Financial accountability is a very important aspect of fundraising for nonprofit organizations in dealing with donors

Financial accountability is a very important aspect of fundraising for nonprofit organizations in dealing with donors, recording costs, and updating those who support the organization. Donors are one of the most important parts of nonprofits in terms of fundraising and running a successful organization. According to the DMA Nonprofit Federation (2018), “Without donors, and fundraising activities to acquire and retain these donors, nonprofits could not remain active and their mission delivery would no longer be viable. Fundraising is both a short and long-term investment in the mission of the organization” (p. 1). Nonprofits succeed based on the people who give to their organization and without these funds, nonprofits would not succeed. In long-term planning for these nonprofits, it is important to know that your organization will still receive enough funds in the future. Donors are important but making sure one has long term donors is even more important.
It is also important to remember the costs of managing and fundraising nonprofits. Aside from the cost of starting the nonprofit, fundraising comes with costs such as marketing, travel, and advertising that needs to be considered. In any nonprofit organization, there are many expenses in terms of the finances of the organization. If the costs of running and maintaining the organization aren’t enough, the company will never be successful in the long run financially. One of the major financial expenses large nonprofits have is paying their employees. Yes, some have many volunteer workers, but in many, there are large payroll expenses that come along with running the organization. Both in the short run and long run, the many expenses of a nonprofit need to be recorded and planned for. Donations cannot be expected to cover all the costs of the nonprofit.
The most important part of fundraising is that donors, “want to know that their contribution goes into what the organizers claim” (Sequeira, 2018, para. 4). If donors believe that they are supporting a cause and an organization by donating to a nonprofit, they want guarantee that their money is indeed going to that cause. “For fundraising to be a smooth and successful affair, the organization has to be able to explain to any interested party how they operate” (Sequeira, 2018, para. 7). Charities have been questioned regarding their accountability. Are the children in Africa receiving the money people are donating? It is important to be sure the charities people are giving to are accountable for this reason. By keep the donors, volunteers, and staff up to date, people feel good about their donations and it will remind them of the needs and where the funds are going to. Some nonprofits have many areas that the funds and donations go to such as expansion costs, supporting various causes, or fulfilling various financial needs. “It is important for nonprofits not only to do the right things, but also to engage donors by reporting regularly to them about how their dollars are being spent” (Marenakos, 2011, para. 3). By engaging all involved in how the money is spent, it makes for a more successful nonprofit organization.
Financial accountability is successful when it is overseen by a person or a group of people. “There are three components to accountability — financial and regulatory compliance, stewardship, and donor trust” (Marenakos, 2011, para. 6). It is important that nonprofit organizations have someone who oversees their financial accountability. Although no organization hopes to have questions regarding their financial accountability, issues do arise and there needs to be someone accountable for fixing them and so forth. Reporting finances is a major part of financial accountability and needs to be done by all nonprofits. According to Marenakos (2011), “An organization’s audit committee — made up of several board members — should be responsible for monitoring financial reporting, internal controls, and business risks” (para. 8). By having someone accountable for all aspect of the organizations finances, it will reduce the likelihood of having any funding issues. Nonprofits also have financial goals, and this is a way to look at the previous years and the expenses and see what their goal can be for the present and future.
A nonprofit organization would not be successful without financial accountability. The money donors give as well as the costs of operating an organization need to be reported and calculated. By having set individuals to do so, it reduces mistakes and the risk of not having enough funds to sustain itself. The short term and long-term effect of financial accountability is the best way to plan and set goals for a nonprofit organization. When finances are accountable, it sets the stage for a successful organization

Competitive Scenario in cable TV network Competitive threats for TFC were very high

Competitive Scenario in cable TV network
Competitive threats for TFC were very high. There are 2 major competitors for the TFC
These two channels are the biggest competitors for the TFC because their ratings are high compare to TFC.

Ratings of these three companies
TFC CNN Lifetime
Attractiveness 3.8 < 3.8 < 3.8
Awareness 4.1 4.6 4.5
Perceived value 3.7 4.1 4.4
 This results on their ad revenues. The main reason for taking away their market share of ad revenues is due to this competitive threats.The reason is because they were not segmented their market they were not implementing the strategy of detailed segmentation, branding and positioning.

Silica is a colourless

Silica is a colourless, white, and has chemical compound. Silica is known as silicon dioxide or SiO2 because the name given is composed from silicon and oxygen. Silicon and oxygen is made up from silica because of common elements on earth. It is the main component of most sand and the primary ingredient in glass. Silica also make up the mineral called quartz. Pure silica is colorless, but if contaminants are present in a sample of quartz, it may be colored. For example, rose quartz is silica with trace amounts of iron and Milky quartz is simply silica with air bubbles or inclusions of liquid that make the mineral appear white.

Viruses and bacteria are known to cause deadly infections and damage one’s health

Viruses and bacteria are known to cause deadly infections and damage one’s health. While both organisms are invisible to the naked eye and neither of them contains a nucleus, there are several distinctions between the two.
The size of a virus can range from 10 to 100 times smaller than that of a bacterium. Viruses are acellular infectious agents that only contain a protein coat sans a cell wall, whereas bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms that possess a cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide. In terms of structure, DNA or RNA are enclosed within the protein coat of a virus. As for a bacterium, both DNA and RNA are in its cytoplasm.
A living host is required by viruses to multiply and reproduce inside the host cells as they are intracellular organisms, thus changing their host’s genetic material to produce new viruses instead. Bacteria are intercellular organisms that reproduce through fission and thrive on non-living surfaces, not necessarily causing harm. Therefore, all viruses are indeed harmful, but there are some good and useful bacteria, which are usually present in the intestines to aid the digestion of food.
The type of infection that viruses cause is systemic in comparison to localized infections caused by bacteria. Some examples of viral infections include chickenpox, the common cold, bronchitis, and in severe cases – HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, urinary tract infection, tuberculosis, and whooping cough are caused by bacterial infections. In that sense, there is a significant difference between the courses of treatment.
In order to differentiate the cause of an infection, it is necessary for a doctor to conduct certain tests such as taking a urine, blood or stool sample from the patient to identify the microbes responsible for the disease or infection. Once the causative agent has been detected, a first-line treatment can be carried out. To overcome a viral infection, it is vital to manage the symptoms first. Constantly staying hydrated with warm fluids such as drinking honey with some lemon juice to minimize coughs is essential. To relieve a fever, antipyretics or analgesics are useful. The main way to stop viral reproduction is by conducting an antiretroviral therapy for diseases such as HIV/AIDs and Herpes simplex. It is possible to prevent a viral infection from occurring by getting vaccinated against flu and hepatitis, to name a few. To treat bacterial infections, antibiotics are usually necessary. However, due to antibiotic resistance, they should only be prescribed for serious infections. That being said, antibiotics cannot treat viral infections.
In conclusion, a virus and a bacterium are commonly mistaken for one another but there are important differences between the two that can lead to the necessary course of treatment to save one’s life.


Nowadays, sugar has become more and more common in our daily life. Does anyone know what is the sugar chemistry behind the making candy? Well, let me briefly explain how candy is made and what are the different types of candy we have. There are various types of candy and they are all classified under crystalline candy and non-crystalline candy, non-crystalline candy is also known as amorphous. For common types of sugar, it is always first extracting sugar cane juice which is a type of syrup pressed from sugar canes, the term “juice” is also misleading since it is not a fruit or a vegetable. The examples of crystalline candy are such as fudge, nougat, and fondant which are generally soft, liquid-like and can melt in your mouth while the examples of non-crystalline candy are lollipops, candy canes and caramel which is hard and fragile. From there onwards, this is how numerous types of sugar are made. Alter different conditions or processes of this syrup such as its method of crystallizing, solidifying and different levels of molasses which can create a huge variety of sugar. This will open many different types of sugars which have different crystals which all has its own unique properties and flavours, enabling us to make a variety of consumables. In addition, the wetness and the flavour of the candy can be affected even before and after being heated or the addition of molasses to the crystals, there are also many different types of sugar which are only used in food production companies and cannot be found in supermarkets. “Now, let us find out more about the sugar. The specific name of sugar is called sucrose which is disaccharide. It is made up of two monomers, glucose, and fructose. In order to get different types of candy, you are required to add different ingredient according to the recipe. Ingredients added rate of cooking, the concentration of sugar, conditions of cooling, and degree of agitation all can influence whether a candy is crystalline or non-crystalline.” (Walter & Beathard, 2011, p. 231). For example, different temperatures of the heating process will affect different states of sugar and this is how different types of candy are made. The difference in crystallization will even affect on different textures of the candy as well. Then the sugar mixture will have to cool down, and during this period is very important because it will determine if the candy is hard (non-crystalline candy) or soft (crystalline candy).

Q The crisis facing mass communication industries in the digital age.
Example: Downfall of print media
Prynick Prym Raman
Word count : 2920
“River of Gold “is what print Industry was described as by the Press Baron Rupert Murdoch, who built his empire solely from the stable incomes and revenue that flowed in from his print media industries. Print media was the foundation for publication of news and information. It formed the basic definition of media, mass communication and journalism. Newspapers spread knowledge far and wide and bring information from far and wide. They encourage citizens in order to play a critical role in nation-building. They intrigue the intellect and offer a cerebral counterpoint to the mindless shenanigans of other media. A democracy thus owes it to itself to ensure that its newspapers are empowered to be free, to be fearless. Newspapers played the most important role of delivering the truth to the people and also establishing a clear communication channel between the common people and governing body; It was named the watch dog of the people and stood strong as the fourth pillar in democratic nations of the developing world. Newspapers and magazines were the first source of information people looked up to. It played a vital role of bringing all the incidents that happens around the world to the hands of common reader in the street shrinking the world in a large scale.

Unfortunately, media is dynamic industry which keeps evolving according to time and the development of technology. Over the years newspapers, though they maintained the standards and the pole position amongst all media, have become a time and resource consuming product. Introduction of television and radio in the 1940s and 1950s and the internet in the 1990s were the two major blows to the traditional print media. In a market economy, the main factor is creating need and demand for something. The need for information is never going to vanish as information is the key to unlocking the answers to many questions. For example, discussions on globalization, climate change or business and todays digital era there are a ton of new information to be unlocked. With time as an important factor the society has turned towards a faster means of gathering this information.

Newspapers bring out the details and the back stories of the incident but the immediacy of the issue is lost in the process of collecting information, publishing and distributing the material physically, but on the other hand with internet or broadcast the process is more time efficient and updates are brought on throughout the day and can be accessed in a any situation. It is noticed that newspapers and news magazines are getting thinner just as it is also noticed that libraries are no longer used as sources for research but Instead, they have become “book museums” with computer terminals. The transition is happening: from print to digital. The transition would have been much more quicker nut unlike other technological revolutions it has slowed down as humans have the tendency to find it difficult to give up old habits. This factor of time has made the newspaper a secondary source of information that people like to read with their morning coffee just to read the few details that the online or broadcast has missed out apart from the older generation.

Compared to all the “old” media, newspapers have the most to lose from the introduction of internet. In the past few years the web has made the decline pick up the pace . In the book “The Vanishing Newspaper”, Philip Meyer has predicted that by the first quarter of 2043 newsprint dies in America as the last true reader tosses aside the last edition. That sort of extravagant ideas might have stirred up my doubts and debates amongst the journalistic world, but even the most cynical news baron Rupert Murdoch could not dismiss the way that more young people are getting their news from online sources. Youths aged between 15 and 24 are said to spend almost 30% less time reading national newspapers since they started using the web. The newspaper industry has always been a wheel , and the industry has survived previous such ordeals . Televisions’arrival in the 1950s began the decline of newspapers as it became most people’s source of daily news.

Just 20 years ago, no print media professional or reader would have ever imagined that print news would be where it ended up today, but the evolution of the Internet, smartphones, and other mobile smart devices and their growing popularity to become a part of everyday life has drastically changed the way companies do business. It has significantly affected newspaper publishers and not all of it is for the good. Online content has become the source of news for many readers, especially young ones. In the past, consumers would have their morning papers delivered to their home or stop by the newsstand on the way to work. Today, many people get their fix of news staring at a tablet or smart phone. In fact, it is rare these days to see a commuter reading a print newspaper on the train or subway instead of a smart device. New technology invariably brings new ways of doing things that were deemed not possible or even imaginable in the past. For example, while we have wealth of news sources on the Internet to choose from, we have become less dependent on the traditional newspaper as a major source of information about the world. The Internet has dramatically affected the way newspapers are read, run, financed and staffed and it stands on a thin line.

The debut of the Internet in the 1990s increased the spread of media choices available to the average reader while digging a deeper grave for newspapers by removing its dominance as the source of news. Television and the Internet both bring news to the average reader faster and in a more visual style than newspapers, which are constrained by their physical format and their physical manufacturing and distribution. Other Competing mediums also offer advertisers moving images and sound and the Internet search function allows advertisers to understand and cater to the readers needs who have revealed what they are seeking hence giving advantage.

The Internet has taken a step further than television in bringing down the advertising income of newspapers. Unlike broadcast media, online media proves to be a convenient platform for classifieds, particularly in categories such as jobs, vehicles, and real estate. Free services like Craigslist have defeated the classic yellow page and classified advertising departments of newspapers, some of which depended on the classifieds for most of their ad revenue. Research has shown that Craigslist cost the newspaper industry $5.4 billion from 2000-2007, and that changes on the classified side of newspaper business led to an increase in subscription prices as they had to tally the loss occurring in the ad section , and impacted the online strategy of some newspapers. At the same time, newspapers have also lost many ads by large department stores, which once served as a substantial advertising income.

At first, from the late 1990s until around 2002, newspaper companies simply replicated their print editions online. The internet offers so many specific sources of information and entertainment that readers can pick what exactly what they want from different websites and platforms. As a result, people visited newspaper sites less frequently and skimmed through a few pages and then wandered off to some other website. Most newspaper companies in the developed world, 2005 was a very tedious year. Newspapers still earn almost all of their profits from print, which is going downhill. As people look to the internet for news and young people turn away from papers, paid content are falling year after year as free information was available at the touch of a finger. Papers were already losing their share of advertising spending. Classified advertising is quickly shifted to online media and for the past couple of years, newspapers have been thinking more confidently about what to do on the internet. which basically refers to reporting stories using cameras and microphones as well as write up. “A GOOD newspaper, I suppose, is a nation talking to itself,” mused Arthur Miller in 1961. A few years later, two investigative journalists from the Washington Post wrote a series of articles that brought down President Nixon along with the Watergate scandal and the status of print media and journalism soared. At their best, newspapers held governments and companies to account and questioned their actions but in the rich world newspapers are now just products in the business of selling words to readers and selling readers to advertisers, what was once the main support for society, is now colapsing.

The increasing use of the Internet search engines, primarily through large engines such as Google, has also changed the habits of readers. Instead of perusing general interest publications, such as newspapers, readers are more likely to seek particular writers, blogs or sources of information through targeted searches which will make the basic need for a newspapers unnecessary. Once the ability to gather and distribute information was restricted to only those with printing presses or broadcast mechanisms, the Internet has enabled thousands of individual commentators to communicate directly with others through blogs or instant message services. Even open journalism projects like Wikipedia have contributed to the reordering of the media landscape, as readers are no longer restricted to depending on print media organizations for information.
There are other challenges, too. The health of newspapers is undermined by the presence of other media, by occasionally intrusive policies of the government that impact the sustainability, by rising costs, especially by the fall in the value of currency in developing countries that directly impacts the cost of production, since a large quantity of newsprint that are consumed are still imported, by advertisement policies. Equally, it must be admitted that the health of newspapers is also affected by the actions of some of the journalistic policies in the organization, especially by a phenomenon such as paid news or paid content that strikes at the very roots of an independent press as readers cannot access certain specific information for free. Unhealthy competition has lead to the desire to consolidate and compare media power, driving the competitors to present a plurality of views. Newspaper circulation is on the fall and so are classified ad revenue and the industry has experienced an unprecedented wave of layoffs in recent years. Major metropolitan papers in the USA like the Rocky Mountain News and Seattle Post-Intelligencer have gone under, and even bigger newspaper companies like the Tribune Company have been in bankruptcy.

Aging is a process that goes hand in hand with time. Print media has tried to keep up but have stop believing in their survival. Considering print media as an industry under crisis of not being able to catch up to time and on the verge of becoming obsolete a possible solution can be derived in order to buy the field a little more time to figure out a permanent solution. . Those who claim that the future of news is online and only online ignore one critical point: Online ad revenue alone just isn’t enough to support most news companies. So online news sites will need an yet to be discovered business model to survive. Years after the digital giants started predicting the demise of print, newspapers still make a significant revenue from print advertising

In the new fragmented newspaper market, traditional media publishers must make a few decisions in order to continue growing and operating effectively. Essentially, there are three strategic options:
1. Be a consolidator of their competition
2. Be a seller
3. Remain independent These three options all require publishers to develop a strategy that focuses on: — Achieving greater scale
— Top-line growth
— Revenue stability
— A digital only or limited print model
— Capturing, writing, and monetizing their real asset
—the reader base, and the way those readers interact with and use their content. The Internet Search function also can be used to know what kind of news the people want and publish it accordingly which will keep the readers still looking up to newspapers for something. Choosing which path will depend on each publisher’s unique situation.

Like all other businesses, newspapers have to watch their financial bottom lines. When incomes decline, expenses have to be cut down in order to maintain balance. This means an industry-wide redaction in newspaper staff through layoffs or forced retirements. One possibility may be paywalls, which many newspapers and news websites are increasingly using to generate much-needed revenue. A Pew Research Center study found that paywalls have been adopted at 450 of the country’s 1,380 dailies and they seem to be effective. That study also found that the success of paywalls combined with a print subscription and single-copy price increases has led to a stabilization of income and expenditure or, in some cases, even an increase in revenues from circulation. In this case papers don’t have to rely as much as they once did on advertising revenue. Until someone figures out how to make online news sites profitable, newspapers still have a chance.

The greatest advantage over the public especially for newspaper publishers is to show their long-standing name in providing high-quality and credible information. Given the recent events of apparently creating “fake” news, newspapers’ reputation for delivering credible and accurate information can be particularly attractive to major marketers, who want to be seen to be operating in “clean and well-lit” environments. The fake news situation can also elevate the importance of curation and old-style journalistic fact-checking in the digital world: it’s no coincidence that the New York Times saw its subscriptions boom following the US election in November 2016. Online media is quite open and has become more of user generated content which intern questions the credibility of not just the information but also the source. Combining all these trends shows that the primary drivers of competition for the two segments revolving around each other are news quality and immediacy in the case of newspapers, and personal interests, hobbies and leisure in the case of consumer magazines. At all times , the focus of any media will be on engaging the target audience segments in the most compelling way possible, via whatever format and channel and platform those consumers prefer in their interests at the time. Clearly, people are still interested in news and relevant information, so the threshold question is how to attract new viewership, or at least prevent further erosion of existing viewership.

This movement must also be continued on online platforms if not wholly at least partly. Newspapers are moving away from being “just” newspapers and from being overly dependent on desktop-focused digital display advertising platforms to being actual source of information. For example, one of Germany’s largest newspaper portfolios is currently undertaking a major digital transformation, in which it is building multiple pure-play classified digital businesses – i.e. companies focused on a particular product or activity in areas like real estate, jobs and autos that sit outside its newspaper portfolio and are not of any value editorially. It’s also involved in creating a link with marketing businesses that benefit from the growth of ecommerce, especially as it goes mobile. The same digital publishing house is partnering with multinational company based in South Korea to create a new news brand, underlining the growing role of mobile and the strategic importance to content providers of finding creative digital distribution methods to the major social media platforms.

The road has been tough for newspapers over the past 10 years and the next 10 years may be even tougher. The decline may have leveled out for now, but is expected to continue going downhill again. The harsh reality is that print ad revenue and methods of circulation cannot be regained but can be modified. Most say that print will exist in the future but the capacity of printed copies being a primary revenue xource for newspapers is coming into question. Newspapers will have to create and establish a fresh approach to the way they operate. Future media businesses may be different by a mile from today’s models, and except for a very few that offer premium content, most newspaper industries will need to go to a digital-only model for their survival. The increasing splits in the newspaper sector will open up opportunities that will provide these companies to explore these new business models that may lead to new growth in profits and value. It will be a rather difficult change for a proud industry that has traditionally revered newsprint and ink, but it may be the only way to survive, as consumers increasingly want their news and entertainment in digital form.
The death of a Print media is to be upon us soon but it is only on a physical level, just no paper or print or ink, but more evolved in time and change its platform to a more economical and environmental friendly form and as long as there are people to read and write, it will continue to thrive in the current world and in future. The transformation must be done gradually as there is still a generation of newspaper and magazine readers, but an initial step towards the transformation can be taken to maintain a smooth flow from one form to the other.

Write and explain the THEME

Write and explain the THEME(s) of the work:
The chief theme of the work is love. The play examines the sighing lover and points out the folly of this archetype. While praising true love and marriage, the play also calls attention to marriages without total devotion. There are multiple references to unfaithful wives and Touchstone’s “love” of Audrey leaves something to be desired.
Another important theme in the play is gender. The most obvious example is Rosalind’s crossdressing, which allows her to take on manly behaviors without notice. Her guise allows her to take charge of her relationship with Orlando and assert herself in ways that were not possible for a woman at the time. Orlando also takes on aspects of the feminine through his flowery poetry. The original cast of As You Like It would have consisted entirely of men. This adds another layer of gender subversion.

I strongly believed that group decision making is an important tool because group decision tend to cover a greater area

I strongly believed that group decision making is an important tool because group decision tend to cover a greater area, that provide a better insights for decision making. In group decision making enables organization innovations and continuous improvement into the workplace because it has a range of ideas, creativity, thinking styles and skills, and this also promotes team work. One of the advantage of team work is the sharing of information. It make take a broader scope pf information since each group and everyone may contribute unique information and expertise. Sharing information can increase the understanding and clarify the issues. This also shows trust in the employees because they will feel valued and respected the decision and opinions they shared.

All the groups and team members should actively participate in the actual decision making because it helps in building the morale and of the team and build a healthy and coordinative relationship among members of the team. Giving employees extra responsibilities can have a very positive effect. It is also important that all of the members of each group have an understanding in nature because they need to accept the decisions no matter what quality may be the decision affects the favor of the group as a whole.

Discoveries can protest an individual’s view of themselves

Discoveries can protest an individual’s view of themselves, forcing them to revaluate their sense of identity. The sudden and unexpected nature of discovery can be challenging for individuals. This can be seen through the prescribed text “Away by Michael Gow, and the related text “Crossing the Red Sea by Peter Skrzynecki. We can see how Gow and Skrzynecki uses theatrical and poetic techniques and themes such as class prejudice, Identity coming-of-age, acceptance, reconciliation.

Discoveries can lead to the extension of further in depth forgiving of self, others and the broad world; this can clash with one’s current outlook and perspectives, creates authority to low their aged beliefs and shift their discernment of the world. In the play Away Gow shows us how discoveries inspire new beliefs and enable individuals to contemplate about future possibilities through the character of Coral.

Steven Butera Lab 134 Summer 2018 TA

Steven Butera
Lab 134 Summer 2018
TA: Filipe Rudrigues
Experiment: Lab 6 – Magnetic Force
ID#: 105144157


In this week’s lab, we will be working with external magnetic fields created by neodymium magnets and their effect on current. When a current is traveling through a wire passes by an external magnetic field it will experience a force acting on it. Using the principle of the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic force can be predicted. In order to test these predictions, we will be using two different set-ups, each with multiple configurations.

In the first set-up, we will be creating rotating motor using magnets, a screw, a AAA battery and a stripped wire. When the magnets are exposed to current, the magnet and screw will begin to rotate. In the second set-up, a wire will be connected to a voltage source and placed near the magnets. This will cause the wire to move either up or down. In both set ups the direction of the magnetic force will be predicted and tested.


Direction of Magnetic Field Set-Up

1. We will first figure out the direction of the magnetic field by using the Magnometer function in the iO lab software. Once turned on, only the z component will be measured, a steady value should be observed.
2. Then hover the neodymium magnets vertically on top of the M input on the iO Lab device (Top Left corner). AS you lower the magnets closer to the device the graph should increase in the positive values. If not use the other face of the magnet.
3. Now mark that face with an X, to represent the magnetic field is entering that side. The opposite side should be labeled with a dot to represent that the magnetic field is exiting that side.
Rotating Motor Set-Up

1. Gather a wire lead, the magnets, a screw, and a AAA battery.
2. Set up the bottom screw on top of the magnet.
3. Place the negative side of the battery on top of the screw.
4. Place wire lead on top of positive side of battery and placed by the magnets, creating a spinning motion. Record direction: clockwise or counter clockwise.
5. Repeat by inverting orientation of battery and magnets.

Current through a wire in an external magnetic field

1. Gather two 0.5 Ohm resistors, a breadboard, 4D batteries, battery cage, tape, spool wire and the magnets.
2. Connect the battery cage to the breadboard, place one lead on the positive terminal and the other in the negative terminal across from it.
3. Place the Ohms resistors across the breadboard connecting the positive and negative terminal.
4. Lightly roll magnet on wooden table, pay attention to the way it rearranges itself in one direction. Tape down the magnets in that direction.
5. Place spool wire in front of the direction the magnet is facing. Measure around 2 feet and tape down ends but with a slight slack in it, it should be free enough to move.
6. Plug in one end of the spool wire into the positive side of the breadboard following the resistor and the other end to the negative side preceding the second resistor.
7. Observe movement of wire, repeat by inverting the manner ends of the wire were connected above.


Rotating Motor

Configuration Experimental Direction Expected Direction
1 Counter clockwise Counter clockwise
2 Clockwise Clockwise
3 Counter clockwise Counter clockwise
4 Clockwise Clockwise
Figure 1. Rotating motor configuration results and predictions.

Figure 2. Configuration1 diagram of observation and prediction by right hand rule.

Figure 3. Configuration 2 diagram of observation and prediction by right hand rule.

Figure 4. Configuration 3 diagram of observation and prediction by right hand rule.

Figure 5. Configuration 4 diagram of observation and prediction by right hand rule.

Current through a wire in an external magnetic field

Configuration Experimental Direction Expected Direction
1 up up
2 down down
Figure 6. Current through a wire in an external magnetic field results and predictions.

Figure 7. Configuration 1 diagram of observation and prediction by right hand rule.

Figure 8. Configuration 2 diagram of observation and prediction by right hand rule.

The direction of magnetic force experience by current traveling through a magnetic field can be accurately predicted by using the right-hand rule as validated by the experimental results. In addition, it can also be confirmed that the combination of a current field and a magnetic field create a force, which was observed in the rotation of the screw and the “jumping” motion of the wire.


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