?Kendarious Brown
Test 1
Question 1
A business plan is a tool used to help manage and grow your business. A good plan shows you and others a vision of how you want your business to be in the future and it helps you set goals, so you can keep track of your business growth. A well put together plan is also needed to help attract financing opportunities from other people and financing institutions. It can also attract people to want to come and work in your particular business. So, a person would need a business plan to be successful because it is vital to help a person get financing, a business plan helps you prioritize, and it can help give you control of your business.

If you do not have the capital to start your own a business a well-written business plan can help you get financing for your business. You will need to show banks and other investors why they should want to invest in your business. The people lending you the money that you will need will only risk their time and money if they are confident that your business will be successful and make a profit. The business plan will show investors and lenders that you are serious about being able to start your own business and it will give them a better understanding of your business idea and where you want your business to go. To even sweeten the deal for investors it would be nice to not only talk about what you want your business to look like and do but to also show them the profits you would make. In the business plan, you should include your predicted profits and your many different income streams to really catch their attention.

For those who want to start their own business and already have an idea in mind on what they want to do but don’t know where to start or what to do after starting a business, a well thought out business plan can give you direction. A thought business plan will give your business direction, it would point out what exactly you want to do, and it maps out how you would do it. A business plan will help you achieve the goals that you have set for your business and the way to achieve them rather than trying to figure it out as you go along. Once you have a business plan it a good idea to update it from time to time. You should remind yourself of your goals and priorities and adapt your strategies to things that are working to help you achieve your goals.

Finally, a business plan would help to give you control of your business. A business plan will help you to look at what’s working in your business and what you can improve on. If you have employees or when you decide to get employees, the planning process will give you an opportunity to get feedback on different ideas and improvements that you can make. Your employees or future employees would appreciate the chance to help in advancing the business. The planning process will help you to pinpoint different things that can affect your business. Instead of worrying about the future a business plan can give you a feeling of control of your business and its future. Writing a business plan gives you the opportunity to learn about the industry, market and its competitors. You can write down where your standing is in the market and where you are going. You can understand your business financial stability and manage your cash flow and determine your break-even point.

So, a business plan is a very important document to create when starting a business. Some mistakes to avoid when creating one although would be to not try to predict incredible financing projections, overestimate your revenue cash flow and do not have a clear idea or objective that you are trying to achieve.

Question 2
Design thinking is a method used to come up with solution-based approaches to solving different problems. It’s thought of to be very useful in figuring out solutions for difficult problems by understanding the human needs, re-framing the problem, by brainstorming, and by conducting prototype testing. When dealing with the design thinking method it has five stages which are empathizing, define the problem, ideate, prototype and testing.

The first stage of design thinking is empathizing. You must gain an empathic understanding of the problem that you are trying to solve. This typically involves going out and observing, engaging and empathizing different people to get a better understanding of their experiences, and gaining a personal understanding of the issues involved. Having empathy is critical to having a human-centered design process it also lets the design thinker put aside their own assumptions about what’s going on to gain insight into the users’ needs.

The second step is to define the problem. In the defining stage of this process, you put together the information that you have gathered during the empathizing stage. You will study your observations and break it down to define the core problem that your team and you have identified up to this point. This stage will help designers on your team gather ideas to figure out features, functions, and any other elements that will help them to solve the problem. Towards the end of the defining stage in this process, you will start working on the third stage which is ideation.

The third stage of the design thinking process is ideation. During ideation, designers are ready to start creating ideas. Once you have reached this stage in the design thinking process you’ve grown to understand your users and their needs and you’ve analyzed and synthesized the observations you’ve made in the defining stage. With all that you have found out about you and or your team are now ready to brainstorm to find new solutions to the problems that you have discovered. It known best to get as many ideas as possible at the beginning of the ideation stage no matter how ridiculous the ideas are. After you have got all of the ideas out into the air now its time to test the best ideas that you have come up with.

The fourth stage is the prototype stage. Once all of your ideas are out its time to pick the best ideas and test them out to see how effective they are. Generally, when testing you and your team create prototypes and these prototypes may be tested within the team itself or shared in other departments or on a small group of people. By the end of this stage, you will have a better idea of the setbacks within the product, the problems with it, and how users will behave with the product.

Finally, the last stage of this process is the testing stage. In this stage, you would rigorously test the complete product using the best solutions identified during the prototype phase. Even though this is the final stage of the designing process in this stage there is still alterations and refinements to be made to rule out problem solutions and receive a deep understanding of the product and its users as possible.

Question 3
Over time creativity and innovation have become important skills when trying to achieve success in the business world. The need for creative problem solving has risen high as more management positions require creative insights so find solutions. Creativity and innovation go hand in hand. There is no innovation without creativity. Being able to produce new and unique ideas is known as creativity while innovation is the ability to apply that creativity.
Creativity and innovation have been known to bring sure success to any well-run business. Encouraging employees to think outside of the box for innovative ideas is the key to cost-effective business solutions. Creativity improves the process of solving problems. Whether it’s developing a new strategy or an innovative way to stay ahead of your competition. Creative problem solving can give a company the competitive edge that they’ve been looking to achieve.
Creative ideas and innovative approaches can come from anywhere. It can come from your friends, family, partners, customers or employees. They can give you fresh perspectives and ideas and you can show that you’re listening by being open and giving them feedback. A few ways to improve creativity and innovation are to take breaks, have fun with your colleagues or friends, and to take advantage of peak hours.

When you’re brainstorming and your stuck and can’t come up with any ideas just take a break. Forcing yourself to try and generate will only make you exhausted. Try to stand from your desk, go and talk to people or anything that involves you getting up and moving around. Doing this inspiration could hit you at random doing the simplest thing. You can have fun with your friends or colleagues. Doing this is a popular way to come up with different creative ideas. Lastly, you can take advantage of peak hours in the day. Some people are naturally more creative and productive at certain times of the day.

Essay on “Why We Crave Horror Movies” Horror movies are something that nearly all humans have seen at least once in their lifetime

Essay on “Why We Crave Horror Movies”
Horror movies are something that nearly all humans have seen at least once in their lifetime, though there are many different opinions on the scary and transcendent films. For some, watching a horror movie is an excellent way to release their anticivilization emotions, to let loose of their inner beast. Others object strongly to the horrible actions in the movies due to a fear for subsequent nightmares. However, the interesting question is: “Why are some people attracted to watching those terrifying horror movies?”, which is discussed in the essay “Why We Crave Horror Movies” written by Stephen King.
The essay, non-fiction, was published in Playboy, 1982, which is an American men’s lifestyle and entertainment magazine, mostly known for soft porn and semi nude models. In the text, the author, Stephen King, discusses, what it is that makes people seek to the horror movies. Stephen King himself is an American author, who’s especially known for his horror novels. On top of that, these novels are among some of the best selling books ever. Due to the fact that he has successfully engaged in the horror genre, he seems quite trustworthy when discussing the subject in this essay, and his ethos is established already before the readers start reading.
The intended audience was, of course, the readers of Playboy – American men or older teenagers. King probably didn’t write the essay to start a huge debate, because Playboy contains a lot of other, for some more interesting, things, than just a listing of reasons why people would want to watch horror movies. The text appears a bit provocative, already at the first line stating that “I think that we’re all mentally ill; those of us outside the asylums only hide it a little better …” which could definitely offend some readers, but he undoubtedly wrote the essay to provoke his audience. He mainly explains himself; his thoughts about why we go seek for horror.
The essay is build up with an intention catching introduction, an explaining and discussing middle and a summarizing conclusion. The sentence structure is not that difficult after all, though some sentences are quite long. But some words used in the essay may appear challenging for some readers.
When stating: “When we pay our four or five bucks and seat ourselves at tenth-row center in a theater showing a horror movie …”, King appeals to logos. He claims everyone enjoys horror movies, and though that may not be true, he kind of proves a point by reminding us that the directors wouldn’t keep making the movies if no one wanted to see them. For example, he also mentions Jack the Ripper and the Cleveland Torso Murderer, who are both former killers, which increases his logos. He appeals to pathos, when mentioning that we want to show that we are not afraid, because no one wants to be left out; to be considered the coward. With both a fair amount of logos, pathos and ethos, his argumentation seems persuasive. Despite this, King’s overall statement is that everyone has a desire to watch these horrifying movies once in a while, which some people probably will not agree on; do every living person really feel the need to watching people get killed, just to release their anticivilization emotions?
“… that all you need is love, and I would agree with that. As long as you keep the gators fed”, is the last sentence in the essay. King claims that individuals need to exercise the violence and insanity once in a while so that they won’t do horrible things to others themselves. Could this be a way of justifying most men’s needs, sometimes addictions, to watch porn or similar? Is it a way of saying: ” Of course it is okay to watch porn: to keep your dirty thoughts away”? The essay was, after all, published in Playboy.
Why do we crave horror movies? Stephen King claims that it’s a way to keep the alligators inside our heads. Some people do, indeed, need them to be fed. But others are terrified of the nasty movies. It is probably quite individual whether or not you “crave” horror movies. But one thing is for sure. The movies are tremendously popular and they’ll most likely continue being that.

Lupita Sanchez

Lupita Sanchez, Genomics Analysis—BIOL310, May 17th2018
Functional Analysis of Drosophila sechellia fed on L-DOPA shows effects on oogenesis, response to stress, and extracellular region
Abstract:
Drosophila Sechellia has specialized on the ripe fruit of its host, Morinda citrifolia, despite the toxicity that results from the presence of high levels of carboxylic acids, primarily octanoic acid (OA). D. sechellia has evolved a resistance for OA, allowing it to take advantage of other important components of the fruit, such as L-DOPA (Lavista-Llanos, 2014). Research studies identified molecular polymorphisms in the catsup gene resulting in elevated levels of dopamine in D. sechellia and associated this alteration with infertility caused by maternal arrest of oogenesis (Lavista-Llanos, 2014). It was proposed that the presence of L-DOPA is enough to reverse the effects, thus making it necessary for the successful reproduction in D. sechellia (Lavista-Llanos, 2014). Here, we identify genes responsive to L-DOPA by performing differential gene expression analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on control and L-DOPA exposed D. sechellia and found 642 significantly differentiated expressed genes. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment showed significant enrichment for genes involved in oogenesis in upregulated genes, supporting earlier work conducted on differential gene expression on flies exposed to L-DOPA. In addition, GO term enrichment showed significant enrichment for genes responsive to stress and genes involved in the extracellular region for downregulated genes, providing a valuable new focus of research for further experiments.
Introduction:
Many insects have evolved a preference for a single plant, leading to a small number of insects to become specialists (Huang & Erezyilmaz, 2015). When such shifts occur, insects are obligated to evolve new physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations in order to survive their new environments (Dworkin, 2009). Although we know much about the ecological changes that led to these adaptations, the genetic mechanisms by which they occurred are still unclear (Lanno, 2017). The endemic species from the Seychelles Islands, Drosophila sechellia, provides a great model organism for studying these specializations, as it has adapted to feed and oviposit on the ripe fruit of M. citrifolia (Huang & Erezyilmaz, 2015). The toxicity of this fruit is due to high levels of octanoic acid (OA), to which D. sechellia has evolved a resistance for while OA has shown to be toxic to all other drosophilids within its clade (Huang & Erezyilmaz, 2015).
Besides the presence of OA, M. citrifolia contains other key chemicals that may be important role in the specialization of D. sechellia (Lavista-Llanos, 2014). Unlike its sibling generalist species, D. sechellia is known to produce lower levels of L-DOPA, and molecular polymorphisms in the protein catsup have been proposed to cause this deficit (Stensmyr, 2016) (Lavista-Llanos, 2014). Catsup is a pleiotropic quantitative trait and serves as a negative regulator of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (Carbone, 2006). It is the fourth locus (ple) found in the Ddc gene cluster that functions in the catecholamine metabolism (Stathakis, 1999). Dopamine is one type of catecholamine, and the biosynthesis of dopamine begins with the hydroxylation of L-DOPA, a reaction that is catalyzed by TH (Stathakis, 1999). Mutant proteins in Drosophila can lead to high levels of dopamine that give rise to abnormalities, including small ovaries, poor egg production, cell apoptosis, which overall lead to female sterility and may even cause lethality (Stathakis, 1999) (Lavista-Llanos, 2014).
In various insects, dopamine serves as a precursor in the process of cuticle sclerotization and melanization (Riemensperger, 2011). Sclerotization forms the exoskeleton, which protects the bodies of insects by preventing foreign organisms from invading (Verlinden, 2018). Similarly, melanin protects the exoskeleton from harmful radiation, as well as it aids in the defense against pathogens by helping in wound healing (Verlinden, 2018). In Drosophila, dopamine controls egg production, making this hormone a critical contributor to the specialization of D. sechellia on M. citrifolia.
Earlier work has shown that L-DOPA is enough to increase the expression of genes involved in oogenesis as well as reverse other various effects caused by mutant catsup gene (Lavista-Llanos, 2014). In this study, we exposed adult female D. sechellia flies to control food and food containing L-DOPA and identified genes that were differentially expressed among the two environments. Our results showed that the presence of L-DOPA is beneficial in the reproductive success of D. sechellia. Furthermore, we reveal the negative effects of L-DOPA, proposing a new area of research for further analysis.
Methods:
Adult female flies were exposed to control or L-DOPA (10mg/ml) containing food. The RNA was extracted from both groups of flies and libraries were made from the mRNA. These libraries were sent to the University of Michigan Sequencing Core Facility where sequencing was performed on an Illumina Hiseq 4000. The sequencing yielded six sequencing reads that were analyzed using the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) pipeline (Figure 1).
The RNA-seq pipeline was carried out in Galaxy, where FASTQC, a program used to perform simple quality control checks on high throughout sequence data, was used to ensure that the raw data was suitable for further statistical analysis. FASTQC outputs were divided into 12 sections, including a category for overrepresented sequences that were analyzed using NCBI blast. The sequence reads were then aligned to the reference D. sechellia genome using Bowtie 2. The alignment output file was put into Cuffdiff along with the D. sechellia gff3 file, resulting in a set of genes that showed differential expression. From here, the data was analyzed using R, a programming language used to perform statistical analysis and generate visual graphics. A second set of genes of D. melanogaster was imported onto R, and the D. sechellia genes that resulted from Cuffdiff were merged with their respected orthologs. This resulted in 642 differentially expressed genes that were analyzed using GO term enrichment, a tool used to show enriched terms for biological processes, molecular function, and cellular components that are important to the response of D. sechellia to L-DOPA.
Figure 1: RNA-seq pipeline

Figure 1 Legend: RNA-seq pipeline used to perform differential gene expression analysis.
Results:
Overrepresented Sequences
A normal high throughput sequences data contains a diverse set of sequences without a single sequence making up a large fraction of the whole. Overrepresented sequences can arise as a result of contamination or due to their biological importance to the life of the organism. For all three samples of Drosophila fed on L-DOPA, there were overrepresented sequences that resulted in both a warning and an error, which occurs when any sequence is found to be present more than 0.01% or 1% of the total, respectively. When inputted into NCBI BLAST, which reports the source of overrepresented sequences, all three samples resulted in several overrepresented sequences that produced a significant alignment to D. ananassae GF27906, ncRNA. Sample 2 yielded distinct results than the other two samples, as one of the overrepresented sequences aligned to D. melanogaster 18S ribosomal RNA. A second overrepresented sequence from sample 2 aligned to D. melanogaster 28S ribosomal RNA, and D. erecta 28S ribosomal RNA. A third overrepresented sequences resulted in an alignment to D. melanogaster 18S ribosomal RNA too, as well as to the 18S ribosomal RNA of various Drosophila species. These results suggest that the 18S ribosomal RNA in Drosophila has been well conserved throughout evolution, indicating the importance of this sequence to the development of the organism.

FASTQC
In order to identify differentially expressed genes in D. sechellia when exposed to control food and food containing L-DOPA, we performed RNA-seq on three control samples and three L-DOPA samples. This produced six sequencing libraries (Table 1 and 2). 945 genes were differentially expressed (Graph 1), which were then merged with D. melanogaster orthologs, resulting in 642 significantly expressed genes. Out of these genes, 371 genes were upregulated and 271 of them were downregulated in response to L-DOPA (Table 3).

Table 1: FASTQC results for control samples
Control Rep 1
(76332) Control Rep 2
(76333) Control Rep 3
(76334)
19222060 20704811 17696868
Table 1 Legend: The second row represents the total number of mapped reads for each sequencing library for the control samples.
Table 2: FASTC results for L-DOPA Samples
L-DOPA Rep 1
(76335) L-DOPA Rep 2
(76336) L-DOPA Rep 3
(76337)
19576162 14508205 17432600
Table 2 Legend: The second column represents total number of mapped reads for each sequencing library for the L-DOPA samples.

Table 3: Differentially expressed genes
Differentially expressed genes (after merging with D. melanogaster) Upregulated
(Out of 642) Downregulated
(Out of 642)
945(642) 371 271
Table 3 Legend: The second column represents the number of differentially expressed genes and the corresponding number of upregulated vs. downregulated genes.
Graph 1: Gene Expression in Response to L-DOPA
Graph 1 Legend: The red dots in this graph represent the genes that were significantly expressed (p-value<0.05). The black dots represent the genes that were not significantly expressed. The genes represented here are all the genes that were differentially expressed in D. sechellia (945). After merging with a set of D. melanogaster genes, 303 genes were lost, which resulted in 642 differentially expressed genes that were used for the remainder of this analysis.
GO Term Enrichment Analysis
The 642 differentially expressed genes were analyzed using GO term enrichment, resulting in many terms enriched for various biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components. Upregulated genes showed significant enrichment for biological processes devoted to oogenesis (Appendix, Table 5), while downregulated genes showed significant enrichment for biological processes involved in response to stress and cellular components involving the extracellular region (Table 4).
Table 4: Significantly differentiated expressed genes responsive to stress and involved in extracellular region
Gene (D. melanogaster ortholog) Expression in Control
(RPKM) Expression in L-DOPA
(RPKM)
GM20557 (def) 3500.27 1129.23
GM21465 (AttC) 646.053 186.403
GM25706 (Edin ) 317.049 85.0071
GM12960( Peritrophin-15a) 6265.22 3043.23
GM13371 (CG9672) 49.9246 19.1902
GM21866 (IM2) 2620.72 690.724
Table 4 Legend: All these genes showed significant enrichment for the cellular component of the extracellular region. The ones highlighted in green were significantly enriched for response to stress.
Graph 2:

Graph 2 Legend: This is a graphical representation of the differential expression in control vs L-DOPA. All six genes were downregulated when exposed to L-DOPA.
Discussion:
In this study, we identify genes important in the specialization of D. sechellia on M. citrifolia. Forty-six genes involved in oogenesis, which is the process of formation of a female gamete from a female germ cell, were upregulated when exposed to L-DOPA, confirming with previous work that L-DOPA is enough to increase oogenesis in this organism. Since D. sechellia lacks the ability to produce L-DOPA at similar levels as its sibling species, it must have a secondary source of L-DOPA in order to reproduce. The need for higher levels of L-DOPA to increase oogenesis is a possible explanation for the organism’s specialization on its host (Lavista-Llanos, 2014).
GO term enrichment showed that while L-DOPA increases the expression of genes involved in oogenesis, it results in the downregulation of genes responsive to stress and genes involved in the extracellular region. Response to stress refers to any exposure of the cell to an environment that puts it at risk and reduces cell viability (Nadal, 2011). This suggests that D. sechellia fed on L-DOPA leads to a decrease in the ability of the organism to respond to rapid changes in the environment. Stressors, such as changes in temperature, pH, or any other alteration to the environment, require immediate cellular responses to maximize survival of the organism (Nadal, 2011). The downregulation of these genes indicates that exposure to L-DOPA could be lethal to D. sechellia. Additionally, genes downregulated in the extracellular region, the space external to the outermost structure of the cell, is another negative effect of L-DOPA. The composition of the extracellular region could be affected as a result of the decrease in expression of these genes, and in turn affect the structural support it provides for the tissue as well as intercellular communication. Interestingly, these genes showed a similar pattern of expression when exposed to OA. A recent study showed that when D. sechellia was fed on food containing OA, these genes were significantly enriched for immune and defense response, concluding that exposure to OA leads to a weakened immune system and may result in lethality (Lanno, 2017). This overlap could be significant, and further research is necessary to reach more concrete conclusions revolving this observation.
Appendix:
Table 5: Significantly differentiated expressed genes in oogenesis
Gene
(D. sechellia) Expression in control
(RPKM) Expression in L-DOPA
(RPKM)
GM19220 512.609 143.217
GM22256 11.2179 19.7122
GM26235 27.1157 45.5546
GM21605 109.583 46.9668
GM12699 42.5382 136.816
GM13834 22.6783 6.98147
GM16408 31.1858 53.704
GM17351 33.0623 13.8737
GM17674 37.8408 162.272
GM17981 225.752 90.6404
GM17984 410.549 83.8142
GM21594 103.236 387.561
GM22735 92.2632 227.137
GM14198 23.2574 50.0911
GM11593 17.4912 71.9849
GM22263 15.8141 27.3131
GM13710 38.1086 78.1845
GM20762 18.3633 38.005
GM24530 29.6117 52.6892
GM13910 11.0321 3.68314
GM20349 69.2606 121.661
GM16821 2.76023 14.8965
GM17444 10.9907 19.6873
GM17532 23.8664 67.0682
GM25591 23.209 43.9896
GM10162 44.5685 88.1826
GM20140 38.2971 85.0295
GM15515 31.91 54.1341
GM16021 22.2072 39.9559
GM12700 42.7749 126.563
GM10156 18.2079 37.0461
GM21616 229.913 90.6178
GM20076 21.7678 43.0133
GM21940 73.0111 40.3122
GM18917 8.05944 15.8219
GM18584 3821.66 888.546
GM19827 47.3151 85.0085
GM26622 20.8608 44.3437
GM23619 7.34802 13.1964
GM17983 9444.02 2742.91
GM12060 26.1375 13.7096
GM19914 55.8632 105.999
GM25580 21.8755 38.0901
GM17128 32.1977 57.8682
GM14107 10.8778 21.0398
GM18798 30.3472 52.2032
Table 5 Legend: The complete lists of genes enriched for oogenesis. Out of the 46 genes, 34 of them were upregulated in response to L-DOPA. The other 12 were downregulated. The second and third column represent the expression in control vs. L-DOPA containing food, respectively.
References:
Carbone, Mary A. “Phenotypic Variation and Natural Selection at Catsup, a Pleiotropic Quantitative Trait Gene in Drosophila.” Cell, W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, 9 May 2006.

Dworkin, Ian, and Corbin D. Jones. “Genetic Changes Accompanying the Evolution of Host Specialization in Drosophila Sechellia.” Advances in Pediatrics., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 2009.

Huang, Yan, and Deniz Erezyilmaz. “The Genetics of Resistance to Morinda Fruit Toxin During the Postembryonic Stages in Drosophila Sechellia.” G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 1 Oct. 2015.
Lanno, Stephen M., et al. “Transcriptomic Analysis of Octanoic Acid Response in Drosophila Sechellia Using RNA-Sequencing.” G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 1 Dec. 2017.

Lavista-Llanos, Sofía, et al. “Dopamine Drives Drosophila Sechellia Adaptation to Its Toxic Host.” Advances in Pediatrics., U.S. National Library of Medicine, 9 Dec. 2014.

Nadal, Eulàlia de, et al. “Controlling Gene Expression in Response to Stress.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 3 Nov. 2011.

Riemensperger, Thomas, et al. “Behavioral Consequences of Dopamine Deficiency in the Drosophila Central Nervous System.” PNAS, National Academy of Sciences, 11 Jan. 2011.
Stathakis, Dean G., et al. “The Catecholamines up (Catsup) Protein of Drosophila Melanogaster Functions as a Negative Regulator of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity.” Genetics, Genetics, 1 Sept. 1999.
Stensmyr, Marcus C. “Evolutionary Genetics: Smells like a Pseudo-Pseudogene.” Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Elsevier, 19 Dec. 2016.
Verlinden, Heleen. “Dopamine Signaling in Locusts and Other Insects.” Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Elsevier, 20 Apr. 2018, 

Fishery is another pivotal economic sector of the state as well as the district economy

Fishery is another pivotal economic sector of the state as well as the district economy. It is not only a source of animal protein but also a popular economic activity in a coastal district like Balasore. Because it generates a more remunerative, stable income than agriculture, a number of villagers are getting involved in this activity. The unemployed rural youth are getting a significant opportunity to earn money without migrating elsewhere. Previously, the occupation was limited to ‘Keuta’ sub-caste of Scheduled Caste category but the continuous remunerative earning has attracted all other castes. It is obvious that a long 80 km coastal line provides enormous opportunity for marine fishing. But the district also has enormous inland and brackish water resources suitable for inland fishing.
The fishing of the district may be broadly classified into three categories i.e. a) Marine b) Inland fresh water c) Brackish water. Balasore district is rich in all three forms of fishing as it possesses 80 km of coast line with 538 sq km of continental shelf. The coastal villages of blocks Bhograi, Baliapal, Balasore, Remuna and Bahanaga practise fishing. Twelve landing bases located in the coastal blocks of the district are – Talasari, Kirtania, Kankadapal, Choumukh, Hanskara, Bahabalpur, Chandipur, Mahisali, Khandia, Jamuca, Gadeisagar and Panchubisa (Fig.6.10). As per information provided by the Assistant Director of Fisheries, Marine there are 290 fishing villages located in the marine sector consisting of 14704 families with 115931 population up to 2012. There are 40923 males and 39928 females and the number of children are 35070. Among the total males 25687 are active fishermen i.e. almost 60.77% and rest are engaged as part time fishermen (Manual1, Assistant Director of Fishing, Balasore, 2012). Five marine extension units working in the district are Chandaneswar, Bahabalpur, Chandipur, Baliapal,and Gopalpur (Fig.6.10). There are almost 1672 number of registered fishing boats in operation under different landing bases of the coast, covering different categories namely Trawler, Gillnetter, Motorized and Country Crafts for fishing .In 2009-10 the number was 2213.
Among these blocks, Balasore Sadar is mostly advanced in marine fishing. Continuous demands of marine fishes in foreign countries and other states have encouraged development of fishing harbours in specific locations. Among them, Balramgadi in Balasore plays a significant role. Except this, Kharasahapur, Maharudrapur, Chaumukh, Udaipur, Talsari, Kasafal are locally known standard fishing spots (Fig.6.10). Except this, coastal belt fishing is done at a small scale to supply the local market, and for consumption. The villages located along the coast engage in fishing beside cultivation. But in many cases agriculture holds a passive role in the economy. As the lands are salt effected in the coastal parts of Balasore, Remuna, Baliapal, Bahanaga so the lands are used as water tanks or ‘Bheries’ to cultivate salt water fishes like lobster, bhetki , etc inducing a change of land use. However the Orissa Fishing Act plays its own role in legislative control over fishing.

6.2.1Marine fishing: The history of marine fishing of Balasore district is enriched form the time period when present Bhadrak district was a part of it. At that time there was 130 km coastline of Balasore. According to the District Gazetteer of Balasore, in 1981, a survey conducted by Fisheries Department revealed that the district had 84000 fishermen population. But after the division of Bhadrak and Balasore, this figure has reduced and the coastline also has become 81 km. In 1962 first mechanized fishing was introduced (Behuria, 1992) and traditional cotton twine for making fishing net was replaced by nylon. This also helped a lot to develop the marine fish production. Some steps have also been implemented to develop marine fisheries –
i) Establishment of ice plants and cold storages and speedy mechanism for fishing with the help of institutional finance and availability of subsidy.
ii) Better harbouring facility including mooring and repairing.
iii) Operating new trawlers and gill netters at Chandipur with a research on the diversification of fishing method.
iv) Establishment of co-operative society to deal with mechanized fishing.
With the help of these steps the production of marine fishes has increased. As Chandipur is an eminent port for fishing, the Fisheries Department has constructed an ice plant for the private fishermen at a reasonable cost. A concrete ‘T’ jetty with approach road, diesel, outlet and drinking water facility was constructed at a cost of Rs. 15 lakhs at Chandipur with funds provided by Government of India. This was a landing base for mechanized and traditional vessels. But the jetty is not used by the fishermen as they find it more convenient for landing their fish in the traditional fishing base at Balaramgadi (Behuria, 1992). However maximum production of fish of this district comes from marine fisheries. On an average 34048 metric tons of fish/year have been produced with only 8.35% of variabilityduring1994-2011 period. Though the production is quite impressive but this is not consumed by the locals as maximum of the production is used for export purpose. Among the blocks, only

Table6.38a: Marine fish production of Balasore district and it’s percentage to total fish production.
Year
Marine fish
Production
(in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production Year
Marine fish
Production
(in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production
1994-95 31736 40330 78.69 2004-05 32399.4 42838.01 75.63
1995-96 33153 42154 78.65 2005-06 33788.5 45237.81 74.69
1996-97 35491 46041 77.09 2006-07 34938 47950.76 72.86
1997-98 40965 50072 81.81 2007-08 35163.4 47643.99 73.80
1998-99 29511 37533 78.63 2008-09 35916 49667.54 72.31
1999-00 31515 37194 84.73 2009-10 35997.7 52510.05 68.55
2000-01 34914.55 44489.3 78.48 20010-11 35182.8 51142.76 68.79
2003-04 30061.01 39646.85 75.82
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997,1999,2001,2005,2007,2009,2011

Balasore Sadar block has sufficient infrastructure. In Balramgadi, Chandipur, dry fish producing and packaging is done significantly. The progress of marine fishing is mainly concentrated in Bahanaga, Balasore, Bhograi, Remuna and Baliapal blocks (Fig.6.11). Among these four blocks variability of the production is low, only 11.48% and 11.84% respectively for Baliapal and Bhograi blocks (Fig 6.12).

Table6.38b: Year wise production of Marine fish (in MT) of five coastal blocks of Balasore district.
Blocks 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11
Bahanaga 2553 4466 4013 3241 2605 2670.9 4555 4518.8
Balasore 23742 28281 16756 22090.85 20261.4 22435 13249 22050
Baliapal 3252 3827 4084 4355 4207 4531 4611 4724
Bhogorai 4030 4391 4658 3500.2 3497 3498 3500.5 3890
Remuna 1914 0 0 1727.5 1829 1803.1 0 0
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997,1999,2001,2005,2007,2009,2011

But for Balasore and Bahanaga blocks it is 21.44 % and 25.33% respectively. The villagers mainly go for two types of practice- private and as a fisherman identified from Marine Department. According to them the fisherman who works for marine department gets an identity card and 20kgs of rice per head.
Marine fishing provides different types of earning opportunities. Due to the vast extent and mechanized nature, a number of persons of local and other villages get involved. Due to the traditional thinking and also to secure food, many remain cultivators. But in regions where ample opportunity of fishing exists, it becomes the first priority. Marine fishing provides huge turnover if done properly. Balaramgadi, Chaumukh, Kashafal, Talsari are well known port sites for fishing related with massive turnover. Among these, Balramgadi of Chandipur mainly provides the fish production that is exported. According to official sources- from Balramgadi annual turnover from marine fishing is almost Rs.3 crores and fishes worth almost 100 to150 crores are exported each year (Prameya news, 2016). During field survey in 2012 the similar statement from the trawler owners has been received but they have stated that the annual turnover from marine fishing is around 1.5 to 3 crores. A trawler owner can earn up to Rs 50 lakhs per annum even when fishing is not possible during 4 months of the rainy season. The different jobs or occupational involvement that directly influences the livelihood are-

a) As worker in the trawler or fisherman or boy: This is the best available option for the villagers. The employed fisher boy gets 4000 rupees monthly salary from the trawler owner. In Balramgadi port almost 507 trawlers are working and numbers of persons are working as fisher boys mainly from the nearby villages of Chandipur, Parikhi, Majhisahi, Srikona and Pongta.

b) As worker in the ice plant: Many of the workers work in the ice plants. Ice is required for preserving the fishes. The trawlers collect the ice from the ice cutter plant before leaving for
fishing. The workers are engaged in the work against a fixed wage. In the four months that fishing is stopped, the workers either migrate or go for any other job.

c) Dry fish production: This is a most popular job in the region. In Balramgadi region almost all the villagers are engaged in production of dry fish. Various fishes are collected either from ‘Bheries’ or from marine fishing and left on bamboo benches or hung from a bamboo made row or platform until they get sun dried. These sun dried fishes are profitable. Different fish species

like lote or Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus), Bhetki (Lates calcarifer), Bhola (Johnius belengeri), Parse ( Liza parsia), prawn, and many others are sundried, packed and marketed. All these fishes are sold at a rate of 150 rupees/kg on an average. These sundried fishes are mainly sold at the local markets or other block markets. The most important feature is the participation of women in the field. The village women are fully involved from dressing to the end product. A numbers of stages are followed from the collection to the production of the final product. After collecting the fish the workers are advised to dress up the fish. For dressing up one tub of fish (approximately 7 kg) the women labourers get 15 rupees and in one week they can dress up 20 tubs of fish. Hence, they can earn almost 300 rupees weekly. The participation of women in this field is quite significant. (Singh.A,et al,2013). As per the Technical Bulletin-25(2013) entitled ‘Socio-economic Status of Coastal Fisherwomen Involved in Fisheries Post-harvest’, women work participation in the fisheries sector is as follows “In fisheries, the post-harvest sector provides maximum employment to women. Every 5 kg of fish produced provided employment for 2 persons – one in active fishing and one in postharvest sector. About 5 lakh women are employed in pre and post-harvest operations in the marine fisheries sector alone in the total work force of 12 1akh persons. The involvement of fisherwomen in the fishery related activities provides additional income to their family. But the income they are getting is not always the same as compared to the wages that men get for the same work’. Among the marine products, dry fish is most profitable. The relatively poor villagers also prepare dry fish for their consumption and primary sale. Generally they collect small fishes and shrimps and dry them on the metalled road for a number of days. Usually two types of dried fishes are produced. These are normal dried fish and salted dried fish. Normal dried fish are more common. The harbour environment and windblown sands lower the quality of the fish.

d) Fish vending: Normally fish vending is also a profitable business. The FLC or the Fish Landing Centers are the hub of this business. After catching fish from the nearest marine location a group of fishermen collect the fish in the FLC. The local businessmen come to the spot for auction. According to the auction they buy fish and sell to the local market. A number of farmers directly sell the fish.

Table 6.39: Name of the FH, FLC & Jetty with yearly average catch and common species
Name of the
FH/ FLC/
Jetty Location Yearly average catch(inMT) Common species abundance in normal catch
Chandipur FLC Balramgadi 9950.00 Sciaenid, Ribbon fish, Other clupeids, Catfish, Other mackerels, Flat fish Prawn, pomfret, Misc. species
Bahabalpur (jetty) Bahabalpur 7640.00 Sciaenid, Hilsa shad, Other shad, Clupeids, Catfish, pomfret, Misc. fishes.
Khandia FLC Khandia 1065.00 Do
Mahisali FLC Mahisali 1575.00 Do
Talsari Jetty Talsari 1945.00 Hilsa shad, Other shad Bombay duck, Silver Pomfret, Misc.
Kirtania Jetty Kirtania 1542.00 -do-
Kasia FLC Jambhirai 1610.00 Catfish, Mugil, Ribbonfish, Hilsa, Other shad, Clupeids, sciaenid,Misc.
Kankadapal FLC Choumukh 1596.00 do
Choumukha FLC Dagara 1520.00 Catfish, Mugil, Ribbon fish, Hilsa, Others shad, Clupeids, Sciaenid,Misc.
Panchubisa Jetty Barajdeuli 1485.00 Trichuridae, Mugil, Catfish, Hilsa, Other shad, Scienies, Shrimps, Thrisocles, Anchovies
Jamuea FLC Talapada 1830.00 Do
Gadeisagar FLC Villa 1120.00 Do
Source: Data on harbours/ jetty/ fish landing centres of Orissa,DOF, Government of Odisha, http://www.odishafisheries.com/File/DATA%20ON%20HARBOURS-FLC-ORISSA.pdf

e) Value added products: With marine fishing, value added products like fish cutlets, fish fingers, pickles may be produced and supplied to earn significant amount of money as in Udaypur and Talsari coasts. The different fresh fish, crabs are bought by the local fishermen and their wives. Then the fish are prepared and sold according to the requirements of tourists. The fish and their products are sold even in Digha (West Bengal), the nearest tourist spot with substantial number of tourists.

6.2.1.1 Total gathering of fish: Balasore district has enormous potential for marine fishing. Bahabalpur, Talasari and Chandipur are important fish landing centers and produce significant quantity of fishes. The district has almost 80250 MT productions potential and at current level 35287.38 MT or 43.97% of marine fish has been exploited. In the district two main catching seasons are present – a) August to October b) November to February. Normally the following fish are caught:
Summer (March – June): Hilsa, polynemids, sciaenids, catfish, shark, pomfret, other clupeids,
Ribbon fish
Winter (October – February): Shrimp, clupeids, black pomfret, seer, silver belly, Bombay duck, ribbon fish, cat fish, scianeids, perches, mugil etc.

Rainy season: Hilsa, pomfret, shark, soles (Behuria, 1992)

6.2.1.2 Available Infrastructure for marine fishing: The development and progress of marine fishing depend on the available infrastructural facility. Large scale marine fishing requires jetties, trawlers, motorised crafts, preservation utensils, cold storages, ice plants, etc. to provide quality products. According to the Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, in 2010, Balasore district had 12 fish landing centers and jetties present for marine fishing operation. Now there are only five jetties and seven FLC or fish landing centers in the district. Chandipur and Bahabalpur are two significant places with infrastructural facility. On the survey date 14th April 2012, almost 251 trawlers were available in the Balramgadi or Budhabalanga confluence within which 77 were operating. The uses of motorised and country craft are maximum in all the coastal blocks (Figs.6.13 & 14) (Table 6.37)

Table:6.40 Fish landing centers and number of boats in fishing operation
Block place Type No. of Boats in operation
Trawler Gillnetter Motorised
craft BLC Country craft Total
Balasore
Chandipur Jetty 407 0 65 0 30 502
Bahabalpur Jetty 149 187 137 0 64 537
Masaahisali FLC 0 0 35 0 0 35
Khandia FLC 0 0 25 0 0 25
Soro Panchubisa Jetty 0 0 70 0 18 88
Bahanaga Gadei sagar FLC 0 0 21 0 40 61
Remuna Jammuca FLC 0 0 83 0 20 103
Baliapal
Hanskara FLC 0 0 74 0 153 227
Choumukh FLC 0 0 37 0 73 110
Kankadapal FLC 0 0 30 0 130 160
Bhograi
Talsari Jetty 0 4 158 0 79 241
Kirtania Jetty 0 0 79 0 45 124
Total 556 191 814 0 652 2213
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010

Among the fish landing centers Bahabalpur and Chandipur have maximum number of total boats in operation whereas Khandia and Masaahisali have minimum number of boats operating. In the Balasore District Gazetteer, 360 mechanized boats and 2500 traditional boats (1992) were operating and the major landing bases were Dharma, Chandamani, Kasafal, and Talasari. During that time an ice plant with cold storage facilities was constructed at Chandipur and also a concrete ‘T’ jetty with approach road, diesel outlet and drinking water facility was constructed. This was also facilitated with landing base for mechanized and traditional vessels. Constructed road and its linkage with Orissa trunk road provide the facility to export the fishes in different parts of India especially in the East and North-East. Three main fisherman co-operative societies were established at three main fishing points. Except these, 27 other co-operative societies were also operating(Behuria,1992).

Table 6.41: Name of the co-operative societies operating in Balasore and their strength
Name of the co-operative society Location Number of fishermen engaged Gillnetters
Rajlaxmi Fisherman co-operative society Chandipur, Balasore 200 40
Kirtania Fisherman co-operative society Kirtania, Bhograi 115 23
Source: Balasore District Gazetteer, 1992.

Numbers of cold storages are operating in these places to provide preservation. In Balasore almost 2920 fisherman cooperatives were existing in 2010 to provide economic stability to the fishermen. Different road making projects up to the fish landing centers are being taken up. Fisheries Department has taken a significant role in developing the infrastructure of the places related with fishing. The fishery related infrastructure of the villages provided by the Marine Fisheries Census 2010, shows that there were 4 boat yards, 08 cold storages,1 freezing plant and 1 processing plant.

Table6.42: Name & Production Capacity of the main Ice plants operating in Balasore district 2005
Sl no Name of the Ice plants Production Capacity Sl no Name of the Ice plants Production Capacity
1 Padmabati Ice Plant Balasore 10 MT Proof Road, Digiria 10 MT 5 Mahalaxmi ICE Plant 10 MT Patrapada, Balasore, Orissa 10 MT
2 Saragan Ice Plant 12 MT M/s. S.K. Saffig, Sarnan Mahamad, Saragan, Balasore, Orissa. 12 MT 6 Subarna ICE Plant, 15 MT Naupalgadi, Chandipur Balasore, Orissa. 15 MT
3 Arnapurna ICE Plant, 10 MT Bardhanpur, Balasore Orissa.
10 MT 7 Singh Bhabani ICE Plant, 10 MT Sinduri, Balasore, Orissa. 10 MT
4 Sibagauri ICE Plant, 9 MT Gudupahi, Balasore, Orissa
9MT 8 Sankar ICE Plant & Processing 10 MT Industries, Naupalgadi, 10 MT
Source: Annexure- XXIII, Diagnostic Study of Fishery Cluster, Gudupahi, Orissa. (2005), http://odishafisheries.com/oriya/File/Report%20on%20Gudupahi%20Fishery%20Cluster-dec04.pdf

Marketing and relation with economy: Marine fishing and the related income are dependent upon the marketing strategies. Large numbers of intermediates are involved in marketing. Like the other coastal districts of Orissa, Balasore also experiences the same marketing problems. According to the fishermen and dry fish makers sometimes there are three to five intermediaries so they get a minimum rate for their hard work. Actually Balasore district holds a quite impressive status in fishing. As maximum of the fishes are exported outside so the demand exceeds supply, resulting in increase of price. During 1996 to 1999 the monthly price of Balasore district higher than the other coastal districts engaged in marine fishing. The scenario has changed a lot as the production has reduced but different mechanized methods have been introduced. During 1980-81 to 1994-95 the district contributed 34.01 percent of the total marine
fish production. The rise of annual price indices for big sea fish was almost 15.48 % within 1980-81 to 1994-95 that was more than the average of the state. (Naik, 2001)

6.2.2 Inland fishing: Inland fishing is the most common form of activity followed by the villagers. The low lying depressions are suitable for the development of inland or fresh water fishing. Except Nilagiri and Oupada C.D Blocks, the entire district of Balasore is plain and low-lying, so almost every house-hold has a small pond (Behuria,1992). Without any scientific culture, at least 260 kg per acre per annum production can be expected and it ranges up to 600 kg per acre per annum if it is done following scientific methods . The total area excluding the rivers / canals is almost 6258.29 ha. Three basic types of tanks are used for fishing purpose – Gram Panchayat (GP) tank, Revenue tank and private tank (Fig.6.15). Balasore block had maximum area used for fishing under GP tanks while Baliapal had lowest. The use of revenue tank was lowest in Bhograi block and highest in Nilagiri block. The private tank area was highest in Balasore block and lowest in Nilagiri block. CV has been calculated to find out the variability of each inland water resource potential. This reveals that maximum variability is found for private tank i.e. 81.61% and GP tank has minimum variability i.e. 49.68%. Other two potentials i.e. Revenue tank has 76.81% of variability and river canals have 77.32 % variability representing significant inconsistency. The production pattern also shows modified variability. On an average, 1706.99 quintal production potential has been recorded in the district and the CV

Table6.43: Potential Resources available in the district for Fresh Water Pisciculture (Area in ha)
Blocks GP Tank % share
Revenue
Tank % Private
Tank % share River/
Canals % share Total
Bahanaga 218.00 37.58 10.00 1.72 252.07 43.46 100 17.24 580.07
Balasore 252.53 13.29 32.13 1.69 1180.65 62.13 435.00 22.89 1900.31
Baliapal 50.02 13.20 33.20 8.76 195.63 51.64 100.00 26.40 378.85
Basta 83.56 14.02 18.70 3.14 243.64 40.89 250.00 41.95 595.9
Bhograi 87.85 7.48 3.56 0.30 782.55 66.66 300.00 25.55 1173.96
Jaleswar 103.36 13.77 26.15 3.48 371.15 49.44 250.00 33.30 750.66
Khaira 140.01 18.31 30.52 3.99 294.15 38.47 300.00 39.23 764.68
Nilagiri 124.21 20.67 80.70 13.43 145.91 24.29 250.00 41.61 600.82
Oupada 68.92 24.28 23.25 8.19 191.74 67.54 – 0.00 283.91
Remuna 135.27 30.15 6.09 1.36 277.23 61.80 30.000 6.69 448.59
Simulia 129.29 35.60 34.96 9.63 178.89 49.26 20.00 5.51 363.14
Soro 70.95 12.85 16.38 2.97 364.72 66.07 100.00 18.11 552.05
Total 1463.97 17.73 315.64 3.82 4478.68 54.23 2000 24.22 8258.29
Mean 122.00 20.10 26.30 4.89 373.19 51.80 177.92 23.21 699.41
STDV 60.61 9.77 20.20 4.10 304.57 13.53 137.57 14.30 445.38
CV(in %) 49.68 48.62 76.81 83.80 81.61 26.12 77.32 61.64 63.68
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010 & compiled by author

is 45.60%. Balasore block shows maximum potential from GP tank and Baliapal block produces lowest. With regard to estimated potential from revenue tanks, Nilagiri block shows maximum value and Bhograi block has lowest potential. Production available from private tank is significantly high as each block gets almost 75.32% share of their fresh water fish on an average. Balasore holds first position in private tank fish production potential among all blocks and Nilagiri block holds last position in 2009-10. The fish production from various fresh water sources was maximum in Balasore i.e. 18.9%, but all other block has share less than 10% of the districts total production and among them Nilagiri holds least percentage i.e. 4.8%. So from a normal view the coastal blocks show maximum potential for fresh water pisiculture because of its extensive flat topography, number of surface water bodies and mild drought effects, required suitability. The blocks having coastal attachment like Bahanaga, Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, and Remuna share 54.27 % of total resource potential available in the district for fresh water pisciculture whereas the hilly blocks like Nilagiri. Oupada, Khaira share is only 19.98%. The rugged topographical condition and physiographical drought condition in these blocks play vital roles in reducing the potential. To develop inland fishing the most significant step of the Government was the establishment of the FFDA or Fish Farmers Development Agency in 1997-98.
Table 6.44: Estimated Annual Fish production (Qtls.) from Fresh Water sources (2009-10)
Blocks GP Tank % share Revenue
Tank % share Private
Tank % share River/
Canals % share Total
Bahanaga 3270.0 27.05 150.00 1.24 8483.2 70.18 184.0 1.52 12087.20
Balasore 3030.36 12.88 321.30 1.37 19316.34 82.08 865.0 3.68 23533.00
Baliapal 750.30 8.58 498.00 5.69 7343.5 83.95 156.0 1.78 8747.800
Basta 1253.4 11.48 280.50 2.57 8873.3 81.24 515.0 4.72 10922.20
Bhograi 1317.75 11.61 53.40 0.47 9736.05 85.79 242.0 2.13 11349.20
Jaleswar 1757.12 16.69 444.55 4.22 7971.53 75.71 355.50 3.38 10528.70
Khaira 1820.13 25.09 427.28 5.89 4951.29 68.26 55.00 0.76 7253.700
Nilagiri 1614.73 27.46 1049.10 17.84 3196.37 54.36 20.00 0.34 5880.200
Oupada 895.96 13.83 302.25 4.67 5269.49 81.35 10.00 0.15 6477.700
Remuna 2029.05 24.06 91.35 1.08 6128.1 72.66 186.00 2.21 8434.500
Simulia 1680.77 24.69 454.48 6.68 4433.25 65.11 240.00 3.53 6808.500
Soro 1064.25 8.95 245.70 2.07 9890.05 83.14 695.00 5.84 11895.00
Total 20483.82 16.53 4317.91 3.48 95592.47 77.14 3523.5 2.84 123917.7
Mean 1706.99 17.70 359.83 4.48 7966.04 75.32 293.63 2.50 10326.48
STDV 778.46 7.39 260.94 4.71 4179.07 9.48 269.81 1.76 4708.66
CV (in %) 45.60 41.79 72.52 105.13 52.46 12.59 91.89 70.43 45.60
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010

There were some main objectives of the Agency as mentioned in the District Gazetteer- i) to cover available water area under modern pisciculture practice ii) to make available institutional finance to the fish farmers with necessary subsidy from the agency. iii) to prepare plan and estimate for renovation and excavation of tanks and to supervise the work through the technical staff. iv) to impart technical know-how to the fish farmers through the extension agency set up in each blocks. v) To train the fish farmers for scientific management of the culturable water area and also to train interested entrepreneurs on induced breeding of the Indian major carps (Catla, Rohi and Mrigal) and exotic carps (Silver carps, Grass carp and Cy. Carpio) (Behuria,1992)
‘Digha Fish farm’ in Balasore town was established in 1991-92 to supply good quality seeds to the farmers. The fish seed was supplied to the farmer at 50 rupees for 1000 fries excluding the packaging and transport costs(Behuria,1992 ) . During field survey it was noticed that the GP ponds are given in lease to the villager who wants to go for business for 1 year or in few cases for three years. In Jaleswar, Bahanaga, Soro, Simulia, Basta and Balasore blocks those villagers who are engaged in inland fishing and have taken lease from the Government can make profit up to 40000 rupees or more per season. In general the GP ponds are given lease against 2000 rupees per year. In Nilagiri Oupada and Bhograi blocks very limited numbers of ponds are leased out. This business is quite profitable and can be a better survival strategy. But it suffers for number of short comings. The most important of them is the political cause. The villagers don’t get the opportunity to have the lease as political preference exists. For taking lease of a pond the payment has to be given in advance to the Gram Panchayat. The GP pond suffers from lack of maintenance. From twenty seven surveyed villages 22 nos. or 81.48 % of the villages have only one Government pond for fishing purpose and rest 18.52% of the villages have two Government ponds given in yearly lease for fishing purpose. The average production varies from 1.5 quintal to 5.5 quintal per average size pond. About 25.93% villages have average estimated production of 2 to 4 quintal fish, 18.52% villages have more than 4 quintal production and 7.41% villages have only less than 2 quintal of production (Primary survey 2011-15). In general, major carps are cultivated. Except these, walking catfish, Indian torrent fish, Orange-fin labeo, Banded gourami, Corsula mrigal, yellow tail catfish, barred spiny eel, puntius sp., tilapia, are some of the common inland fresh water fish.In maximum cases the business is done after taking lease of the Gram panchayat ponds. If the pond is one’s own then the production is mainly consumed and a selected percentage of the product is marketed. Actually pisiculture is not well developed in the district. The interested persons are engaged in this business but the infrastructure or fish nurseries are really very nominal respective to the requirement. There are no government nurseries except for Balasore block. But private nurseries are available in Balasore, Basta, Remuna, Simulia and Soro. In total, nineteen private nurseries are present in the district covering an area of 16.98 hectare (Appendix 6.8). If proper infrastructure and subsidy are given to the farmers then they can switch to profitable option like fishing.
Table 6.45: Fish Nurseries available in the district (2009-10)
Blocks Government Private Total area (ha)
Nos. Area (ha) Nos. Area (ha)
Bahanaga – – – – –
Balasore 1 4.68 10 4.96 9.64
Baliapal – – – – –
Basta – – 2 1.24 1.24
Bhograi – – – – –
Jaleswar – – – – –
Khaira – – – – –
Nilagiri – – – – –
Oupada – – – – –
Remuna – – 3 4.02 4.02
Simulia – – 2 1.08 1.08
Soro – – 2 1.00 1.00
Total 1 4.68 19 12.30 16.98
Source: Office of District Fishery Officer-cum-CEO FFDA & BFDA, Balasore 2010
Production pattern: Fresh water fishing is quite significant from the aspect of resource utilization. Though it is true that fresh water fish is only for consumption as maximum percentage of the marine and brackish water fish are exported. According to WHO per capita requirement of fish is almost 11kg/year (Comprehensive District Annual Plan, 2011-12). Though from 1996-97 to 2010-11 almost 5043.74 MT increase in fish production has been recorded. On an average within1996-97 and 2010-11 fish production was 8750.665 MT. The sector is emerging slowly and almost uniform production is occurring in different blocks. In the district the total produced fresh water inland fish in 2010-11 was 12671.7 quintals and total rural population was 2067236. So the per capita availability of fresh water inland fish is only .0061 quintals or .613 kg per year. This is significantly low in respect of mass rural population of the district. If block wise production pattern is observed than it can be stated that Balasore district has highest mean fish production. Nilagiri block records lowest average inland

Table 6.46: Fresh Water Fish production of Balasore district (1994-95 to 2010-11).
Year
Fresh water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production Year
Fresh water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production
1994-95 7628.00 40330 18.91 2004-05 8369.14 42838.01 19.54
1995-96 7378.00 42154 17.50 2005-06 9429.24 45237.81 20.84
1996-97 7056.00 46041 15.33 2006-07 10619.31 47950.76 22.15
1997-98 6440.00 50072 12.86 2007-08 10666.24 47643.99 22.39
1998-99 6575.00 37533 17.52 2008-09 11335.54 49667.54 22.82
1999-00 4632.00 37194 12.45 2009-10 13264.25 52510.05 25.26
2000-01 7652.55 44489.3 17.20 2010-11 12671.74 51142.76 24.78
2003-04 7542.97 39646.85 19.03
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011

fresh water fish production (Fig .6.16 A & B). The villagers are mostly afraid of monetary loss so they generally avoid any challenging decision in their life. So they are reluctant to switch over to a new crop production or a profitable business like inland fishing. Besides this, political preference is also an important factor controlling the decision makings.

Table 6.47: Block wise fresh water inland fish production from 1996-97 to 2010-11
Block 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11 Mean STDV CV
(%)
Bahanaga 458.0 657.0 601.0 489.1 599.0 657.5 1002.7 1266.1 716.3 276.9 38.7
Balasore 785.0 1243 2016.0 1294.0 1249.5 2075.6 2088.9 3831.1 1822.9 943.2 51.7
Baliapal 423.0 225.0 459.0 370.7 614.5 979.7 569.7 783.8 553.2 240.8 43.5
Basta 780.0 309.0 253.0 549.0 663.1 986.6 928.9 768.5 654.8 268.9 41.1
Bhograi 543.0 489.0 533.0 1394.1 971.1 1432.1 942.9 1065.0 921.3 375.8 40.8
Jaleswar 573.0 1159 830.0 745.3 691.0 802.5 1024.7 0.0 728.2 347.5 47.7
Khaira 700.0 58.0 107.0 528.8 608.5 556.8 842.9 768.0 521.2 290.7 55.8
Nilagiri 445.0 317.0 206.0 284.9 358.5 459.4 582.7 476.9 391.3 121.7 31.1
Oupada 375.0 322.0 338.0 305.9 435.7 363.3 645.8 604.3 423.7 130.8 30.9
Remuna 832.0 721.0 521.0 556.1 991.4 516.9 905.0 850.9 736.8 186.3 25.3
Simulia 716.0 161.0 118.0 275.0 419.8 720.0 704.2 817.2 491.4 281.5 57.3
Soro 426.0 779.0 593.0 859.7 766.8 1069.1 1097.2 1440.1 878.9 318.1 36.2
Mean 588.0 536.7 547.9 637.7 697.4 884.9 944.6 1056
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011
Cultivation is the most preferable option as this helps to give at least whole year food security. But at present it is unfortunately not bringing good results so they are thinking about an occupational switch. Cultivation gets affected due to the depression, cyclone and drought (locally termed as ‘moruri’). As subsidies also follow political preference or complicated rules, all the villagers are not assured. In general major carps are grown in these ponds and sold in the local market. On an average price of Ruhi (Labeo rohita) is 150/- per kg, Katla (Katla katla) is 120/- per kg per kg, mrigal(Cirrhinus cirrhosus) 110/- etc. generating profit.

Pisciculture in the inland ponds, with proper scientific method, can provide huge profits and this will ultimately help the unemployed and rural youth to bring stability and standard livelihood. In a 0.5 acre pond area estimated number approximately 50000 no of Indian Major Carp’s fingerlings can be stoked. With proper scientific method almost 15 to 25 quintals of fish harvest can be possible. Generally in an acre pond or tank 1000 yarlings can be stocked. The production is sold in local markets at Rs120 /- to Rs130/- KG. If in an average 20 quintals production sold at a rate of Rs/-125/Kg, in the market then total Rs250000/- can be earned. If the expenditure for this project is 120000 ( including buying fish fry, fish food, lime, urea, SSP, floating pallets, nets, labour wage, transport cost etc. then also the net profit from pisciculture becomes Rs 130000/-. From this profit further ponds and tanks can be kept under the pisciculture and profit can be attained. The cost of production not only includes cost of raw materials but also it includes, miscellaneous expenses, wages, repair and maintenance, interest and sustenance

Table: 6.49Raw materials required for fish farming per annum (for 2 ha tank)
Items Quantity Rate Annual value (in Rs/-)
Lime 1000 kg 10/kg 10000
Fingerlings 10000 nos. 200/thousands 2000
Organic manure 30 ton 100/ton 3000
Urea/Triple Super Phosphate L.S 2000
Mustard oil cake 2700 kg 3 / kg 8100
Rice bran 2700 kg 1.5 kg 4050
Total 29150
Source: Fish Farming, NSTFDC (n.d), http://nstfdc.in/userfiles/fishfarm.pdf
allowance if any. In Composite pisciculture there could be an investment for the required construction works like giving bunds around the pond or tank and inlet outlet system etc and it also includes the raw material and other wages. An outline of the raw material required and related cost can be conceptualized from the table 6.47. Though it is true that all the villagers engaged in the inland fishing based livelihood doesn’t follow the scientific method properly.

6.2.3 Brackish water: Brackish water has become the best alternative to the fishermen or the village. Keeping in mind the export demand and facility, prawn culture has been given foremost importance. According to the Fisheries Department, 17000 hectares of low lying brackish water area is present in the district and can be used for the development of fin and shell fish farming. According to Behuria.N.C (1992), ‘In the district of Baleshwar, out of 3236 hectares of brackish water, approximately 2560 hectares are feasible to undertake coastal aquaculture’. To encourage brackish water resource and fisheries development, Brackish Water Fisheries Development Agency has been established. The main aim was to increase prawn culture in the low lying areas, close to the sea shore, to enhance the scope for self employment. The main objectives of this Agency were to bring prawn culture on a cooperative basis, collection of prawn seeds from natural resources and their transportation to the fish farmers. A pilot project on brackish water farming with financial assistance from Government of India has been started at Inchudi in Balasore district and pilot studies are being conducted since 1983. The agencies (Brackish water Fisheries Development Agency-B.F.D.A) have been set up newly in August 1983. Reclamation of the brackish water became significant for the development of rural areas. Numbers of schemes are implemented. The leasing policies are implemented by the state government to attract the villagers for the proper utilization of the land resource. Government of Orissa has implemented the scheme for weaker section as well as for the stronger sections. In 1981 it was suggested by the state government that within the total brackish water resource of the district 75% will be reserved for the weaker sections of the society and 25% has to be reserved for the entrepreneurs/firms/ companies etc. In the contemporary time one individual is allowed to take only 0.5 ha of land on a long term lease for 15 years. The schemes are suggested separately for both confined water ponds and tide fed ponds.

Figure 6.16: A) Estimated total fish production from different fresh water source (2009-10) of different blocks of Balasore district. B) Fish production from different fresh water source (1996-97 to 2010-11) of different blocks of Balasore district

SCHEME-1
i) Confined water ponds Unit: 1 ha
Capital investment (earth work) and lease value …………………… Rs/- 29375
ii) Operational expenditure
(inputs for first crop, harvesting cost, watch and ward etc.)………… Rs/-5750
Total: 35125 say (35000)
iii) Annual income
Sale of prawn from first crop @ 50% retrieval with average
growth of 25g/90-110 days At 20000/ha. Stocking 250kg.
@ Rs. 60 per kg. Rs/- 15000
Sale of prawn from second crop @ 40% retrieval -200 kg
@ Rs. 60 per kg. Rs/- 12000
Total Rs/- 27000
Net annual income after meeting operational cost for 2nd crop Rs/- 21250 (27000-5750)
After meeting expenditure for two crops Rs/- 15500 (27000-11500)

SCHEME-2
i) Tide fed ponds Unit: 1 ha
Capital investment (site clearance, earth work, feeder canal,
Watchmen shed lock gate and lease value) …………………… Rs/- 38300
ii) Operational expenditure………… Rs/-5500
Total: Rs/- 43800
iii) Annual income
Sale of 450 kg prawn from second crop
@ Rs. 60 per kg. Rs/- 27000

Net annual income after meeting operational cost for 2nd crop Rs/- 21500
After meeting expenditure for two crops Rs/- 16000
Source: Kindo.L, 1987, Brackish Water fisheries Development in Orissa, p.51 from the book Brackish Water Aquaculture Development in India: Status and Task Ahead, Srivastava.U.K, Dholakia B.H edited, first publish (1987), Concept publishing company, New Delhi-110015
These schemes have helped the villagers to fulfill the necessary steps to find out the stability in the earning. The first progress of the brackish water development in the district was applied by excavating the ponds as a step of IRDP or Integrated Rural Development Programme. “Under Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) of Government of India, 78 ponds in one cluster covering of 15.79 ha. area at Jaydevkasaba , in Balasore district have been developed during 1983-84 for brackish water prawn culture. Seventy eight beneficiaries under the IRDP schemes have been assisted with 33.33% subsidy support from the District Rural Development Agency, Balasore for the pond excavation and first crop input'( Kindo,1987). Between 1996-97 and 2010-11, the average production of the district was 2163.92 MT. The trend is positive as a gradual rise in the production can be noticed year after year Brackish water fish production

Table 6.50: Brackish water fish production of Balasore district
Year
Brackish water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production Year
Brackish water (in MT) Total fish production
(in MT) % of total fish production
1994-95 966 40330 2.40 2004-05 2069.47 42838.01 4.83
1995-96 1623 42154 3.85 2005-06 2020.07 45237.81 4.47
1996-97 3494 46041 7.59 2006-07 2393.45 47950.76 4.99
1997-98 2667 50072 5.33 2007-08 1814.35 47643.99 3.81
1998-99 1447 37533 3.86 2008-09 2416 49667.54 4.86
1999-00 1047 37194 2.81 2009-10 3248.1 52510.05 6.19
2000-01 1922.2 44489.3 4.32 2010-11 3288.22 51142.76 6.43
2003-04 2042.87 39646.85 5.15
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011
Table 6.51: Block wise brackish water inland fish production from 1996-97 to 2010-11
1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 2000-01 2004-05 2006-07 2008-09 2010-11 mean STDV CV(%)
Bahanaga 635 27 68 37.34 72.71 81.45 191.3 260 171.6 203.7 118.7
Balasore 1471 1533 826 1243.3 1102 1538.25 1410.12 1967.2 1386.4 339.1 24.5
Baliapal 388 651 289 154.91 337.5 206.35 201.07 257.82 310.7 157.2 50.6
Bhogorai 600 352 160 336.32 389.99 399.6 410.55 556.3 400.6 135.5 33.8
Remuna 400 104 104 150.33 167.27 167.8 202.96 246.9 192.9 96.2 49.9
Mean 698.8 533.4 289.4 384.4 413.9 478.7 483.2 657.6
STDV 446.1 609.7 311.5 491.9 405.3 603.6 526.3 743.6
CV (in %) 63.8 114.3 107.6 127.9 97.9 126.1 108.9 113.1
Source: District Statistical Handbook, 1997-2011
is most common in five blocks. Within these, Balasore produces almost 60% of the total districts production in 2011 {(1967.2/3288.2)*100=60%}.

Along the coast intensive shrimp culture can be noticed. Maximum of the culture ponds uses paddle wheel aerator and other advanced methods are used. From 2005 onward an attempt has been taken to cultivate shrimp in the sweet water by some of the farmers with other fishes like

6.2.4 Social status of the fisherman villages:
In Balasore district there were 415 fishing villages, 47162 fishermen families, 30150 traditional fishermen families, 27633 BPl fishermen families and 270615 fisher folk populations present. The sex ratio of the population was 876 females per thousand males and average family size was 5.74. Among the total fishermen population 53.72% population including males and females were unschooled as per the Marine Fisheries Census, 2010 In the district, 72656 were active fisher folk and 59.87% of the active fisher folk populations were engaged in actual fishing and 26.12% were engaged in part time fishing. Other 4521 population (4.5%) were engaged in fishing allied activities. In the villages, 37331 houses were kuccha and 9831 were pucca. Within the 415 villages, 280 villages or 67.5% of the villages have electricity, 27% have post office facilities. There were 126 fishermen co-operative societies, and 219 fishermen co-operative societies, 87 community centers,16 hospitals and 62 bus stops. There were 2920 i.e. (23.65%) members of cooperatives from fisheries co-operatives.

The Marine Fisheries Census 2010 CMFRI provides data on the taluk level. Taluk is a sub-division of district, generally a group of several villages organized for revenue purpose. So for the analysis of the socio-economic status of the fisherman villages, taluk based data has been used. Existing taluks of Balasore district are Balasore, Baliapal, Remuna, Jaleswar, Jaleswarpur, Simulia and Soro.
In Balasore district 43498 families are engaged in actual fishing (Fig.6.17A). Baliapal has 32.96% share of the district’s total full time actual fisherman families. Bhograi has second highest percentage i.e. 24.95%. Part time fisherman families are also high in Baliapal taluk (20.87%) and Jaleswarpur (0.33%) taluk it is lowest. (Appendix 6.8). The distribution of fishermen families’ village wise also shows a similar pattern (Fig.6.17B)

6.2.4.1Traditional fishermen families and BPL families: 68.95% of the families are traditional fishermen families. In Baliapal almost 49.15% are traditional fishermen. In the coastal villages of Bhograi 65.74% are traditional fishermen. In the coastal villages of Remuna and Soro traditional families are respectively 2287 or 92.67% and 4898 or 84.68%. Traditional fishermen families’ percentage was high in Bhograi block i.e. 21.43% (Appendix 6.9). Among all tahsils highest BPL fisherman families are present in simulia block i.e.84.95%. In Balasore tahsil least number of BPL families are present i.e. 44.67%. Except Jaleswar tahsil all other tahsils have BPL families within 50% to 70% of the total fisherman families of the tahsil. In Jaleswar the 75.5% of the fishermen families belongs to BPL category.

6.2.4.2 Fisher folk population: Baliapal shares 30.23% of district’s total fisher folk???(not clear to me what have u asked for) population. In Bhograi, percentage of fisher folk population was 21.45%. Except Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, Soro and Basta taluks, all other taluks have fisher folk population less than 10%. Percentage of fisherman families was high in Baliapal (25.3%) and Bhograi (23.3%) block. The fisher folk population is significantly high in the coastal regions (Appendix 6.).

6.2.4.3 Average family size: In population and demographic analysis the family size distribution is an important aspect. In Balasore block, on an average, there were 5 family members in each fisherman family according to Marine Fisheries Census 2010. The family size has been categorized and found that 43.75% of the villages have 5-6 family members and 4.68% of the villages have greater than 7 persons per family. Largest families are found in Baliapal taluk (13.22%) are found followed by Bhograi (3.16%). In Basta maximum number of small families is present.
Table 6.52: Categorization and variability of the average family size in percentage (2010)
Taluk 10.0
Bahanaga 24.49 46.94 24.49 0 4.08 0.0 0.0 0.0
Balasore 4.7 39.1 43.8 7.8 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
Baliapal 0.83 12.40 22.31 22.31 14.05 9.25 4.96 13.22
Bhogorai 3.16 27.37 26.32 12.63 18.95 5.26 3.16 3.16
Remuna 16.67 58.33 16.67 0.00 16.67 0.0 0.0 0.0
Basta 46.4 32.1 10.7 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6
Jaleswar 18.5 48.1 7.4 3.7 3.7 7.4 11.1 0.0
Jaleswarpur 16.7 66.7 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Simulia 35.7 42.9 21.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Source of data: Marine Fisheries census 2010, CMFRI
6.2.4.4 Sex ratio: The variability of the sex ratio varies significantly in the coastal villages. Within the villages, maximum and minimum sex ratio ranges from 700 to 1100. The village based sex ratio pattern is shown in Table 6.49.

Table 6.53: Sex ratio of the fisherman village’s 2010
Taluk Sex ratio
1100 Total
In nos. In % In nos. In
% In nos. In % In nos. In % In nos. In
% In nos. In
% In nos. In %
Bahanaga 1 2.04 6 12.2 17 34.7 14 30.6 9 18.4 1 2.04 49 100
Balasore 1 1.6 3 4.7 22 34.4 27 42.2 8 12.5 3 4.7 64 100
Baliapal 12 9.9 8 6.6 40 33.1 39 32.2 18 14.9 4 3.3 121 100
Bhogorai 1 1.1 5 5.3 42 44.2 36 37.9 10 10.5 1 1.1 95 100
Basta 1 3.6 2 7.1 9 32.1 12 42.9 3 10.7 1 3.6 28 100
Jaleswar 9 34.6 4 154 8 30.8 4 15.4 1 3.8 0 0 26 100
Jaleswarpur 1 14.3 1 14.3 1 14.3 1 14.3 0 0 2 28.6 7 100
Remuna 5 41.7 5 41.7 1 8.3 1 8.3 12 100
Simulia 0 0 0 0 4 28.6 8 57.1 1 7.1 1 7.1 14 100
Source of data: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI

6.2.4.5 Religious and caste composition: The fisherman families are basically Hindus. In Jaleswar, Jaleswarpur, Remuna and Simulia Taluk all fishermen families are Hindu. Only in Balasore 13.5% families are Muslims. The distribution pattern is given in Table 50. Major shares of fishermen families belong to SC community. Jaleswarpur records highest and Remuna lowest. Hence fishing definitely benefits the socially and economically backward classes.

Table 6.54: Religious and caste composition of fisherman families.
Taluk Total fisherman families Total Hindu families Total Islam families others SC/ST
In nos. In nos. In % In nos. In % In nos. In % In nos. In %
Soro/Bahanaga 5784 5718 98.9 66 1.1 0 0.0 4999 86.4
Balasore 6886 5889 85.5 932 13.5 65 0.9 4523 65.7
Baliapal 11711 11579 98.9 61 0.5 71 0.6 6079 51.9
Bhogorai 9807 9629 98.2 178 1.8 0 0.0 6479 66.1
Basta 6251 5863 93.8 188 3.0 0 0.0 3044 48.7
Jaleswar 2592 2592 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1518 58.6
Jaleswarpur 178 178 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 178 100
Remuna 2468 2468 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1150 46.6
Simulia 1575 1575 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1502 95.4
Source of data: Marine Fisheries Census 2010.CMFRI

6.2.4.6 Categorization of fishermen: Fisherman families are categorized by the actual and part time and nature of the activity. In Balasore taluk, 41.2 % are engaged in fulltime actual fishing and 25.5% are engaged as part time fishing. In Baliapal and Bhograi 75.4% and 74.3% fisherfolk population is engaged in fulltime actual fishing. In Simulia this percentage is lowest and its 29.5% fisherfolk is engaged in fulltime fish seed collection. Within total fisherfolk population of these taluks, 61.7% are engaged in fulltime fishing and 38.3% in part time fishing. The fish seed collection is most popular as part time job so 33.9% of the fisherfolk population is engaged in this. Within total fulltime and part time actual fisherfolk population, highest share is found in Baliapal taluk i.e. 32.96% and lowest in Jaleswarpur i.e. 0.38%. Fulltime fish seed collection share is highest in Soro i.e.26.6% and part time fish seed collection is highest in Balasore.
The occupational profile shows that active fisher men have the highest share among all taluks. The share of active fishermen is approximately 73% on an average. Other occupations include allied sectors like marketing, net repairing, processing, peeling, etc. Except active fishing other preference is found in marketing and labour works (Appendix 6.11).
Table: 6.55 Taluk based active fisher folk population
Taluk Actual fishing Actual fishing Fish seed collection Total
Ft Pt Ft ( %) Pt (%) Ft Pt Ft(%) Pt ( %)
Balasore 4387(41.2%) 2722(25.5%) 10.09 14.35 1135(10.7%) 2414(22.7%) 22.3 48.0 10658
Baliapal 14339(75.4%) 3960(20.8%) 32.96 20.87 73(0.38%) 645(3.39%) 1.4 12.8 19017
Basta 3566(46.4%) 2780(36.2%) 8.20 14.65 1254(16.3%) 87(1.1%) 24.6 1.7 7687
Bhograi 10854(74.3%) 3724(25.5%) 24.95 19.63 5(0.03%) 22(0.03%) 0.1 0.4 14605
Jaleswar 3105(61.0%) 1980(38.9%) 7.14 10.43 1(0.02%) 5(0.02%) 0.0 0.1 5091
Jaleswarpur 120(63.0%) 63(29.0%) 0.28 0.33 34(15.7%) 0(0%) 0.7 0.0 217
Remuna 2308(61.6%) 463(12.4%) 5.31 2.44 408(10.9%) 568(15.2%) 8.0 11.3 3747
Simulia 818(29.0%) 834(29.6%) 1.88 4.40 832(29.5%) 333(11.8%) 16.3 6.6 2817
Soro 4001(45.7%) 2449(28.0%) 9.20 12.91 1355(15.5%) 950(10.9%) 26.6 18.9 8755
Total 43498 (61.7%) 18975(38.3%) 100 100 5097(15.9%) 5024(33.9%) 100 100 72594
Source of data: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI Ft= Full time, Pt= part time

Table 6.56: Occupational profile
taluk active fisher man marketing
net repair process sing peeling
labourer
other other than fishing Total
Bahanaga
/Soro In nos. 8715 547 511 268 21 798 130 1763 12753
In % 68.34 4.29 4.01 2.10 0.16 6.26 1.02 13.82 100.0
Balasore
In nos. 10658 1383 1084 781 452 1125 23 1118 16624
In % 64.11 8.32 6.52 4.70 2.72 6.77 0.14 6.73 100
Baliapal
In nos. 19079 845 1050 788 81 991 11 78 22845
In % 83.51 3.70 4.60 3.45 0.35 4.34 0.05 0.34 100
Bhogorai
In nos. 14605 919 251 27 45 1290 23 1 17157
In % 85.13 5.36 1.46 0.16 0.26 7.52 0.13 0.0058 100
Remuna
In nos. 3747 264 288 3 10 135 0 271 4718
In % 79.42 5.60 6.10 0.06 0.21 2.86 0 5.74 100
Basta In nos. 7687 329 2973 633 70 1753 191 1238 14874
In % 51.68 2.21 19.99 4.26 0.47 11.79 1.28 8.32 100.0
Jaleswar In nos. 5131 698 424 28 29 272 0 0 6582
In % 77.96 10.60 6.44 0.43 0.44 4.13 0.00 0.00 100.0
Jaleswarpur In nos. 217 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 235
In % 92.34 0 0 0 0 7.66 0 0 100.0
Simulia In nos. 2817 269 922 897 12 43 0 56 5016
In % 56.16 5.36 18.38 17.88 0.24 0.86 0.00 1.12 100.0
Source: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI
6.2.4.7 Education: the status of education is a significant controlling factor in social sector. The status of education in the fisherman villages varies significantly. Gender based discrimination is present. Maximum education is at the primary level. On an average 54%, 58.8 % and 74.6% males have secured primary, secondary and higher secondary education and within females 45.9%, 41.2% and 25.4% have secured primary, secondary, higher secondary education respectively. So almost 65.8% of the total population has got primary education, 28.9% have got secondary level education and 5.27% have got higher secondary education in an average. Highest level of primary level education is found in Bahanaga, secondary level education receivers are highest in Bhograi block and higher secondary education receivers are highest in Baliapal block.
Table 6.57: Distribution of educated males and females fisherman villages of taluks of Balasore district.2010.
Taluk Primary Secondary Higher secondary primary Secondary Higher Secondary
male female male female male female Total Total Total
Bahanag/Soro In Nos. 4478 3370 1419 974 381 133 7848 2393 514
In % 57.1 42.9 59.30 40.70 74.12 25.88 72.97 22.25 4.78
Balasore In Nos. 5772 4654 2413 1820 357 125 10426 4233 482
In % 55.36 44.64 57.00 43.00 74.07 25.93 68.86 27.96 3.18
Baliapal In Nos. 16007 15269 8563 6548 2740 1757 31276 15111 4497
In % 51.18 48.82 56.67 43.33 60.93 39.07 61.47 29.70 8.84
Bhogorai In Nos. 8580 8289 6659 4952 1619 407 16869 11611 2026
In % 28.85 49.14 57.35 42.65 79.91 20.09 55.30 38.06 6.64
Remuna In Nos. 1344 1074 584 330 83 16 2418 914 99
In % 55.58 44.42 63.9 36.1 83.84 16.16 70.48 26.64 2.89
Jaleswar In Nos. 3220 2901 2869 2217 559 329 6121 5086 888
In % 52.6 47.4 56.4 43.6 62.9 37.1 50.6 42.1 7.3
Jaleswarpur In Nos. 114 75 71 24 5 1 189 95 6
In % 60.3 39.7 74.7 25.3 83.3 16.7 65.17 32.76 2.07
Simulia In Nos. 1538 1101 108 56 18 5 2639 164 23
In % 58.3 47.7 65.9 34.1 78.3 21.7 93.4 5.8 0.8
Source: Marine Fisheries Census 2010, CMFRI ; compiled by author

6.2.5 Existing Fishery clusters: a general overview of Balasore block
The fishing clusters are mainly developed along the coast line of Balasore district extending more than 3 km from the coast (Fig.6.18 A, B, C, D). The fishery clusters have been developed and are expanding along the coast of Balasore district mainly focusing on shrimp culture and aquaculture. As stated earlier, the fisheries have developed on a massive scale along the coast of Balasore, Baliapal, Bhograi, Bahanaga and Remuna blocks. From 1990’s onward, the coastal villages are mainly transforming their land use to expand the fisheries to stabilize their economy and to gain profit.
In Balasore block the fisheries have developed in three zones. Starting from north – one cluster has been developed along Sartha and Panchpara River, next cluster has been developed along Budhabalanga River and its confluence and surroundings, and in the extreme south a significant cluster of fisheries along Orissa Coast Canal and its surroundings have been developed. The areal distribution shows that the range of the area of the tanks varies from

PERCEPTIONS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ON THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM A Thesis Presented To the Faculty of College of Teachers Educations

PERCEPTIONS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ON THE PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM
A Thesis Presented To the Faculty of College of Teachers Educations, Arts and Sciences
Saint Columban College
Pagadian City
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement of Research in Social Studies
By:
Arnie Marie B. Alido
Jaife Jay Catalan
Elleomar R. Dubduban
Mico G. Gandalon
Date: October 2018
Chapter 1
The Problem
Introduction
Alcoholism is a disease that produces both physical and psychological addiction. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that reduces anxiety, inhibition, and feelings of guilt. It lowers alertness and impairs perception, judgment, and motor coordination. In high doses it can cause loss of consciousness and even death.
In reality alcohol intake had been consumed badly though some express that alcohol offers a stress relieve feeling. People involve in excessive drinking states that alcohol provides relaxation and able to lessen the feeling of stress such as problems can fade. However, alcohol intake allows drinkers to feel relax at first consumption but the more intake a person consume the harder they could refrain themselves from drinking that would lead to alcoholism or alcohol addiction.

Nearly 14 million mature person in the United States abuse alcohol and most have alcoholism problem. In addition, several million more engage themselves in life-risking alcohol intake that might lead to addiction and most teenagers aging from 14 – 17 above alcohol addiction problems. Though there are some cases of decrease in this situation because of some imposition of regulations from the government concern officials the fact remains that alcoholism is a widespread problem within youngsters in the United States.

A Drug Observatory in Spain had reports that almost 50% of adolescents aged 14 – 18 years old engage in alcohol drinks particularly in public places such as in parks and squares especially on weekends that causes disturbances and a large number of garbage after the event. Almost 20% of these young adults become involved in conflict while in the influence of alcohol, an estimate of 23.3% ride cars with drunk drivers, while 5.3% drives vehicle intoxicated and 7% needs medical treatment due to road accidents (Ministerio del Interior, 2012).

Alcohol problem is no exception in Africa. Alcohol was the leading risk factor for disability in according to the study in 2004. The adjusted life years (DALYs) have lost among African male young adults age ranging from 15 – 24 years old. In Saharan Africa, an acute chronic problem on alcohol pre-dominates unexpected accidents lead to injuries or even hospitalization. This occurs because of high intoxication and a large quantity of alcohol consumption and on a daily basis, in a short amount of time and outside meals could soar the risk for some disease and even lead to injury or permanent disability.

A data from the World Health Organization indicates that 9% of the Philippine population under the age of 15 above roughly estimated at 86 million have an alcohol indicator problem. About 25% of males and 8.3% of females are occasionally heavy drinkers. In Philippines the legal age to drink is at 18 but even at a young age almost 60 percent have tried drinking. Young boys are more engaged than young girls, but it seems that females nowadays have almost the same level with the males. This matter is very alarming particularly to young people because this might lead to physical or even mental health problem and some could lead to the usage of the prohibited drugs. On the side of the female too much intoxication could lead to unconscious interaction with the opposite sex that could result to early pregnancy or even unintended sexually transmitted disease.

Alcoholism is very rampant nowadays, not just within the Philippine context but even in other foreign countries. The downside of the situation though there are many warnings and advertisement with regards to abuse consumption, teenagers tend to neglect those warnings. The researchers of this study aim to know what are the perception of college students with regards to the effects of too much alcohol intake to the physical and mental development as there are a lot of programs, warnings, campaign to the outcome of this habit.

Perspective of the Researchers
There are four researchers on this study and all of them are residents of Zamboanga del Sur and undergraduate students of Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education with an area of concentration in Social Studies at Saint Columban College.

The first researcher is Arnie Marie B. Alido. Married with two sons, she is currently residing at Barangay Santo Nino, Pagadian City. She finished her elementary years at Santo Nino Elementary School still here in Pagadian and completed her secondary years at Zamboanga del Sur National High School (Main Campus) located at Santa Maria District, Pagadian City. She had graduated a three-year course in Information Technology at Eastern Mindanao College of Technology. After she graduated she began working as Office Clerk in a company here in Pagadian City. She continued her studies last 2016 at Saint Columban College taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies with a new goal and that is to become a teacher and be an inspiration to her future learners.

The second researcher is Elleomar R. Dubduban, only child in the family. He was born on November 9, 1997. He is currently residing at Barangay Dumagoc, Pagadian City. He is a working student for almost eight years and it is not a hindrance to his study. He finished his elementary and secondary education with a prestigious recognition awards at Dumagoc Elementary School and Santa Lucia National High School, Pagadian City. He is taking up the course of Secondary education major in Social Studies at Saint Columban College. Choosing Social Studies as his field of education because he wanted to encourage individual to be cognizant and interested about the world they live in, and also, he wanted to help students to understand developments that are taking place in society and the world, as well as their roles in shaping the future of the nation and even the world. Teaching is his passion to be able to educate not just the mind but also the emotional and spiritual aspects of individuals especially the young generation. He believed to himself that good teaching is a way on molding the mind of individuals and is the key for the success of everyone.

The third researcher is Mico Ganaton Gandalon, currently residing at Brgy. Manga, Pagadian City. His permanent residence is at Poblacion Sominot, Zamboanga del Sur. His religion is Bible Baptist and still single. He graduated his elementary education at Eastern Sominot Elementary School which is situated in Brgy. Eastern Sominot, Zamboanga del Sur. He finished his secondary education at Sominot National High School and he is also a NSPC qualifier in Editorial Cartooning. His currently taking his tertiary education at Saint Columban College and is taking the course of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies.

The fourth researcher is Ms. Jaife Jay Catalan, 19 years of age and is currently residing at Corner Alano – Sagun Street, San Francisco District, City, Zamboanga del Sur. She graduated her elementary education as an honor student at Singapod Elementary School situated at Barangay Singapod, Midsalip, Zamboanga del Sur and completed her secondary education at Midsalip National High School for which she received a recognition award for being excellent in her studies. She is currently taking up the course of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Social Studies at Saint Columban College.
The researchers of this study aim to know the perception of the college students as to what are the implications of too much alcohol intake in the physical and mental development of an individual if he/she engages in this kind of vices.

2152650405130FACTORS ON ALCOHOLISM
FACTORS ON ALCOHOLISM
Conceptual Framework
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2152650134620PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM
PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLISM

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2150624117164PROGRAM /AWARENESS
ON ALCOHOLISM
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ON ALCOHOLISM

Figure1. The research paradigm illustrating the researcher’s conceptual framework.
The conceptual framework of this study is shown in model presented as Figure 1. This study focused on the perception of college students on the effects of alcoholism in the physical and mental development of an individual.

This study is postulated to give an outlook with regards on the effects of alcoholism to the physical and mental development. The independent variable is the Alcoholism while the dependent variables are the Perception of College Students and the effects on Physical and Mental development.

Statement of Problem
This study focuses on the perception of college students on the effects to the physical and mental development of individual who are engage in too much alcohol consumption. This study was conducted within the area of Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Sur. The duration of this study was from the first semester of this school year 2018 – 2019.

Specifically, this study hopefully answered the following questions:
What factors urged college students to indulge in alcoholism?
What are the perceptions of college students on the effects of alcohol in terms of:
Physical Development
Mental Development
Based on the findings, what program or action can be crafted to promote awareness on the effects of alcoholism?
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study was concern with what are the perceptions of college students to a person who are engage in alcoholism with regards to the physical and mental effects. It focused only on the views and opinions of college students.

This study was conducted within the community of Saint Columban College during the first semester of 2018. Further information from the participants about alcoholism that surpass the focus of study which are the perceptions about physical and mental effects of alcoholism on development are not included in this study.
Significance of the Study
This study will be most beneficial to the following group of persons or individual.

College Students. The outcome of this study will be able to help or give awareness to students as to what effects or the result to their development if they are going to indulge themselves in too much alcohol intake.

Parents and Guardians. The findings of this study will be able to help the parents gain knowledge as to what process and actions they needed to partake in guiding their children on how to deal with problems, that will not trigger them to sort in teen drinking that might affect them for rest of their lives.

School Administration. The outcome of this study will give ideas to administration to act on how to conduct program that will influence students not to engage in alcoholism.

Government. It could give information that would create action in disciplining individuals through giving them different good activities that may help their self-fend off vices.

Other Researchers: This study would be able give idea or information for those who would undergo related research study.

Definition of Terms
The following terms shall be defined according to how this study is being understood.

Alcoholism. A medical condition in which someone frequently drinks too much alcohol and becomes less functional without drinking.

Physical Development. Is the process that starts in human infancy and continues into late adolescent concentrating on gross and fine motor skills as well as puberty.

Mental Development. Refers to age related cognitive development that maybe employed in specific domains such as alcoholism.

Structure of Thesis
This study is consists of five chapters: In chapter 1 it includes the introduction, perspective of the researchers, conceptual framework, statement of the problem, scope and limitations, significance of the study, definition of terms, and structure of thesis. Chapter 2 tackles about the related literature on the perceptions of individuals on alcoholism and about alcoholism. Chapter 3 specifically discussed the research methods such as the research design, research environment, research participants, sampling techniques, research instruments, data analysis and ethical consideration in research. Chapter 4 discussed the presentation and analysis of the data that had gathered for the study of Perceptions of college students on the physical and mental effects of alcoholism. Chapter 5 presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations gathered from the conducted study.

Chapter 2
Review Related Literature
This chapter discussed the concepts, frameworks and related literature that will be helpful to the ongoing study conducted and so with the studies that has related reviews on the present study.

Alcoholism
Alcohol intoxication is one of the important elements that contributed to the ongoing criminal acts and juvenile delinquency. It is also leads a married couple to argue or fight, particularly if the husband is a drunkard and often neglects the needs of their children (K. Singh, 2001).

According to Kumar (2001), alcohol intoxication shows harmful effects to the development of every individual in a society particularly the youth. It is harmful as much as it offers goodness in the intellectual and spiritual development of a person.

Alcoholism is often the direct outlet of some individual who have problems in terms of family, monetary side, failure of employment that leads to misery, family discord, illness, and the most disastrous is criminal offense that may result to imprisonment. Being a drunkard does not imprisoned a person but the acts that he or she committed because of intoxication such as rape, burglary, theft and the worst is murder. Alcoholism is one of the many reasons of highway accident and thousands of death because of illness such as liver failure (Ahuja, 2003).

In Ireland, the recent national survey on alcohol shows that half of adult (18-75 years old) in population are categorize as harmful drinkers and they are more common among men than in women. The results are similar to conducted study in the SLAN survey in 2007 using the WHO AUDIT-C screening tool. Though the alcohol involvement problems decline in 2007, it still remains as high and dominance in harmful drinking in Ireland and even in Europe and it is a major problem. (Long ; Mongan 2013).
Research by Hope (2014) states that in Ireland most of the survey participants reported that they had experienced harm in the past year due to the other person’s intoxication in alcohol. These problems occur in family, even monetary involvement, vandalizing property and riding with a drunk driver that leads to vehicle accidents.
Henderson (2013) studied young people aged from 11 to 15 years old out from 7,589 students in various schools (254) in England and discovered that younger students often drinks inside their home than most older students. Most 15 years old and older usually drinks at parties or a friend’s house. Study shows 55% of older student’s drinks outside compare to 28% 11-12 years old.

Alcoholism or alcohol dependence is considered a disease with symptoms such as craving or a strong urge to drink; losing control or not to be able to stop once intoxication has started; physical dependence such nausea, sweating, shakiness and anxiety; and tolerance or drinking greater amounts of alcohol to “get high”. People believe that drinking alcohol will and may ease their problems regarding their family, work and society. In reality acquiring alcohol may lead to more serious complications and illness that would cause death (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’, 2006).

Califano (2000) stated that alcohol intoxication and alcohol dependency is not just an adult problem but even the young adults and adolescents aging from 12 to 20. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism states that young adult who begins to drink before the age of 15 are four times to develop alcohol dependency over those who begins at the age of 21. Another one is that early engagement in alcohol can lead to alcohol-related violence caused by young adults aging 21 and above. This shows that alcohol-related violence mostly occurred when there is less controlled in intoxication.

Hallgren, Holberg ; Andreasson, 2009 states that 70-80% of European adults consume alcoholic drinks such as wine and beer and that it’s over consumption had been neglected. In Finland, study shows that the highest level of alcohol intoxication rates among the elderly. According to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (2006), the rate totality of alcohol consumption among older adults has tripled over the past four decades in Finland.

Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor that increased the mortality and morbidity among elder people. In America, too much alcohol consumption are accounting to 21,000 death per year among adults aged 65 and over. (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013).

According to World Health Organization (2013), the periodic consumption of chronic continual drinking of alcohol is known as alcoholism or alcohol dependence. If alcohol is consumed excessively, it may lead to illness or disorders such as dependency that is known as alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Intoxication is a major risk factor and underlying that causes health problems, chronic disease and injuries.

Institute of Alcohol Studies (2013) expressed the three major types of alcohol dependent users. The early onset or aging alcoholic has generally encountered problems with alcohol intermittently throughout life, with a regular pattern of alcohol abused starts at late middle age or later. The late-onset or elderly problem drinker has no history of alcohol related but alongside of aging and struggles in life develops alcohol dependency to cope with losses or pain. Occasional binge drinkers but excessive consumption might lead to health problems.

Abuse alcohol intake has resulted in an innate disease that increasingly worsens and leads to difficulty to control. Individuals consuming too much amount of alcohol are considered diseased according to the disease of theory of alcoholism. Most medical professional believes that addiction of more than 40 years is primary, chronic, progressive, incurable, physical disease that could be fatal. Persons in this situation cannot control their alcohol intake since the disease is activated when they first drink; causing them to intoxicate more. The physical, emotional and spiritual damage result from uncontrolled alcohol consumption. The disease has no cure, but its effects would cease if the person stops drinking. Modern alcohol organizations including the support groups and treatment centers apply this concept in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Though alcohol dependency may not be viewed disease entirely, the idea that it might be a disease may be useful in giving awareness to the society that people with alcohol problem is a serious matter that needs to be dealt seriously or they may opt to seek help (Korhonen, 2004).

According to West (2005) the presumption is that the brain abnormality that led to the addiction has normalized. The model of addiction proposes alcohol dependency fits to the definition of a medical disorder and it involves a structural or functional abnormality in the central nervous system. The abnormality results in the impairment which requires treatment. Addictions, such as alcohol addiction involves changes in the movement of the brain pathologically which resulted in uncontrolled urge. It has been observed in addicts that a loss of control is leading them to consume excessive over a period of time that would run from hours due to the irresistible desire to consume alcohol. The disease theory also includes the concept of self-cure. Alcoholics may suddenly stop engaging in alcohol intoxication after many years of compulsive drinking.

Meleis (2011) stresses that human relationships assist people to cope with suffering. The main role of a nurse is to ease suffering and pain. Human relationships were conceptualized to advance in stages. These phases include phase of original encounter, phase of emerging identities, phase of empathy, and the phase of rapport. Communication is good between a patient and a nurse in order to deduce pain and suffering. There are methods applied by nurses to retain the channels of communication. There are methods such as reflecting alone or with the patient, providing open-ended comments to obtain information from patients. Furthermore, active listening and reflection, avoiding interruptions, providing automatic responses and avoiding same flow of communication. Communication is the key factor stresses in this study to be able to establish good nurse-patient relationship.

Bedford (2006) states that alcohol was one of the major factors of all road accidents that led to fatal accidents. Alcohol related accidents can result to life loss, sufferings, medical costs and even pains from accidents. It can also lead to damage of property, insurance, administration and even court costs. The standard method used to estimate road accident costs is the “willingness to pay” method which puts statistical value on life by considering how many people are willing to pay for the less result of accidents or even the risk of death. The willingness of a person to cover the expenses to save lives, pain and suffering and medical cost are being used by the National Roads Authority as the basis for calculating the cost of road accidents due to alcohol involvement.

According to Brady (2006) there is evidence that alcohol problem can be used to suicidal behavior due to depressive situation and incapacity of an individual to face the challenges of life, inability to solve problems and impulse personality traits.

A survey conducted by the National Institute for Health and Welfare (2009) on the consumption, harm and policies related to alcohol, and some drugs to healthcare providers. Alcohol problems increase or worsened as the person gets older and there are hidden or tolerated problems developed or turned up to be more evident as they get older. The survey concluded that dependence on alcohol typically declined after the age of 18.
Bowman and Gerber (2006) conducted a study on binge drinking and psychological distresses among older drinkers. Study concludes that alcohol dependence can be a symptom of normal ageing process. In addition, alcohol was considered to complicate the normal process of aging. Therefore, difficulty in memory and cognition, social impairment and mental health concerns such as anxiety and depression developed.
Alcohol health benefits and harmful results affects among elderly in America. The study concluded that dependency on alcohol among older people emerged as a silent epidemic condition and the study states that more or less two thirds of older people were observed to abuse alcohol at any given time (Bowman and Gerber, 2006).

Ritson (2011) describe the millennial drinking culture in United Kingdom as an ‘alcohol nation’. In his study he describes youths within United Kingdom are more likely to consume alcohol same as with other youths around the world. In addition, the alcohol consumption among youngsters within United Kingdom had been increased than in the other part of the world. Most researchers believe that there are not enough boundaries for children, which could lead to harmful drinking habits within a group. The study acknowledges that within United Kingdom as adults are drinking more and more, this will influence children to indulge into drinking habits and it makes it simple for children to depend on alcohol. So, in order to prevent this kind of scenarios and to prevent children against harmful dependency on alcohol drinking, it is important for the parents to be the responsible model and to be more aware of the consequences of indulging into drinking. Nowadays, alcohol consumption is easily done even by the young ones because it became lesser in price and had been used as entertainment for teenagers. The study specifically states the effects of alcohol not just physically but even psychological consequences, such as too much alcohol consumption related to depression. It is vital that the young people know that though they picture alcohol as mood lifter it is also the reason of the low mood.
Ahlström and Österberg, (2005) reviewed and pointed out two main factors that affect young people’s drinking behavior, namely internal factors and external factors. Internal factors referred to characteristics such as gender, personality factors, and biological traits. Age and gender were significant issues influencing drinking behavior. During youth, girls might drink more often than boys since they tend to mature faster than boys and do not have family and responsibilities. However, when they reached young adulthood, young males tended to drink more alcohol and more often than young females. Concerning external factors referred to social norms or culture, physical availability, and price of alcohol: for social norms, the most reliable predictor for young people drinking is their friends’ drinking behaviour and siblings’ drinking. Moreover, the parent-child relationship, communication and practices also influence young people’s alcohol consumption. Culture influenced how much teenagers drink. For instance, adolescents were more likely to drink alcohol more frequently in Mediterranean cultures than adolescents in other regions.

Filipinos were introduced to Roman Catholicism not just as a religious institution, but also as a culture of “collective joyous festivities and celebrations,” accompanied by dining, drinking, and merrymaking, which is still felt and practiced to this day. It is observable in the modern period that fiestas, birthdays, and parties are often deemed as incomplete without beer and/or other alcoholic beverages available during the occasion. Given these, people can determine various reasons which may explain why drinking have become such an integral facet of the Filipino society (Labajo, 2010).

Kuntsche (2005) reviewed the evidence of young people and young adults and their drinking motives through a computer-assisted search of relevant articles. The findings revealed that most young people age group of 10 to 25-year old’s indicated that drinking was due to social motives; some of them reported that they drank for enhancement motives and only a few of them described drinking for coping motives. In general, most young people drink for a social reason or for a sense of enjoyment.

According to (McClatchy, 2011) in Thailand, alcohol use has increased dramatically as a result of intense marketing and the manufacture of a sweet fruit beverage promoted for sale to adolescents. Alcoholic products can generally be produced in local communities and young people have easy access to alcohol. This section aims to present the history of alcohol in Thailand using data extracted from research papers, official statistics, and policy documents that focused on the issues of alcohol consumption in Thailand. Finally, the drinking pattern of young people in Thailand is reviewed as well as the factors behind drinking.

Chamratrithirong (2010) specifically mentioned the impact of parental guidance to the spirituality and religious beliefs of the children’s development. The findings revealed that spirituality of parents and teenagers within the family can be a factor to prevent adolescent health risk behavior.
Young et al. (2006) showed that the widely recognized leading policy concern and public health problem in many countries throughout the world is the young’s people drinking ad as a cause of accidental death among young people. High volume alcohol consumption is often the cause of injury and personal negative consequences, such as academic failure, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, property damage, and criminal involvement.

Filipinos were introduced to Roman Catholicism not just as a religious institution, but also as a culture of “collective joyous festivities and celebrations,” accompanied by dining, drinking, and merrymaking, which is still felt and practiced to this day. According to Labajo (2010) it is observable in the modern period that fiestas, birthdays, and parties are often deemed as incomplete without beer and/or other alcoholic beverages available during the occasion. Given these, people can determine various reasons which may explain why drinking have become such an integral facet of the Filipino society.

Alcohol was one of the most commonly abused substances among the elderly. Alcohol was the common abused drug after nicotine and caffeine and often remained misdiagnosed or untreated. The number of individuals aged 65 and above suffering from alcohol related problems was significantly increasing. There was increasing research in this area due to growing recognition of alcohol use disorders among the elderly. Alcohol consumptions limits and recommendations were commonly set for whole general populations and were age specific. Corresponding to the study conducted by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2010), statistics revealed that nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and above consumed alcohol. (Donatelli ; Somes 2014).

Everyone should be an element of the solution, providing paramount efforts in proving to each and every country of the world that the Philippines is a growing, drug and alcohol-free nation that inhabited by responsible population. And that as Filipinos, a one solid republic are firmly against all activities concerning abuse of alcohol that brought about these alarming addiction problems.

Chapter 3
Research Methods
This chapter states and describes the research design, research environment, research participants, sampling techniques, research instrument, research ethics and the appendices related to this study.

Research Design
The study will conduct a qualitative type of research that focused on the individual interviews as the instrument to use in gathering the needed data. A qualitative research is based on methods of data generation which are both flexible and sensitive to the social context in which data are produced. It also based methods of analysis, explanation and argument building which involved understandings of complexity, detail and context. Qualitative research aims to produce rounded and contextual understandings on the basis of rich, nuanced and detailed data. (Mason, 2002).

Research Environment
This study was focused on the perceptions of college students on the physical and mental effects of Alcoholism within Saint Columban College where the researchers are recently enrolled in Bachelor of Secondary Education with the area of specialization in Social Studies.
Saint Columban College can be located within the city of Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur in Mindanao. Saint Columban College is a Catholic school that was established way back in 1957 by Fr. Sean Nolan of the Missionary Society of St. Columban (MSSC); Jesus Reyes, Isabel of the Angels Narciso, Marie Odille Cayetano and Anne Bacomo of the Sisters of Saint Paul de Chartres (SPC). Under the leadership of Fr. Partick Campion of the MSSC, SCS earned “full operation status.”
Pagadian City is a city located in the province of Zamboanga del Sur where Saint Columban College is established. It is found in the island of Mindanao and it is the capital city and so is the regional center of the entire Zamboanga Peninsula. It is subdivided politically into 54 barangays which other are classified as urban. Its position is on the North Eastern side of Western Mindanao bordering the Iliana Bay. About 45% of the entire city area is steeply sloping terrain hills and mountains on the northwestern portion that covers an estimated 15,090 hectares.
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Figure2. Photo of Saint Columban College
Research Participants
Table 1
Research participants of the study
Research Participants Sample Size
College Students of Saint Columban 20
The table 1 shows the estimated population of college students that have been interviewed. The researchers got 20 participants to interviewed; they divide this population by department. In the College of Business Education, a total of 5 participants, from the College of Teachers Education, Arts ; Sciences a total of 10 participants then from the College of Computer Studies a total of 5 participants was purposely chosen to be interviewed.

Sampling Technique
The researchers used the method of Purposive Sampling Technique in gathering the participants of their study. Purposive Sampling Technique is where the researchers select the participants purposively.

In this study the participants were chosen purposely by each department with respective total numbers to be selected. By way of homogenous sampling which the researchers chooses the 3rd to 4th year levels of participants. The researchers picked the participants by their year level in the college department.

In choosing the participants the researchers subdivide the students through their respective department. In CTEAS, the researchers chooses 10 participants from the 3rd – 4th year students, from CBE a total of 5 participants, and from CCS also 5 participants from 3rd – 4th year level.

Research Instruments
The Researchers utilized an individual interview to acquire the needed data pertaining to the purpose of the study. The guide questions survey made by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (U.S.) were adapted by the researchers in formulating their interview guide questions. The formulated questions were answered by the participants with the consideration of allowing them to choose whether they will reveal their identity or not.

Data Analysis
The data that had been gathered out from the interview conducted were organized by the researchers and summarize the result out of the perspectives of selected college students. In one hand, the data gathered are organized through the different perspectives of students by every college department. On other hand, they summarized the data through gathering the most common perspectives of the selected college students.
Ethical Considerations in Research
The researchers of this study observe ethical action in gathering their data particularly in interacting with the participants and the result of the interview.
With the use of consent letter, the researchers will know if the research participants are willing to be interviewed. The researchers assure that the identities of the participants remained confidential.
Participants. The participants were given the right to let their identity be hidden or not.

Chapter IV
Presentation and Analysis of Data
This chapter presented the data analyzed of the qualitative study conducted on the perceptions of college students on the physical and mental effects of alcoholism. This includes the suggestions provided by the participants of the study.

Participant’s Perception on Alcoholism
Based on the participant’s perception on Alcoholism, these are the following response came from the different department of college in Saint Columban:
Table 2. Perception on Alcoholism
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurence
With regards to alcoholism it is then negative sign because in similar way also positive but when it comes to an event, it can be a stress reliever but can affect the mentality, because when you are drunk, you don’t know what you are doing. Alcoholism can be positive or negative and it all depends on the person who drinks and the environment he/she dwells. Both positive and negative Stress Reliever 5
Sa amoa, sa Islam Religion, Alcoholism is ‘Haram’, and sa ako negative ang tan-aw nako sa Alcoholism.
Ang alcoholism ang rason nga naguba ang among pamilya tungod sa akong uncle nga palahubog. Alcoholism is negative for some of the participants because it had ruined their family and bad for their religion. Negative outlook Distracter of relationship within the family 4
For me, Alcoholism is positive, kay gi-try nako engage sa alcohol ug naa ra sa tawo kung palabian niya ang iyang pag-inom.

-87549-821400Alcoholism, kay positive ug negative sa ako depende lang sa pag-inom ug alcohol sa tawo if macontrol niya ang effect afterwards. Nabantayan nko nga ang alcohol makadugang ug confidence.
Alcoholism imposed a positive view for some participants because when a person drinks it is always up to the person how to control their selves to limit their drinks.

Alcoholism can either effect positively or negatively but, it is up to the people who consume alcohol if he/she can control the effects afterwards. Some people felt that alcohol boosted their self-esteem. Positive View
Both positive and negative Imposing self-control on alcohol consumption
Good and Bad effect 1
5
Factors urged a person to drink
With regards to the factors that urge the person to drink here are some of the responses from the participants:
Table 3. Factors Urged a Person
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurrence
Factors nag-urge nako kay sometimes just for friendship or kanang na-heart broken ka or nay conflict sa mga friends. The factors that urge a person to drink is because of conflict between friends and broken relations. Broken Hearted Engage more friends 3
Because of problems and alcohol ang ilang nakita nga way para makalimot sila sa ila mga problema. The participants implies that because of problems, a person are urge to engage in alcoholic activity to forget the pains they feel. Problems Lack of concerns from family 4
I think kanang atong mga desperation ug mga melancholy feeling ug mga sorrow ang rason mao musulod ang tawo ug inom. The feeling of sorrow and desperation and also the melancholic feeling that push a person to drink. Sadness Overcoming the odds 7
For enjoyment ang uban pangtanggal stress then ang uban kay bisyo jud nila. Some response says that a person indulge in alcoholism because it can be a stress reliever, for enjoyment and the most common is vices. Enjoyment Stress Reliever 6
Effects in Physical and Mental Development
Based on the effects of physical and mental developments, the following are the response of the participants
Table 4. Effects on Physical and Mental Development
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurrence
Mostly akong nabantayan sa akong mga uyoan dagko jud sila ug tiyan, dayon mostly sa ilaha kay mga maoy. Dayon sa mental kung mahubog ka dika makahuna-huna ug tarong. Kung makainom ka wala naka sa imong self. Bisan unsa nalang imong mga lihok. Wala naka kahibawo nga nahimo diay tu nimo. The participant describes that whenever a person indulge into alcoholic drinks, mostly of the consequence is in physical. Because they gain belly instead. In mental aspect the person who indulge in alcoholic drinks sometimes became hysterical mostly the male drinkers and unconsciously do things that affects others. Harmful Changing in Physical Body Ang effect kay positive ug negative, sa positive kay makatambok daw kung mag-inom dayon makapa.active sa utok labi na sa mga batan-on pero ang negative effect pod sa inom kay makadaot sa internal part sa body particular sa atay.

Ang alcoholism kay makamature ug physical feature dayon makawalag tarong panghuna-huna. The effect of alcoholism to mental development is it makes the person active and the lightweight ones could gain some kilos. But the negative effect results in the internal part of the body particular the liver.

Alcoholism do made man’ physical features matured, such as; skin, weight and also parts of the internal organs. It also made people out of their natural state of mind. Good and Bad effect Excessive drinking of alcoholism 9
Awareness Programs on Alcoholism
Based on the response of the participants on programs for alcoholism here are the following suggestions:
Table 5. Awareness Programs on Alcoholism
Verbatim Transcriptions Keyword Themes Frequency of Occurrence
Implementing ug sports program nga mo-fit sa imoha example kung mahilig ka ug basketball. Puwede mag-conduct ug Basketball Clinic within lang sa barangay para pud ma-involve ang mga kabatan-unan sa sports. Ug dili lang diay sa mga kabatan-unan utro pod sa mga hamtong. The participants want to have a sports clinic in each barangay. Just to avoid the involvement of the youth in indulging alcoholic drinks. Not just for the youth but also for the mature individuals. Sports Program Sports Oriented 13
Dapat mag start jud sa barangay ang disiplina. Dayon mag conduct ug awareness symposium. Para ma aware ang mga katawhan kung unsa ang negatibong epekto sa alcohol sa lawas. Most especially the youth, kay sila man ang pinakaapektado ani nga bisyo.

Barangay officials should involve in imposing awareness on the effects of alcoholism through symposium program especially for the youth. Symposiums Awareness Program by Barangay 7
Chapter 5
Summary of Findings, Conclusion, Recommendations
This chapter presented the summary of findings on the concept investigated, conclusions reached by the researcher, and the recommendations proposed to the awareness of the effects of Alcoholism on the physical and Mental Development.

Summary of Findings
The following were the summary of the findings generated through the data gathered, presented, interpreted and analyzed.

What are the students’ perception about alcoholism, is it positive or negative and why?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College perceived alcohol as both positive and negative. Students viewed alcohol as positive due to its effect that it will boost self-esteem, when they had events they take alcohol to boost their confidence. Alcohol relieved the stresses of few students that are why they viewed alcoholism positively. Though alcoholism is positive to them, they clarified that it is up to the people if they can control the effect afterwards.
Alcoholism did affect students negatively because when they got drunk they are unconscious of what they are doing. Some students put the blame to alcoholism why their family got ruined because of alcoholic beverages intake of their father or uncle. To some students, alcoholism is prohibited in their religion that is why they perceived alcoholism negatively. These experiences and observations of students lead them viewed alcoholism as negative.

What factors urged the students to drink alcohols?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College revealed the factors that urged them to drink alcohols. They drink alcohols to forget problems, to unwind, and to relieve their stresses. Some students drink alcohol when they are broken hearted because they thought alcohols will heal their broken heart, some is for camaraderie and some is just for fun.

What students have observed on the effects of alcoholism on the physical and mental development of man?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College gave their observation on the effects of alcoholism. On physical development, alcohols make people fatter and on the other students, alcohols ruined their internal organ particularly their liver. Alcohol mostly fastens the physical maturity of some students.
On the mental development, the effects of alcohols made students out of their natural state of thinking, the students usually observed that when their uncle, father or brother are drunk they got wasted. Some students also stated that alcoholism made their brain more active. Either the physicality or mentality of students, alcohol contributes to their development once they indulge on drinking.
What program/programs will the students implement to promote awareness on the effects of alcoholism?
Grounded on the data gathered, the students of Saint Columban College proposed some programs that they thought could promote awareness on the effects of alcoholism. The students proposed to implement sports clinic in each barangay to stop the mature individuals in drinking and to avoid the youth on indulging alcohols consumption. There are few also who proposed that the imposition of such awareness should also involve the Barangay Officials for better implementation through symposium and they targeted mostly the youth.
Conclusions
The following conclusions were reached by the researcher based on the strength of the findings on Saint Columban College students’ perceptions on the effects of alcoholism on the physical and mental development.

Most students of Saint Columban College perceived alcoholism that can only give negative effects on one’s development. They reasoned out the negativities like; it will only leave people unconscious when they got drunk, it will tempt a person to rely on drinking which is a reason of family problem and it is also being prohibited on some religion. The negative effect of alcoholism on the physical and mental development also leads some students to refrain from drinking and made them proposed programs that will give awareness to its effect particularly their concern are of the youth.
Some students viewed alcoholism on the positive side. Positive as it is their stress-reliever and a boosting factor of their self-esteem, though there is positive outlook students can never reject the idea that excessive alcohol intake can possibly make a person mental and physical features put at risk.
Recommendations
Based on the findings, the researchers endorses the following recommendations:
The researchers suggest making a resolution or an act imposing a limitation on liquor buying on small establishments in municipalities and its barangays. They also suggest to totally banning the availability of liquors to the considered minors according to the Philippine Law which is aged 18 and below. If possible, the researchers asked the Philippine authorities to give sanctions or penalty directly to the minors who avail the liquors. The researchers saw the never-ending effect of alcohols in the Philippine country particularly in Pagadian City where the College of Saint Columban located. They witnessed the messiness of drunken people and how these drunken people can possibly harm others that is why they are eager to make these propositions be heard.

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The right approach is defined or described as respect for human dignity

The right approach is defined or described as respect for human dignity. An individual chooses how he or she wants to live their life equal, free, and that their moral rights should be protected if they choose to stay rational people within the legal boundaries. Everyone has the choice to respect others equally as he or she wants for themselves.
The right approach impacts individuals privately by the way he or she chooses to live their life freely with human dignity. It is a simple standard of how one’s should act in a situation. An individual with the right approach will know what is right or wrong because he or she feels like everyone should be treated with respect and protect those that are affected. By understanding the right approach, you can make a decision based off your moral rights, because you have the right to make your own choice in life of how you want to live if he or she abides by the law. Meanwhile, he or she has the right to live freely with dignity and respect others the same as well.
One example of the right approach being applied in private life is your core values. It is important things that a person must believe in. Also, it determines who you are as a person and how you behave accordingly. In my opinion, the right approach can help a person understand his or her core values in a decision when making plans. However, when you acknowledge your values of how he or she lives their life, it’s no limit how far you can do whatever he or she chooses to achieve in life. Therefore, it is so important to consider your core values before making a decision because the right approach can help determine what is ethical.
The right approach impacts business by the action on the individuals. In a business, it is important to use the principles and standards for decision making. This will help to consider how the should act in a situation. It a way that the company will have a clear understanding what is acceptable and not acceptable. By emphasizing guidelines of expectation to all of the people it will explain the action of a situation so that they will not be misled of confusing of the course of the action. As a result, this can encourage the company to treat everyone with respect and dignity because of the human rights.
One example of the right approach being applied in business is to be respectful of others as the same you want for yourself. In a business, there are moral standards in making a decision. They outline what is right and wrong behavior that should not engage within the company. This will keep the environment in the business professional and when it comes to decision making you sustain a good set of ethics. A business with a high set of ethics can have a positive impact because the company is taking the right approach to protect the business. Therefore, a business should promote principles and ethics that the company must live by to avoid any wrongdoing.
Since each approach provides different contents, but are similar in a way when you are considering ethical. By incorporating each approach will help you use every method before taking action in a situation. In general with all the approaches can play a role in decision making. They can become helpful when determining the standard behavior of what is considered ethical or unethical of decision making. Although, when you make a decision you must explore all the aspects of the situation and then consider what kind of impact of the action taken. By doing this, it will avoid any misunderstanding and dilemmas of the matter. In my opinion, it is better to use each approach when you are considering on making an ethical decision. In the meanwhile, you have to gather all the facts, evaluate the situation, and then identify what action to proceed with. By using each approach it will determine that you are weighing the options between what is good and bad.

The sample of this study are parents aged 25-50 years old that lives in Brgy

The sample of this study are parents aged 25-50 years old that lives in Brgy. Sampaloc IV, Dasmariñas Cavite, who have at least one child that was given immunization beforehand. The researchers chose those samples as they believe that the parents have a prior knowledge on the particular events that is appropriate for study.

In this study, the researchers used purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a non-probability technique that involves the conscious selection by the researcher of certain people to include in a study. The researchers applied heterogenous sampling, it is a type of purposive sampling used to capture a wide range of perspectives which fits the criteria of the respondents that is related to the phenomenon the researchers are interested in. By condition, the researchers chose parents aged 25-50 years old who have at least one child regardless of their gender, educational attainment, and occupation. These units may exhibit a wide range of attributes, behaviors, and experiences. The basic principle behind this approach is to gain greater insights into a phenomenon by looking at it from all angles. This can help the researchers to identify common themes that are evident across the samples. The researchers believe that this approach is appropriate because according to Black (2010), obtaining a representative sample by using a sound judgment will result in saving time and money. The main goal of purposive sampling is to focus on particular characteristics of a population that are of interest, which will best enable the researchers to understand their perception.

The word Tourism was first introduced by the English sports magazine in 1811

The word Tourism was first introduced by the English sports magazine in 1811(Smith,1993). A number of definitions have come forward in this regard.
Tourism is definied as “The commercial organization of holidays and services for tourists”(Oxford English Mini Dictionary Sri Lankan edition ,2013,p.588).
Over the last 50 years emerging countries have developed tourism industry as a panacea for all economic problems the countries are facing. Tourism is considered as an economic development strategy because it is encouraging the growth of government incomes and regional incentives that generate short-term foreign exchange, jobs and earnings (Calter,1987; Gunawardana&Saldin,2008,p.69). Historically, the tourism industry is a rapidly growing economic process(Jenkins,1997; Gunawardana&Saldin,2008,p.70).
International Tourism industry is becoming the world’s largest industry. National tourism industry is showing a growth rate of more than twice the growth rate of the world’s output of the world (Gunawardana&Saldin,2008,p.70). This is not the largest industry in the world , but it is the third largest in the international trade services sector (Gunawardana&Saldin,2008,p.70-71).
“Representing 5% of the world’s GDP and 30% of the global exports of services at over US$ 1 trillion, tourism is one of the world’s largest and fastest growing economic sectors”(UNWTO, 2010, P.11). Tourism is a primary supplier of economic improvement for growing nations (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; Telfer & Sharpley, 2008).
Sustainable tourism normally plans to have negligible negative effects, to limit damages, and to upgrade economic increasment. Sustainable Tourism is defined as “Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities” (UNWTO, 2005, p.11-12). Sustainable tourism is that looks to limit biological and sociocultural effects while giving economic advantages to nearby people and host regions(Mohonk Agreement, 2000).
It is embraces the following specific principles which distinguish it from the wider concept of sustainable tourism
I. Contributes actively to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage,
II. Includes local and indigenous communities in its planning, development and operation, and contributing to their well-being,
III. Interprets the natural and cultural heritage of the destination to visitors,
IV. Lends itself better to independent travelers, as well as to organized tours for small sizegroups(Quebec declaration on ecotourism-…PDFhttps://www.gdrc.org>uem>ecotour).
Tourism is a very complex activity and therefore calls for tools to help decision making powers to reconcile with the competing needs of economic, social and environmentally sustainable development (Kiper, 2013).
Medina (2005) explains that a criterion for sustainable tourism desires to include indicators of social and economic sustainability along with as lots as signs of environmental sustainability (Medina,2005). Similarly, Wall (1997) has argued that for tourism to make contributions to sustainable development it have to be economically feasible, environmentally sensitive and culturally suitable, and the forms that this can take are likely to vary with vicinity.
The modern discussion of sustainable development has been heavily associated with a definition defined by the Brundtland Commission(Barkemeyer,2011). Sustainable Tourism is defined in the Brundtland Report, “Our Common Future”, as advancement which addresses the issues of the present without trading off the capacity of future ages to address their own particular issues(UNWCED, 1987).
Sustainable development is a program to exchange the system of economic development so in order that a fundamental lifestyle for all communities and at the same time protects ecosystems and community structures that make life possible and useful (Van der Merwe & Van der Marwe,1999).
“Sustainable development may be a bridge thought connecting economic science, ecology
and ethics. In Sainabdevelopment the challenge is to attach and integrate varied policies,
like agriscience, velocity, commerce or investment. To get actual action, the endowment of
the thought of sustainable development should extend to all sectorial figures and agencies most purposeful to main private sector stakeholders”.(Framing Sustainable Development The Brundland Report- 20 Years On ,2007,P.2)
It was the dominant predicament dispatched through the Brundtland commission, which indicated that sustainable Development need to, at a minimum, cowl the following elements
I. Maintenance of ecological integrity and variety
II. Meet primary human desires
III. Maintain alternatives open for destiny generations
IV. Reduce injustice; and
V. Increase self-dedication
In addition, it’s become counseled, in order that to take vicinity, it might be crucial
I. Revive financial growth
II. Change the first rate of increase
III. Meet crucial desires which include for jobs, food, strength , water, and sanitation
IV. Hold and enhance the useful resource base
V. Reorient technology and manages chance and
VI. Fusion the environment and economy in the usual resource base (Wall, 2007).
According to Hall (2008) ,tourism and sustainable development have trade , which refers back to the motion of one state or condition to some other. If such a transition is positive or negative depends on the unique standards by using which trade is measured. Sustainable tourism requires the knowledgeable participation of all stakeholders, in addition to strong political management to ensure a large participation and consensus constructing. Achieve requires tracking of impacts, Sustainable tourism must also hold an excessive stage of vacationer pride and to make certain a significant revel in for tourists, their recognition of sustainable improvement problems and the advertising of tourism practices sustainable among them (World Tourism Organization, 2001).
Two general classes of tourism have been recognized: Mass tourism and alternative tourism(Wood,2002). Throughout the years, altertive tourism has been additionally portioned into nature, country network based and social occasions arranged tourism. The idea of ‘ecotourism’ was conceived out of nature tourism (Srinakharinwirot University 1992;Lumsdon and Jonathan 1998; Wood 2002).
One of the sub-component of the field of sustainable tourism is Ecotourism. International Union for Conservation of Nature define Eco-tourism as ecologically dependable travel and appearance to generally undisturbed common zones, to appreciate and acknowledge nature (and any going with social highlights – over a significant time span) that advance protection, has low negative guest affect, and accommodates valuably dynamic financial inclusion of neighborhood populaces(IUCN, 1996).
” Ecotourism’s perceived potential as an effective tool for sustainable development is the main reason why developing countries are now embracing it and including it in their economic development and conservation strategies”(Kiper,2013.P.773).
Ecotourism is a type of tourism that is progressively comprehended to be
I. based primarily on nature-based attractions,
II. learning-focused and
III. directed in a way that makes each sensible endeavor to be naturally, socio-socially and monetarily maintainable(Weaver,2001).
The origins of the term Ecotourism are uncertain, but numerous sources which advise that it became first coined through Dr. Nicholas Hetzer in 1965. As a concept and marketplace segment, it advanced through the 1970s and 1980s with the environmental movement and the primary formal definition of eco-tourism is said to have been from Ceballos-Lascurain in 1987. Within the 90s using the term eco-tourism multiplied dramatically. It was before everything used often through American conservation NGOs (WWF,1990) however gained extensive recognition throughout the globe, through the development of corporations, including The global Ecotourism Society (1991) and some of the conventions which includes The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 or the Berlin announcement on biological diversity and Sustainable Tourism in 1997. Perhaps the event, which proved just how vital eco-tourism has emerged as became the announcement of 2002 because the global 12 months of Ecotourism.
Ecotourism relies on three equally important dimensions “the environmental, both natural and built, the economic life of communities and companies and the social aspects of tourism, in terms of its impacts on host cultures and tourists, and the way in which those employed in tourism are treated” (Swarbrooke, 1999, p. 47).
Eco-tourism is a tourism niche that has emerged to assist with sustainable Development (Cole, 2006; Donohoe ; Needham, 2006). It is one of the fastest-growing niches of the sector of tourism (OMT, 2012). The concept of the Eco-tourism is closely linked to sustainable tourism and adapt to principles of sustainable tourism and development (UNWTO,2012). Although Ecotourism mainly focuses on the experiences of nature, the concept has been promoted and is as a way for developing countries to combine economic and social growth and Environmental concerns (Beaumont, 2011; Duffy, 2006).
Eco-tourism’s role in the world of tourism has ended up increasingly obligatory over the past twenty years, especially where sustainable tourism is worried. Thru following the equal standards as and being intently connected to sustainable tourism, it plays a main role within the reputation of the ideas of sustainability via the advent of sustainability practices into the tourism quarter and thru converting people’s behavior in regard to environmental conservation. To allow sustainable development in international locations, the United Nations countries inspire developing international locations with excessive eco-tourism potential to promote the creation of small and medium-sized commons ; organizations running ; working with tourism sustainable (United Nations,2012).
Eco-tourism is a sustainable form of tourism, mainly focused on natural prosperities. It focuses primarily on the experience and intelligence of nature, landscapes, trees and creepers, fauna and their habitation, as well as artifacts of the commune (Dowling, 1997; Fennell, 1999). In eco-tourism scheduling, the first query that emerges is the surroundings and its preservation (Munn, 1992; Ceballos-Lascurain, 1996; Gossling, 1999; Tisdell ; Wilson, 2002; Lopez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, 2002; Fung ; Wong, 2007).
Eco-tourism has the ability of a serious impact on local communities, in huge detail due to the tendency of eco-travelers to have an extra interest in the lifestyle and the person of the areas they go to, in comparison to the mass travelers (McMinn, 1997). Its cause is to maintain property, especially organic range, and maintain the sustainable use of resources, that could supply ecological experience to guests, keep the ecological surroundings and benefit(Bansal ; Kumar, 2011; Tewodros, 2010).
Eco-tourism entails a mixture of conservation and economic aspects related to tourism for the benefit of neighborhood communities, specially by means of specialized in sustainable improvement (Myburgh ; Saidi, 2002). Though it’s miles limited academically supported sustainable tourism insure geographic areas of the sector. In many methods, sustainable tourism exemplifies the connection between eco-tourism and sustainable development ( Buchsbaum , 2004).
Eco-tourism is one technique for helping conservation and imputing income for organizations in and spherical protected areas (Rome,1999). It is able to contribute to economical development by using
I. Manner of producing sales that can be used to sustainably manipulate protected areas,
II. Imparting closer employment and
III. Inculcating a revel in of community ownership.
without careful planning and manipulate that balance ecological, social, and financial goals, it is able to result in environmental damage. Furthermore, anticipated as a first-rate technique towards the sustainable development, unorganized or poorly revolving and executed tourism might also additionally have essential awful consequences, offsetting the advantages it modified into designed to offer. Even the capability close by the blessings of eco-tourism can motive environmental harm to a contained region.Develops Sustainability desires of eco-tourism. Accomplishing sustainable tourism defined right here as tourism that is ecologically benign, economically viable and socially proper is therefore contingent on environmental protection and reconciling tourism activities with community socioeconomic merit (Brown, 1997).
Eco-tourism is often perceived as a tool for promoting economic development in growing nations. Eco-tourism facilitates in community development with the assistance of providing the provision of support for neighborhood community that’s plenty of property. Eco-tourism is regularly perceived as a tool for promoting asset development in developing countries. Eco-tourism enables in community development with the assistance of imparting the provision of help for neighborhood community that plenty of property.
Sustainable development thru eco-tourism is a crucial idea inside the world these days. Many countries have confident their regional improvement on this idea. In this concept, sustainable development may be produced via eco-tourism and local development ; development on the equal time in an area. Ecotourism as a sustainable model of tourism in natural areas, consisting of at the identical time elements of rural and cultural tourism, besides subscribing to the principles of sustainable tourism, ecotourism has unique principles , it contributes actively to the conservation of natural and cultural historical past, it consists of local communities in making plans, development and operation activities, and it contributes to their welfare, it entails whole and thrilling reasons for visiting regarding the natural and cultural resources, it is intended specifically for individual visitors and also to small organized groups (Sambot?n ,2011, Kiper, 2013).
The nature-based tourism industry is evaluated to develop at roughly the rate of 10-30 percent for every annum (Wight 1996). The nature-based tourism industry is evaluated to develop at roughly the rate of 10-30 percent for every annum (Wight 1996).

Figure1.Sustainable development through eco-tourism (Kiper,2013;http://sustainableecotourism.blogspot.com,2018).
Tour operators negotiates with lodges, transportation corporations, and alternative providers, and combines the one excursion parts into a bundle excursion, presented to the very last client (Sheldon, 1986) as it is a key partner in the tourism industry .
Tour operators function as intermediaries inside the commercial enterprise distribution gizmo linking makers and clients to every extraordinary (Moutinho,2000; Merve ,2003). Tour operators having a significant position in growing business commercial enterprise (Budeanu, 2005). Telpher and Sharpley talk that tour operators, handling with the supply aspect of commercial enterprise, have a chance to boost clients’ property attention, and might create a contribution to near local destination development thru influencing the community surroundings and interesting with neighborhood people stakeholders (Telpher and Sharpley,2008). While multinational tour operators have the strength to influence the occasion of the entire enterprise, commercial enterprise (Budeanu, 2005). Native tour operators rather have the chance to contribute to the community property improvement (Seales & Stien, 2011). Native operators may want to promote native commercial enterprise property, encouraging their patronage to admire the mental object, financial and environmental desires of playground regions native commercial enterprise assets, encouraging their patronage to respect the mental object, economic and environmental wants of destination areas (Mbaiwa, 2005). But, these Tour enterprises should be supported with the help of applicable huge suggestions and policies to facilitate their add the direction of creating a bigger asset in a commercial enterprise corporation (UN, 2012).
Tourism and information and communique technologies are two of the most dynamic motivators of the developing worldwide economic system (Buhalis, 2003). Online marketing is that the usage of understand how generation within the technique of human movement and handing over worth to the consumer, and for controlling with consumer relationships in techniques in which profit the corporation and its stakeholders (Strauss, El-Ansary, Frost, 2006). This variable nature of selling brings a number of possibilities to increase new items, new trade, and new media to talk with customers and in addition new route to acquire enterprise associate (Strauss, El-Ansary, Frost, 2006, 50). It’s a traditional norme that the intrnet can increase the interactivity among customers and providers which the world wide web WWW allows the distribution of multimedia gadget information collectively with information , snapshots, video, and sounds (Buhalis, 1998).
After the discovery of worldwide web WWW technologically web is widely used as a way of marketing and promoting likewise. WWW may be a critical pool of knowledge ; data to get statistics in concerning destinations, economic industy’s corporation product, carrier & services (Jamnia, 2009).
Consistent with the reference work on internet & web site marketing and marketing for business locations discovered by means of the global business organization(WTO, 2008), a pleasant website is essential for a vacation spot’s effectiveness and for the fulfillment of the success. Official websites area unit a crucial tool for image dissemination, while promoting and advertising in locations (Choi, Lehto ; Morrison, 2007; Choi, Lehto ;Oleary, 2007; Lee ; Gretzel, 2012; Li ; Wang, 2010; Luna-Nevarez ; Hyman, 2012). Kim and Lim (2001) brought up that the importance of the standard of the data can increase while the shoppers confirm to get business product because of records provided to the web site.
To consequently say in the tourism industry it is need to looks at the needs of the tourists and for that using websites, tourism professionals use website to provide information for tourist. Throguh that tourist can keep communication ; relationship with tourism professionals.
The destinations that may higher represent themselves on their web site can win the unsure traveler Who has not determined wherever to tour (WTOBC, 1999). O’Connor has cautioned five large dimensions to website design: language, layout, statistical design of how a website content and functions are a unit arranged, person interface of how navigation through the content material is facilitated and most famous troubles on fashion and safety (O’Connor,2004).
Tourism is an intangible carrier sector, however, after the development of the tourism internet site, tourism services and products one way or the other become tangible due to the fact consumers can see images and videos of services and products before buying and the use of them. The use of multimedia increases the confidence to buy the tourism products and as a result, will increase the quality of the website. All users have their very own criteria with which to charge the excellence of a website. Raveendran (2006) indexed the information needs in tourism as comprising of geographical statistics, attraction functions, sports and entertainment features, seasons of go to and different particular features, best of facilities and their standard prices which include exchange quotes, and access and go out formalities and restrictions.
Shankar (2003) believed that in order that you’ll be able to acquire client satisfaction and loyalty Tourism industry websites should decide the correct facts needs of their shoppers and lay out an internet site in order that the consumer can get admission to no longer simplest the relevant information however additionally once they have it. National business organization agencies Operators vicinity unit privy to the necessity to make, maintain and replace a political candidate’s web site to have interaction with fashionable, elegant and potential visitors (Han ; turbines, 2006). Gosh (1997) and Nell (1998) every believed that Tourism industy websites supply correct content material in each record and offerings that cater to travelers’ needs (Gosh, 1997; Nell, 1998).
Tourism is a companion intangible service sector, but once the occasion of the commercial organization online websites, commercial organization services and produce a technique or the opposite become tangible thanks to the actual fact customers will see pictures and videos of services and product before shopping for and also the use of them. The usage of transmission will increase the boldness to shop for the commercial enterprise product and as a result, can increase the standard of the website. All users have their terribly own criteria with that to charge the wonderful of an internet site. Raveendran (2006) indexed the data wants in commercial enterprise as comprising of geographical statistics, attraction functions, sports and amusement options, seasons of visit and completely different specific options, better of facilities and their normal costs that embrace exchange quotes, and access and withdraw formalities and restrictions.
The commercial enterprise web site ought to comprise all of the industries which could be related to the business enterprise of commercial enterprise. Kingdom and destination themselves, motels, airlines, tour agencies and completely different tiny and medium associated institutions use websites to deliver records to their clients and this technique is obtaining higher and a lot of reinforced by means that on the day. The first purpose of the websites should be the identity that’s the shipping of the proper and correct facts to the flexibility consumer so as that they sense comfortable before getting the product or offerings.

Resistance Temperature Detector

Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is highly predictable if compared to the surrounding temperature, it give us accurate and consistent temperature measurement. We used some temperature sensitive materials in building the resistance temperature detector like platinum, nickel and copper. It give us high stability and reliability. In RTD by knowing the resistance measurement of pure electric wire we can measure the temperature. It has good linear characteristics along temperature ranges. Thermocouples consist of two wire legs and this two wire legs are made of different metals. The two wire legs are connected together at one end to create a junction, from this junction we can measure the temperature. It creates a voltage when there is a change in the temperature. We use thermocouple in industrial, scientific and OEM applications. The temperature range of thermocouples is from -200 to 1750 °C. The accuracy of thermocouples is from 0.5 to 5 °C.Semiconductor temperature sensor is in the form of integrated circuits. We have five types of semiconductor based sensors Voltage Output Temperature Sensors, Current Output Temperature Sensors, Digital Output Temperature Sensors, Resistance Output Silicon Temperature Sensors and Diode Temperature Sensors.

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Are you looking for an opportunity to check out automotive history that features cars going back to the earliest mode of motorized transportation

Are you looking for an opportunity to check out automotive history that features cars going back to the earliest mode of motorized transportation? Then you should check out a classic car show. These shows are held across United States during warm months. Here are some of the classic car shows from all regions and you should plan your next vacation to make sure you can check any of them out.

1. The Elegance at Hershey

Hershey Pennsylvania is known for its chocolate but in June it hosts the Concours event that features many beautiful vehicles from bygone eras. There is a vintage race and make sure you allow time to take in the Hershey chocolate Park which is great fun for the kids.

3. Amelia Concours d’Elegance

The destination for this Concours display is in Amelia Island near Jacksonville, Florida. It is a three-day March classic car show at the Ritz-Carlton and has the finest vintage vehicles , which compete for two major awards.

4.. Southwest Street Broad Nationals Plus

Make sure to check out the state fair in Oklahoma City as it offers the 3-Day street rod event that is held in April. It is an event that is one of 10 that is sponsored by the National Street Road Association every year and there are more than 1700 vintage cars at this Oklahoma show.

5. Hilton Head Motoring Festival and Concours d’Elegance

This takes place in South Carolina at an exposition that lasts 10 days and offers much more than a classic car show. There is a speed classic, car club showcase and an aero show that tops off with a Concours display.

6. Charlotte Autofair

This is the world’s largest automotive extravaganza and is a four-day consuming event that takes place in April and also in September. It takes place at the famous Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concorde North Carolina. You will discover live auctions, a classic car corral and many merchant selling all you need.

7. Telluride Festival of Cars and Colors

This is one of the newest classic car shows that is now taking place in the mountain town of Telluride, CO and is four days in September. You can enjoy the fall foliage of yellow aspens and old cars that include high-end restorations and vintage and exotic vehicles.

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