segregation goes against the Constitution of the United States and all-American morals and values. Undoubtedly, diversity is not just amenity but a necessity where all are equal, not for just a few individuals but for all individuals. The transformative control of differing qualities in instruction is gigantic; it boosts compassion and decreases predisposition. Expanding the opportunity that low-income students will attend school without compromising the scholarly results of their middle-class peers. Differing qualities moreover increments the probability developing minds will succeed ending up pioneers in their careers and communities. Our duty is not to repeat history but make history, undoubtedly; no amount of wishing for a different time will alter the fact that our world is becoming more interconnected. America’s students are the best-positioned in the world to thrive in it, to guide and seize maximum advantage of it. Demand diversity, not just in schools, but within the classrooms within those schools.
In conclusion, should we absolutely retain the right to education no matter race, creed, social class or sex, to be able to utilize our minds to our maximum potential because diversity is no longer a luxury, but necessity helping our students get ready for the world they will encounter after high school and, increasingly, throughout their life. Presently, we know that diversity of all types benefits all students. Bazelon (2008) speaks of Justice Breyer expressing a quote from former Justice Thurgood Marshall: ‘Unless our children begin to learn together, there is little hope that our people will ever learn to live together’ (p.210). For the sake of our country, communities, and of course our children, we should not settle for no as an answer, but make our mission to be for a broader definition of the public school making it a more elite school for all. One that works and grows with the needs of today, embracing the abundances of our diversity making it our forever reality. Our country is strongest when we live and learn together, and without diversity we are weak. We can achieve diversity in schools and make it a reality, not just a dream, and we can make it happen together.
Common identification systems in Colletotrichum include traditional morphological taxonomy, molecular classification, secondary metabolites and some other traits. All these identification systems alone may cannot unequivocally place an isolate in Colletotrichum species complex. It is important to incorporate morphological identification, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis and secondary metabolites analysis to identify Colletotrichum (Cai et al. 2009), therefore, enhancing the accuracy of Colletotrichum species identification.
Based on morphology and the five-gene-combined phylogenetic analysis, 136 Colletotrichum isolates on mango from southern China were identified as 14 species including C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karstii, C. musae, C. endophytica, C. scovillei, C. cordylinicola, C. tropicale, C. gigasporum, C. cliviae, C. liaoningense and C. jiangxiense. Four species complex: C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum, C. gigasporum C. boninense (Weir et al. 2012, Damm et al. 2012a, 2012b; Liu et al. 2014). The morphological descriptions of the isolates were consistent with the description of Colletotrichum, but the cultural characteristics may be diverse due to varied cultural conditions, and the conidial morphology could not distinguish the targeted species within the species complex (Weir et al. 2012).
Currently, eleven Colletotrichum species on mango have been reported worldwide and these species are C. asianum, C. fructicola, C. siamense, C. tropicale, C. dianesei, C. karstii, C. cliviae, C. endomangiferae, C. kahawae, C. theobromicola (syn. C. fragariae), C. grossum (Lima et al. 2013; Vieira et al. 2014; Sharma et al. 2013; Rojas et al. 2018; Pardo et al. 2016; Leon et al. 2018). Mo et al. (2018) identified three Colletotrichum species (C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola) on mango in Guangxi province in China. In this study, however, except for C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, there were 11 Colletotrichum species (karstii, C. endophytica, C. scovillei, C. cliviae, C. gigasporum, C. gloeosporioides, C. jiangxiense, C. liaoningense, C. musae, C. tropicale, C. cordylinicola) were the first report on mango in China. This research is also the first report for C. gigasporum, C. cordylinicola, C. musae, C. jiangxiense, C. liaoningense and C. endophytica associate with mango anthracnose in the world. In addition, this study also generated seven isolations that not aligned with any existing species analysed. Further analysis are in need for these isolations.
Colletotrichum asianum, C. siamense and C. fructicola were found to be the dominant species associate with mango anthracnose in China (Mo et al. 2018). This finding is in agreement with what was reported by Vieira et al. (2014 ) who found that C. asianum was the most common endophytic species from mango trees. Colletotrichum asianum and C. siamense, were report as pathogens in a wide range of hosts such as Coffea arabica, Carica papaya and M. indica (Pardo-De la Hoz et al. 2016; Lima et al. 2015; Weir et al. 2012). Our study showed that one host species may be infected by several Colletotrichum species, and this was previously reported by Phoulivong et a. (2012). Colletotrichum fructicola was initially reported on coffee berries, and it also has a wide host range (Arachis sp., Citrus bergamia, M. indica) as well as wide geographical distribution (Viera et al. 2014). Similarly, C. tropicale were reported on Annona muricata (Annonaceae), Viola surinamensis (Myristicaceae) and M. indica in Brazil (Jayawardena et al., 2016).
Colletotrichum musae was a major causal agent of banana anthracnose and associated with fruit disease spots for Musa sp. in many countries (Jayawardena et al. 2016). Colletotrichum cliviae were found to be associated with anthracnose of Clivia miniata, Cymbidium hookerianum in China (Yang et al. 2009, 2011, Wang et al. 2016) and on Phaseolus sp. and Saccharum sp. in India (Chowdappa et al. 2014). It was also reported as an endophyte on M. indica in Brazil (Vieira et al. 2014).
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was a main pathogen from Citrus sp., Mangifera sp., Vitis vinifera and so son., and it had a wide host range in lots of publications because many Colletotrichum were identified as C. gloeosporioides (Jayawardena et al. 2016) previously. In the present study, C. asianum, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. tropicale, C. gloeosporioides, C. musae, C. kahawae and C. cordylinicola belongs to the C. gloeosporioides species complex (Weir et al. 2012), and these results were consistent with previous reports that C. gloeosporioides were the main causal agent of mango anthracnose (Arauz et al. 2000).
Colletotrichm scovillei were reported as pathogens on Capsicum sp. (chilli “Django”) by Cueva et al. (2018), and belongs to the C. acutatum species complex (Damm et al. 2012). Colleotrichum karstii was first reported from orchids and was also known from some other hosts such as Carica papaya, Citrus sp., and M. indica (Damm et al. 2012, Wang et al. 2016). Colletotrichum karstii were found on mango and avocado fruit (Lima et al., 2013, Giblin et al. 2018), and it belongs to the C. boninense species complex (Damm et al. 2012).
Colletotrichum gigasporum belongs to the C. gigasporum species complex. The species has large conidia and its wide range hosts were Acacia auriculiformis and Coffea sp. (in Vietnam), Diospyros kaki and Musa sp. (in Japan). Colletotrichum endophytica were found on Pennisetum purpureum in Thailand and tea plant in China (Wang et al., 2016). Colletotrichum jiangxiense was reported as a pathogen and also an endophyte from Camellia sinensis in China (Liu et al. 2015). Colletotrichum liaoningense was first report as a pathogen of Capsicum annuum var. conoides in China (Fu et al. 2019).
The present study revealed high species diversity among collected mango Colletotrichum species from the six major mango-grown areas in China: Yunnan, Hainan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces. The Colletotrichum isolates of mango from different area of China examined in this study showed diversity, which may correlates with environmental conditions such as temperature and rainfall (Veloso et al. 2018) and the sample collecting time and isolation source of Colletotrichum spp.
Pathogenicity test using fourteen species of Colletotrichum isolates showed that all species were pathogenic to mango leaves and fruits in the wound-inoculation experiment. The pathogenicity test results showed that the virulence of Colletotrichum isolates to fruit and leaves was not completely consistent, but the virulence of different isolates was found to be significantly different. The difference in virulence of Colletotrichum within species was independent of a particular geographical origin for sample collection and may vary with the infections and environmental conditions of the isolates. There were more isolates having weak virulence in Yunnan province and considered to be highly virulent in Hainan province. Symptoms may vary considerably with factors such as the mango cultivar, conditions of the fruit, humidity and temperature, and the inoculum concentration (Freeman et al. 1998). Thus, the pathogenicity test results from this study may not reflect the full virulence potential. Additional research should be conducted to determine the virulence for Colletotrichum species in vivo rather than just on detached leaves and fruits.
This study enhanced our understanding on the diversity of Colletotrichum species associate with mango anthracnose in China. Further study is required to determine whether or not there is a difference in biological and infection characteristics between various mango Colletotrichum species as well as on how the molecular mechanisms responsible for the virulence differentiation and spread in anthracnose disease. In addition, there have been few studies on the pathogenesis of Colletotrichum species on mango. Therefore, future work on pathogenic mechanism could be helpful with a reference for the prevention and control of anthracnose disease.
According to Bass (1990) effective delegation implies that one has been empowered by one’s superior to take responsibility for certain activities. Furthermore, delegation of tasks by manger is closely related to empowerment. According to Bass (1990) empowerment is a motivational concept related to self-efficacy. In other words, subordinates experience psychological empowerment when they feel responsible for meaningful tasks. Furthermore, delegation make subordinates feel that their job is meaningful and they are responsible for work outcomes. Managers are more likely to delegate to competent subordinates who have worked for them for a relatively long time. The trust between the subordinates and public managers is as a results of good working experience that is coupled with proper communication, clear objectives, competency to perform tasks at hand. Therefore, when subordinates are delegated, they may feel trusted, organisationally important, and higher status within organization. According to Gardner et. al. (2004) delegation may also boost subordinates’ self-esteem and make them believe that they are capable of performing tasks successfully and that their behaviour makes a difference. Moreover, delegation enables subordinates to exercise self-direction and control, provides employees with meaning, perceptions of self-efficacy and self-determination and the perception that they make an impact. Therefore, it is evident that trust and confidence are fostered through successful experiences with delegated tasks.
Cloud system automatically control and optimize resource usage by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, or active user accounts). Resource usage can be managed, measured and reported to provide for both the provider and consumer of the service. Based on this metering and accounting capability of cloud computing, users pay only for service they are used. Thus, billing is based on resource consumptions such as CPU hours used, the volume of data moved, or gigabytes of data used.
Because the cloud provider rather than the customer maintains the computing resource, there is an effective outsourcing of maintenance tasks. Thus, the cloud provider maintains and updates the resources, whether the resource is hardware or software. Therefore, all repairs and replacement of the underlying hardware resources are transparent to the customer, as they do not affect the customer’s experience. While this might be true in the ideal case, there may be short intervals when a customer’s image is migrated from one hardware platform to another in order to perform maintenance or repair of a given physical platform, during this period of time the customer might not have any of the resources associated with this image available.
2.2.2. Cloud Computing Service Model
Cloud computing means using IT infrastructure as a service and that service may be anything from renting raw hardware to using third-party APIs. In practice, cloud service providers tend to offer services that can be grouped into three categories: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS).
the capability provided to the customer of IaaS is raw storage space, computing, or network resources with which the customer can run and execute an operating system, applications, or any software that they choose. The cloud customer is not able to control the distribution of the software to a specific hardware platform or change parameters of the underlying infrastructure, but the customer can manage the software deployed (generally from the boot level upward). Thus, dynamic scaling, usage-based pricing, reduced costs and access to superior IT resources are some of the benefits of IaaS.
SaaS is one of the service deployment mechanisms which enable user’s access different software from the cloud wherever they are, and whenever they need without installing it on their machine. Instead of installing, maintaining and managing complex software and hardware task, SaaS allows to simply accessing the application through a thin client interface, such as a web browser., the consumer uses an application without having hardware or software to buy, install, maintain, update, and manage the infrastructure on which the applications running. SaaS applications run on a SaaS provider’s servers and the provider manages access to the application, including security, availability, and performances using open standards apply at the application level 13.
Platform as a Service model describes a software environment in which a developer can create and deploy cloud application customized solutions within the context of the development tools that the platform provides. These applications could be for use by the client or accessible as a service to others. Creating applications using PaaS means that they are inherently cloud-enabled and the PaaS provider also provides the service upon which these applications run 14.
In the traditional model of software development applications are written in one environment, tested in another environment and deployed elsewhere 15. PaaS is a combination of a development platform and a solution stack, delivered as a service on demand.
In the case of PaaS, the cloud provider not only provides the hardware, but they also provide a toolkit and a number of supported programming languages to build higher-level services (i.e. software applications that are made available as part of a specific platform). The users of PaaS are typically software developers who host their applications on the platform and provide these applications to the end-users. Programming platforms and tools (such as .NET, java or python) and APIs for building cloud-based applications and services are exposed to developers who can create applications for testing or for commercial purposes for a minute fraction of the cost of provisioning server infrastructure for themselves. The difficulty with PaaS is that it locks the developer and the customer into a solution that is dependent upon the platform vendor. An application written in Python against Google’s API using the Google App Engine is likely to work only in that environment. There is considerable vendor lock-in associated with a PaaS solution.
TABLE 2.1: SERVICE DELIVERY MODELS 16