A pyramid is the most significant structure most popularly known due to the Egyptian civilization

A pyramid is the most significant structure most popularly known due to the Egyptian civilization. It is a monument built to serve as tomb to Egyptian civilization. It has 3 triangular surfaces which converge to form a peak, and the weight at peak is always less than compared to the weight at ground. It is made up of rough yellow limestone bricks. An average pyramid consists of 2-5 million blocks. According to researchers, Step Pyramid of Djoser is the oldest pyramid built in Saqqara, Egypt built around 5000 years back during third dynasty which was built to bury the king of Djoser and later; his 11 daughters were buried inside the Pyramid.
In Egypt, the kings are considered as their gods. So, in ancient Egypt people always wanted their pyramid which was built to bury their kings to be distinguishable. After the construction of pyramids, they used to emit all the traces of the activities to conserve its confidentiality. But archeologists were able to get the information of construction of pyramids from unfinished pyramids.
The question here rises, how did these Egyptians built the pyramid before the time of Pythagoras or even when the location of North Star was also not even correctly known? And the answer is as simple as water and sand. A specific area was filled with water and shaping area. Due to the accurate leveling feature of water, it was used to guide the blocks in shape. According to Deutsche scientist, Egyptians carried the rough yellow limestone blocks which was dug from the Earth’s surface, pulled by many workers on sledge. These sledges were giant with upturn ends. As the sledge moves, they would pour the water in front of it to ease the sliding friction of sand. In this way, the force required to move sledge was decreased to half. Not only for the movement of these blocks but also for shaping was used water. Have you made a sand castle on beach? By adding water to the sand, there is sand stiffness. Water should be mixed up to 2-5% of the volume of sand to get this much stiffness for the construction. All of this was evident when a picture of workers pulling the sledge and a man pouring water into sand as people pull, was found in the tomb. But this picture was mistaken to be some purification spiritual method through water. The tools used in the built were the copper and granite made. For lifting the blocks, the water lifts were used with multiple gated locks in 50ft extending the water shafts. By this the compression was decreased on the floats used to lift the blocks on the shafts. The labor required to construct the pyramid not only fulfilled by the slaves but the common natives of the city also invested in the built as it was believed that they are serving their gods.
But with the help of science the construction of Pyramids is relatively easy nowadays. Now machines are invented to reduce the labor work, however, the master pieces of Egyptian culture have already been constructed in ancient history.

Chouninard* a*world*famous* mountaineer* setup* a* shop* in* 1966* for* surf* breaks

Chouninard* a*world*famous* mountaineer* setup* a* shop* in* 1966* for* surf* breaks.* Soon* he*becomes*the* largest* supplier* of*mountain*hardware*in* US.* Chouninard* put*an*apparel*line*named*PATAGONIA.* After* chouniard*finish*his* partnership* with* the* Frosts.* Patagonia* came* up*as*an*independent*business*and*registered*itself*separately.*The*business*Philips*of*Patagonia*is*not*profit*oriented*but*TO*DO*THINGS*RIGHT.*Thus*from*the*beginning* Patagonia* took* a* very* deep* interest* in*environment* responsible* business.*Through*the* time* Patagonia* came* across* so* many* CEOs*and,* management*teams* but*nobody*had*understood* the*actual*conduction* and*proposes*of*the* business.* The* owner* of* the* company*took* retirement* from* any* formal*designation*of* the* company* but* is* still* somehow* very*keenly*involve* in* the*strategic*decisions* of*the* company.* The* main*competitors* of* Patagonia* are*The*North*Face*Inc,*Mountain*hardware,*Arcterex.*How*Important*to*Patagonia’s*Business*model*is*environmental*Position?*After*studying*Patagonia’s*case*and*its*business*model*I*believe*that*the*success*of*Patagonia*is*totally*depended*on* the*environmental*responsible*business* position.* From* the* beginning* the*company*has*acted*to*be*profit*motive*but*main*inspiration*to*the*public*and*awareness*to*the*public* about*environment.* Form* the* case* study* we* can* see* that* the*strategy*of*Patagonia’s*environmental*business*model*is*com*posed*of*the*following*five*points*1. Lead*an*examined*life.*Patagonia* is* very* intelligently*connecting*its* product* to*a* life*style.* Those* people* who*love* mountaineering* must* have* discipline* in* their* life.*Energy*always* comes*from* being*discipline.* So* I*believe*connecting* to* such*environmental*factor* give*sense*of* living*disciplined*life*satisfaction*to*the*customer.*2. Clean*up*your*Act.*This* point* is* very* important.*It* keeps* you* away* from* being* lazy* and* irresponsible.*Patagonia* is* pointing* out* one* of* the* m*main*points* of*success*and*honest*people* of*business*man*and*company.*Those*who*are*not*responsible*for*their*doing*might*never*live* a*good*day.* Thus* Patagonia* attaching*itself*to* such* trait* is* quite* good* awareness* in*the*people.*3. Do*your*Penance.*Doing*penances*is* very* important* in* one* life.* If* somebody* make* a* mistake* and* then*don’t* rectify* the* mistake* or* don’t* regret* it* or* don’t* learn* from* that.* It* might* not* again*lead* to* a*prosperous*result.* Thus* Patagonia*needs*people* to* rectify* their* mistakes* and*come*up*with*good*behavior.*4. Support*civil*democracy.*This* is* a* very*impotent*point* for* public* to* lead* a* free* and* fair* life,* it*simply*mean*freedom*of*speech.*If*somebody*wants*to*say*something*publically*he*must*behave*the*

opportunity*and* right* to* say* it.* Patagonia* according* to* this* point* is* actually* teaching*people*to*live*free*and*fair*life.*5. Influence*other*companies.*There* is* a* proverb* in* English* “In*Rome*do* as* Roman”.* Patagonia* here* wants* to* be* a*market*leader*in*behavior.*Patagonia*is*advising*very*subliminally*that*profit*is*not*a*big*thing*it’s*a*complementary*thing*with*b*business*but*the*real*success*is*when*you*utilize*your*business*in*such*a*way*that*people*life*start*and*thinking*gets*high.***Thus* I* would* conclude* that*Patagonia*is* trying* its* best* to* help* the*environment*and*society*of*the*general*public*and*wants*other*business*to*do*the*same.*This*whole*factor*has* provided* Patagonia* a* very* unique* and* distant* place* in* the* market.* Which* has*become*one*of*the*main*factors*of*their*survival*in*the*market?*

I believe that boys and Girls should be taught in the same class

I believe that boys and Girls should be taught in the same class. At school, children are taught to get along with people from other cultures, races, ages, and backgrounds. It teaches acceptance of people’s differences and ways of thinking. Gender shouldn’t be any different. It is important to teach children to respect gender differences and similarities. It’s not like anyone has coodies.
Firstly, girls and boys can influence each other. According to scientific research, most boys are more logical than girls. Most girls are impacted by their emotions when doing things. Girls can learn from boys how to solve problems without overeating. On the other hand, most girls mature faster than boys. Because of that girls can positively influence them.
Secondly, some people may enjoy hanging out with the other gender. For example, a girl may hang out with a group boys more often than other girls. It doesn’t mean she likes the boys, she may just want to get away from all the “girl drama”. Sometimes the other gender can be a really big help. Even though you may think they don’t understand, it could surprise you what they know. If boys and girls were separated, they wouldn’t be able to make that connection.
Lastly, parents want their children to be prepared for the “real world” where men and women aren’t segregated. If boys and girls were taught in separate classes they may see the other gender as separate, strange or different. This will not help children be prepared for the “real world”. They need to be provided with experience for later on in life when both genders work alongside each other in all aspects of jobs and professions.

Our study aimed to explore the Jordanian nurses’ perceptions about the number of recalled medication errors they committed

Our study aimed to explore the Jordanian nurses’ perceptions about the number of recalled medication errors they committed, the frequent perceived causes of medication errors, barriers of reporting medication errors and the percentage of medication errors reporting to the nurse manager.
Nurses have many tasks, roles, and responsibilities, including the process of medication administration, which is considered the most critical responsibility since it is associated with high risks to health status that may occur with medication errors.
The process of medication administration is a multidisciplinary process, in which many professions are involved; the physician decides and prescribes the appropriate medication, the pharmacist dispenses the prescribed medication, and the nurse is responsible for administration of the prescribed medication. Although the process of medication administration is multidisciplinary; the nurse is responsible for the critical role which is maintaining the patient safety.

Technology is considered a huge factor for the influence of internet in our daily life

Technology is considered a huge factor for the influence of internet in our daily life, it is great advantage to our modern generation and most of it really helps in our daily routine to make it easier and save time. Technology is a word we use all of the time According to Wolfe, (2010), the percentage of students learning is high if an information or activity they are seeing with the help of modern technology as a learning tool in the classroom increases the interest of students to listen and stir up their intention. Technology has become and became an essential component of technology users, Information and Communication Technology provides powerful tools for access, storage and dissemination of informationusing the internet.
For information, we can do many things to get different information through various technologies, such as news we can get through radio, television or even our computers, so we also submit resumes to those we like to work, even technology can also help learners because they can use information technology. According to Chen K-Y, Harniss M, Patel S, Johnson K (2014), technology can also be things that are placed in a house or a community like a motion sensor. Devices have been developed that measure movement, completion of tasks, activities of daily living (such as brushing teeth, getting out of bed), and other measures such as heart rate and pulse. When people have this information, they can use it to help make changes and improve their health. This information could be shared with their doctors and other health workers to start conversations about how to live healthier lives. Although many devices are available commercially, projects that look at how these technologies could be used by people with disabilities have mostly been set up in places like university campuses or research labs, so not much is known about the challenges involved in setting up and using these types of technologies in the real world. We wanted to learn more about how easy or hard it might be to set up a system in someone’s home or community.

In communication, there are plenty of different gadgets to use to communicate with their loved ones such as mobile phones used to access social media like Facebook and twitter that allows everyone to be connected, so that people can talk and collaborate with other people using the social media which is power of computer and internet technology. When it comes in business we can use also the internet to gather some available things that we need according to ……… in business internet is the best way to ……………………………………
According to eMarketer Research Company, “by 2017, 65.8 per cent of Britons will use smartphones” New mobile apps such as LINE, WeChat have grown tremendously into ecosystems where hundred of millions of users and businesses can transact with one another.E commerce is a type of business that used the internet, the activity of e commerce is selling and buying online, it allows customer to purchase products anytime and anywhere, online retailers has no inventory it only send customer orders directly to the manufacture. The best thing in online marketers they can offer low price but great product and high efficiency rates. It is also convenience for customers they do not have to leave home it could also help customers buy wider range of products andsave customers time.
There is also called m-commerce which is similarity of e-commerce

A Project Report On “CURRENT MODE BIQUAD FILTER” Submitted to The Department of Electronics Engineering In partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology In Electronics and Communication Engineering By

A
Project Report
On
“CURRENT MODE BIQUAD FILTER”
Submitted to
The Department of Electronics Engineering
In partial fulfilment of requirements for the award of the Degree of
Bachelor of Technology
In Electronics and Communication Engineering

By:
Vishad Saxena (1405231054)
Saurabh Kumar (1405231042)
Under the guidance of
Dr. V. K. Singh
Department of Electronics Engineering
Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lucknow
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University
2017-2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE…………………………………………………………..4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………….5
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………6
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………7
INTRODUCTION
FUNDAMENTALS………………………………………………..8
TYPES OF FILTERS………………………………………………9
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF WORKING…………..10
1.4 WHY WE USE ANALOG FILTERS…………………………….11
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………12
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER MODELS………………………..12
SLEW RATE ……………………………………………………..15
OPERATION AMPLIFIER WITH RESISTIVE FEEDBACK……………………………………………………….16
FIRST ORDER FILTERS
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………18
BILINEAR TRANSFER FUNCTION……………………………18
REALIZATION WITH PASSIVE ELEMENTS…………………20
ACTIVE REALIZATION……………………………………….21
THE EFFECT OF A(s)…………………………………………..23
CASCADE DESIGN…………………………………………….23
SECOND ORDER LOW PASS AND BANDPASS FILTERS
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………..25
SECOND ORDER CRICUIT……………………………………25
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF LOW PASS AND BAND PASS CIRCUITS……………………………………………………….26
INTEGRATORS: THE EFFECT OF A(s) ……………………..28
THE EFFECT OF A(s) IN BIQUAD……………………………29
PROPOSED KHN BIQUAD CIRCUIT
KHN-EQUIVALENT BIQUAD USING CURRENT CONVEYOR…………………………………………………….31
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….31
PROPOSED KHN-EQUIVALENT BIQUAD………………….31
ADVANTAGES…………………………………………………34
KHN-EQUIVALENT PSPICE CIRCUIT SIMULATION……..35
KHN-EQUIVALENT SIMULATION OUTPUT………………35
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………36
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………37
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Project Report entitled “Current Mode Biquad Filter” which is submitted by Vishad Saxena and Saurabh Kumar, students of Electronics Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology Lucknow, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of B.Tech in Department of Electronics, of A.P.J. Abdul Kalam University is a record of the candidate own work carried by the, under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.

Date: Project Guide
Dr. V.K. Singh
(Professor)
Department of Electronics Engineering
Institute of Engineering and Technology
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the department, Presentation and compilation of our work, we are highly indebted to all those people who provided their able guidance and support throughout. We would like to express our gratefulness towards our project guide Dr. V.K. Singh for his continuous encouragement and support, especially through all the obstacles and setback. His dedication, profound insight and attention to details have been true inspiration to my research and my personal life. His technical guidance has facilitated a rich educational experience to us by numerous discussion, valuable advice and direction, encouragement and fair criticism.

We would like to express special thanks to Prof. Subodh Wairya, Head of Department (Electronics Engineering) for giving us the opportunity to undertake project of such class.

We also do not want to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of all lab assistants of the department for their kind assistance and cooperation during the developments of our project. The guidance and support received from our classmates, friends and our M.Tech seniors who contribute to this project, was vital for our successful completion of the report. We are grateful for their constant support and help.

Date:
Signature:
Name:
Roll No: 1405231054
Signature:
Name:
Roll No: 1405231042
ABSTRACT
The proposed KHN biquad filter is better implementation of original KHN biquad filter. It provides better controllability over various parameters. Output fields can be independently controlled by different components. Some resistors can be replaced by FET based voltage control resistor. It also offers ideally infinite input impedance. Based on its state variable structure, several other CC based and OTA based biquads of varying complexity are derivable by exploiting the degrees of freedom in devising and combining the required building blocks.

In this project, Filters and its basic principles and implementation is being studied. Types of filters and their replacement and realisation is being studied. State variables representation and conversion is studied. And with the help of this knowledge, KHN biquad filter is analysed and this circuit is simulated on pSpice software and the result obtained from the practical is verified with its theoretical value.

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 : Two Port Network………………………………………….8
Figure 1.2 : Types of Filters……………………………………………10
Figure 2.1 : Integrator Model…………………………………………..13
Figure 2.2 : Ideal Operational Amplifier………………………………14
Figure 2.3 : Non Inverting Amplifier………………………………….16
Figure 2.4 : Inverting Amplifier……………………………………….17
Figure 3.1 : Passive Voltage Divider to realize Bilinear Function…….21
Figure 3.2 : Inverting Operational Amplifier with impedance in passive feedback network……………………………………………………….22
Figure 3.3 : Active circuit realizing the Bilinear Function…………….23
Figure 3.4 : Cascade Connection on “N” Sections…………………….24
Figure 4.1: Magnitude Response of Lowpass Filter…………………..27
Figure 4.2: Phase Response of Lowpass Filter………………………..27
Figure 4.3: Magnitude Response of Bandpass Filter………………….28
Figure 4.4 Phase Response of Bandpass Filter…………………………28
Figure 5.1: KHN-Equivalent biquad using Opamp and State variable diagram………………………………………………………………….32
Figure 5.2: Proposed KHN- Equivalent Biquad using Current Conveyor………………………………………………………………..34
Figure 5.3: KHN Equivalent Simulation Circuit……………………….35
Figure 5.4: Simulation Output of KHN Equivalent…………………….35
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 FUNDAMENTALS
A filter is a circuit capable of passing (or amplifying) certain frequencies while attenuating other frequencies. Thus, a filter can extract important frequencies from signals that also contain undesirable or irrelevant frequencies.

In the field of electronics, there are many practical applications for filters. Examples include:
Radio communications: Filters enable radio receivers to only “see” the desired signal while rejecting all other signals (assuming that the other signals have different frequency content).

DC power supplies: Filters are used to eliminate undesired high frequencies (i.e., noise) that are present on AC input lines. Additionally, filters are used on a power supply’s output to reduce ripple.

Audio electronics: A crossover network is a network of filters used to channel low-frequency audio to woofers, mid-range frequencies to midrange speakers, and high-frequency sounds to tweeters.

Analog-to-digital conversion: Filters are placed in front of an ADC input to minimize aliasing.

The fundamentals of analogue filter design can be described from a two port network as shown in figure.

Figure1.1: Two port Network
In this, an input voltage V(1) is connected on one side and output voltage V(2) is connected on the other side.The transfer function of this two port network is defined as
(1.1)
The general derivation of transfer function is derived to be as
(1.2)
Where Theta is the phase angle of the I/O voltages.

The magnitude of the transfer function is equal to
(1.3)
1.2 TYPES OF FILTERS
Filters can be placed in one of two categories: passive or active.

Passive filters include only passive components—resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In contrast, active filters use active components, such as op-amps, in addition to resistors and capacitors, but not inductors.

Passive filters are most responsive to a frequency range from roughly 100 Hz to 300 MHz. The limitation on the lower end is a result of the fact that at low frequencies the inductance or capacitance would have to be quite large. The upper-frequency limit is due to the effect of parasitic capacitances and inductances. Careful design practices can extend the use of passive circuits well into the gigahertz range.

Active filters are capable of dealing with very low frequencies (approaching 0 Hz), and they can provide voltage gain (passive filters cannot). Active filters can be used to design high-order filters without the use of inductors; this is important because inductors are problematic in the context of integrated-circuit manufacturing techniques. However, active filters are less suitable for very-high-frequency applications because of amplifier bandwidth limitations. Radio-frequency circuits must often utilize passive filters.

1.3 CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF WORKING
Filters are classified on the basis of functions they are to perform. Over the frequency of filter where |T| = 1 and alpha = 0, that is, signals are transmitted from input to output without attenuation or gain. In a stop band |T| = 0 and alpha = -Infinite, which means that transmission is blocked completely. The patterns of stop band and pass bands that give rise to the most common filters which are shown below

Figure 1.2: Types of Filters
Some of the concepts that define these patterns are:
A low pass filter characteristics one in which the pass band extends from w=0 to w = wc. Where wc is known as the cut-off frequency.

A high pass filter is the complement of the low pass filter in that the frequency range from 0 to wc is the stop band and from wc to infinity is the pass band.

A band pass filter is one in which the frequencies extending from w1 to w2 are passed while signals at all other frequencies are stopped.

The band stop filter is the complement of the band pass filter where signal components at the frequencies from w1 to w2 are stopped and all others are passed. These filters are also sometimes referred to as notch filters because of the “notch” in their transmission characteristics.

In practice, it is not possible to realize the ideal transfer functions shown by solid lines with real filters consisting of a finite number of elements. We shall see throughout our study of filters that for real rational functions of the complex frequency s. A real rational function is a ratio of polynomial in s as shown
(1.4)
1.4 WHY WE USE ANALOG FILTERS
The basic concept of electric filters were developed in 1915 independently by Wagner in Germany and Campbell in United States. In the years since that invention, filter theory have been developed to a high degree of perfection. Implementing economically an active filter, a filter that uses gain, became possible with the invention of the vacuum tube, and the development of feedback theory by Black, Bode and others in early 1930s. The present era of wide use of high quality low-cost discrete analog active filters is due to the development of the inexpensive monolithic IC, filter designers felt pressure to devise techniques that allow the integration of analog filters onto the IC along with digital circuitry .The solution was found in the more recent developments of switched capacitor filters.

Analog active filters always use gain and capacitors .In practical discrete active filters resistors are also used and gain is obtained from the op-amp. In integrated active filters we obtain gain by making use of op-amps or trans-conductance amplifiers, and we utilize capacitors, resistors and at the highest frequencies integrated inductors. To be able to decide which components to use, we must consider factors such as:
The technology desired for the system implementation.

Availability of dc supplies for the active devices, and power consumption.

Cost.

The range of frequency of operation.

The sensitivity to parameter changes and stability.

Weight and size of the implemented circuit.

Noise and dynamic range of the realized filter.

The meaning of several of these criteria will become clear as we progress in our discussion of active filters.
CHAPTER 2
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter we introduce the operational amplifier (opamp), the main device used to provide gain in the design of active filters. The other gain device is the trans-conductor or operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA). It is used mainly in filters for very high frequencies. Since the performance of the active filters depends critically on the opamp, it is very important that we fully understand the behaviour of opamps to be able to undertake successful filter designs. Opamps are relatively complicated electronic circuits, consisting of transistors, resistors and capacitors.

To analyse the behaviour of each filter with complete transistor-level electronic circuit for the vast majority of applications studied. We will also define some simple models like integrator model, the ideal opamp that will allow us to develop circuits very rapidly and to gain preliminary insight into their behaviour under carefully observed conditions.

2.2 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER MODELS
Opamps are differential amplifiers, familiar in modern electronics. They differ from ordinary amplifiers by having two inputs. Their operation is such that the output voltage Vo is the difference between two input voltages multiplied by an overall gain. In terms of voltage defined we have,
(2.1)
Where A is the gain of the opamp. An important property of differential amplifiers is that signals that are common to both inputs are not amplified; the amplifier rejects them. Signal that are common to both inputs are called common mode signals and are rejected by the opamp.

2.1.1 THE INTEGRATOR MODEL
An understanding of the opamp behaviour can be gained from the simple block diagram of the opamp circuit, excluding the bias circuitry and, as we agreed, excluding the power supply. We have included the resistor R to represent the large but finite output resistance of the trans-conductance stage gm. Without having to concern ourselves with the details of the operation of the trans- conductance and amplifier stage A2. The integrator model is shown as follows

Figure 2.1: Integrator Model
Where current is given by
(2.2)
Further note from figure that –A2V1 = Vo. Combining these equations and reordering the terms results in the open loop transfer function of the opamp circuit in previous figure.

(2.3)
And here the frequency is given by
(2.4)
2.1.2 THE IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
We have developed a simple model that will be useful for our work in active filter design. We have seen that the gain is a function of frequency, is very large at dc, and that the opamp has a large input resistance and a small output resistance. Specifically, we define a model with
A = infinity, Ri = Infinity, Ro = Zero

Figure 2.2: Ideal Operational AmpifierThe idealizations of equations rarely cause problems in filter design, and are used quite liberally in most circumstances. It leads to the conclusion that the net input voltage into and ideal opamp must be zero. Property No.4: Zero Noise Contribution n In the ideal op-amp, zero noise voltage is produced internally g This is, any noise at the output must have been at the input as well n Practical op-amp are affected by several noise sources, such as resistive and semiconductor noise g These effects can have considerable effects in low signal-level applications.

Ideal Opamp Properties
1. Infinite Open-Loop Gain: Open-Loop Gain Avol is the gain of the op-amp without positive or negative feedback n In the ideal op-amp Avol is infinite g Typical values range from 20,000 to 200,000 in real devices g
2. Infinite Input Impedance: Input impedance is the ratio of input voltage to input current
Zin = Vin/IinWhen Zin is infinite, the input current Iin=0. High-grade op-amps can have input impedance in the T? range. Some low-grade op-amps, on the other hand, can have mA input currents.

3. Zero Output Impedance: The ideal op-amp acts as a perfect internal voltage source with no internal resistance g This internal resistance is in series with the load, reducing the output voltage available to the load g Real op-amps have output-impedance in the 100-20? range.

4. Zero Noise Contribution: In the ideal op-amp, zero noise voltage is produced internally. This is, any noise at the output must have been at the input as well. Practical op-amp are affected by several noise sources, such as resistive and semiconductor noise. These effects can have considerable effects in low signal-level applications.

5. Zero output Offset: The output offset is the output voltage of an amplifier when both inputs are grounded. The ideal op-amp has zero output offset, but real op-amps have some amount of output offset voltage.

6. Infinite Bandwidth: The ideal op-amp will amplify all signals from DC to the highest AC frequencies. In real opamps, the bandwidth is rather limited. This limitation is specified by the Gain-Bandwidth product (GB), which is equal to the frequency where the amplifier gain becomes unity. Some op-amps, such as the 741 family, have very limited bandwidth of up to a few KHz
7. Differential Inputs Stick Together: In the ideal op-amp, a voltage applied to one input also appears at the other input.

2.3 SLEW RATE
The slew rate of an operational amplifier may be important in many applications.

The op amp slew rate is particularly important parameter in applications where the output is required to switch from one level to another quickly. In these applications the rate at which the op amp can change between the two levels is important.

The slew rate of an op amp or any amplifier circuit is the rate of change in the output voltage caused by a step change on the input. A typical general purpose device may have a slew rate of 10 V / microsecond. This means that when a large step change is placed on the input, the device would be able to provide an output 10 volt change in one microsecond.

The figures for slew rate change are dependent upon the type of operational amplifier being used. Low power op-amps may only have figures of a volt per microsecond, whereas there are fast operational amplifiers capable to providing rates of 1000 V / microsecond.

Op amps may have different slew rates for positive and negative going transitions because of the circuit configuration. They have a complementary output to pull the signal up and down and this means the two sides of the circuit cannot be exactly the same. However it is often assumed that they have reasonably symmetrical performance levels.

Slew Rate = 2*3.14*f*V
Where f = the highest signal frequency of the signal
V = the maximum peak voltage of the signal
It is measured as a voltage change in a given time – typically V / µs or V / ms.2.4 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS WITH RESISTIVE FEEDBACK: Inverting and Non-Inverting Amplifiers
To help us gain an understanding of opamp behaviour, and to appreciate the use of the models we introduced, we study the inverting and the non-inverting gain amplifiers built with opamps. Amplifiers are used to increase the amplitude or the power of a signal. Ideally, this amplification should be performed without the signal source, and the amplified signal should be able to drive arbitrary loads. This implies that no current should be drawn by the amplifier from the source, i.e. the amplifier’s input resistance should be very large, ideally infinite. Being able to drive arbitrary loads in turn implies that the output of the amplifier should appear like an ideal voltage source, i.e. it should have a very small, ideally zero output resistance.
2.4.1 THE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER
Figure shows the opamp placed into a harness made up of 2 resistors. To emphasize that the following discussion is valid for arbitrary signals, lower-case symbols are used. The input V1 is applied to the non-inverting input terminal and a fraction of output voltage is applied (“fed back”) to the inverting input.

Figure 2.3: Non Inverting Amplifier
Solving the equation for V2/V1 gives the gain of the non-inverting amplifier as
(2.5)
Now, if the opamp gain is very large, in the limit infinite (A= infinity) for an ideal opamp, we obtain from previous equation
(2.6)
Thus, we see that the circuit in figure is an amplifier whose positive (non-inverting) gain Kp is determined by two resistors, and is – to the first order, for large gain A – independent of the opamp gain A. By choosing the proper values of the 2 resistors, the gain is determined.

2.4.2 THE INVERTING AMPLIFIER
In this case, both input and output signals are connected through resistors to the inverting opamp input terminal for negative feedback. The circuit is shown in figure below

Figure 2.4: Inverting Amplifier
By calculating the node analysis of the given figure, we can solve for the gain and it is given by
(2.7)
Interpreting this expression proceeds similarly to the discussion following equations. If the opamp gain is very large, in the limiting case infinite (A=infinity), we obtain the following equation
(2.8)
The circuit is an inverting amplifier of gain –Kn. As in the non-inverting amplifier, the gain is set by two chosen resistors. It is (at low frequencies) independent of A, and the minus sign indicates a signal inversion (positive input results in negative output). Again the assumption of an ideal opamp would have permitted us to obtain the result in previous equation immediately.
CHAPTER 3
 
FIRST ORDER FILTERS
 
 3.1 INTRODUCTION
In chapter 2, we considered operational amplifier circuits with purely resistive feedback. Any frequency dependence arose from the operational amplifiers itself. However, since opamps have poorly controlled parameters, we saw that it is generally not advisable to let filter performance be determined by these parameters. We must therefore rely on the opamp to have large gain and make the feedback characteristic H frequency dependent. To accomplish this goal, we will in this chapter extend our studies from chapter 2 by adding capacitor as component to the resistor in the feedback network. Also, since we shall be interested from now on mainly in the frequency response, we shall always assume sinusoidal sources and steady state operation. Although we will remind ourselves from time to time of domain response, the language of filter design is predominantly that of the frequency domain. This means that v(t) and i(t) will be represented by phasors or laplace transforms V(s) and I(s). Earlier, we labelled the ratio of output to input of a circuit the gain. In the following we shall refer to this ratio as the transfer function and design again the symbol T or T(s). We shall also characterize the circuit elements, individual ones or combinations, by their impedances Z(s) = V/I or admittance Y(s) = I/V. This was done on occasion before, when we needed to consider frequency domain concepts, such as the bandwidth of a design.

We pointed out in chapter 1 that the transfer function of a filter with a finite number of discrete components must be a real rational function. Which we repeat here as Eq. 3.1 for convenience:
(3.1)
3.2 BILINEAR TRANSFER FUNCTION
An analog filter is a linear system that has an input and output signal. This system’s primary purpose is to change the frequency response characteristics of the input signal as it moves through the filter. The characteristics of this filter system could be studied in the time domain or the frequency domain. From a systems point of view, the impulse response h(t) could be used to describe the system in the time domain. The impulse response of a system is the output of a system that has had an impulse applied to the input. Of course, many systems would not be able to sustain an infinite spike (the impulse) being applied to the input of the system, but there are ways to determine h(t) without actually applying the impulse.

A filter system can also be described in the frequency domain by using the transfer function H(s). The transfer function of the system can be determined by finding the Laplace transform of h(t). Figure 2.1 indicates that the filter system can be considered either in the time domain or in the frequency domain. However, the transfer function description is the predominant method used in filter design, and we will perform most of our filter design using it. The transfer function H(s) for a filter system can be characterized in a number of ways. As shown in (2.1), H(s) is typically represented as the ratio of two polynomials in s where in this case the numerator polynomial is order m and the denominator is a polynomial of order n. G represents an overall gain constant that can take on any value.

3.2.2 TRANSFER FUNCTION CHARACTERISTICS
The transfer function H(s) for a filter system can be characterized in a number of ways. As shown in (2.1), H(s) is typically represented as the ratio of two polynomials in s where in this case the numerator polynomial is order m and the denominator is a polynomial of order n. G represents an overall gain constant that can take on any value.

center3954300
(3.2)
Alternately, the polynomials can be factored to give a form as shown in (2.2). In this representation, the numerator and denominator polynomials have been separated into first-order factors. The Zs represent the roots of the numerator and are referred to as the zeros of the transfer function. Similarly, the Ps represent the roots of the denominator and are referred to as the poles of the transfer function.

center969800(3.3)
Most of the poles and zeros in filter design will be complex valued and will occur as complex conjugate pairs. In this case, it will be more convenient to represent the transfer function as a ratio of quadratic terms that combine the individual complex conjugate factors as shown in (2.3). The first-order factors that are included will be present only if the numerator or denominator polynomial orders are odd. We will be using this form for most of the analog filter design material.

3607381350800
(3.4)
3.3 REALIZATION WITH PASSIVE ELEMENTS
Let us now contemplate how the bilinear function and its various special cases can be realized with passive elements. To this end consider the voltage divider in figure. It is characterizes by impedances, phasor voltages and currents. This analysis follows well known elementary procedures. If I2 = 0 , we have
V1 = (Z1 + Z2)I and V2 = Z2I
center350520then with Y = 1/ Z,
(3.5)
An equation that could also have been written directly by voltage division. Remembering that we do not wish to use inductors, we can simple use RC circuit in figure with G1 = 1 / R1 we see that
Y1 = G1 + sC1 and Y2 = G2 + sC2
So that the transfer function becomes
259080000Figure 3.1: Passive Voltage divider to realize a bilinear function
centertop
(3.6)
Clearly, it is a bilinear expression with real coefficients as required. If we bring this equation, we see that the zero and pole location in the circuit. Observe that pole and zero have units of 1/time i.e., they are frequencies set by RC time constants. We will find that this will always the case. Also note that pole and zero are on the real negative axis as we predicted as the coefficients of equation are positive and further that we may have z1 ; p1 and z1 ; p1 depending on how the elements values are chosen. Equation given is therefore a relatively general bilinear function with only few restrictions on possible pole zero locations.

3.4 ACTIVE REALIZATIONS
The transfer function we proposed have number of problems that we proposed to solve with the aid of operational amplifiers. To determine the circuit that might provide a solution, we consult chapter 2 and notice that the inverting amplifier may be suitable if we replaced the resistors by impedances. The analysis of the circuit is no different from its resistive version in chapter 2. We sum the currents at the inverting input node of the opamp or for simplicity replace Ri by Zi. The result is
415290127000
(3.7)
center1944139On the right hand side we have used admittances. Y = 1 / Z because in the following as in the case in active filter work, the treatment will be simpler and more transparent if it is based on admittances. Also we have included in equation the effect on the transfer function of finite and frequency dependent opamp gain A(s) to remind ourselves that this is a concern we must address. Initially however we shall assume A = infinite sothat we can focus on the main issues involved in designing first order circuits. Thus we base our treatment on equation and contemplate how the bilinear function of equation can be realized.

Figure 3.2: Inverting Amplifier with impedances in the passive feedback network
The procedure we will follow require that some parts of the prescribed right hand side be assigned to Y1 and Y2. The assignments are not unique resulting in several different design strategies and circuits. Since inductors are excluded we must avoid making the identifications Y = 1 / (sL) or
Z = sL. One of several possibilities that suggests itself is to make the admittances linear functions of frequency.

Y 1= sC1 + G1and Y2 = sC2 + G2
center170064To give
(3.8)
From which we can identify
5793510(3.9)
center456276The circuit is shown in figure 3.3. It is easy to find the components values for a prescribed design.

Figure 3.3: Active circuit realizing the bilinear function
3.5 THE EFFECT OF A(s)
In section 3.4 we assumed that the opamp gain was so large that its influence on transfer function can be neglected. In this section we shall examine how far the gain and bandwidth assumptions are valid for first order opamp circuits. Equation contains explicitly the finite and frequency dependent opamp gain A(s) so that we may examine its effect on transfer function. Since we are dealing with bilinear functions in this chapter we obtain the expression
centertop
(3.10)
3.6 CASCADE DESIGN
The method proposes to connect n lower order building blocks with transfer function T(s) as shown in figure such that the total higher order transfer function is the product of the individual functions.

1962720-47160(3.11)
For this simple method to work, the lower order sections must satisfy certain conditions that we can understand readily by considering the circuit depicted in figure.

center000
Figure 3.4: Cascade connections of n sections
CHAPTER 4
 
SECOND ORDER LOWPASS AND BANDPASS FILTERS
 
4.1 INTRODUCTION
 Second order filters often referred to as biquads are among the most useful circuits when electrical engineers have to solve analog signal processing requirements. Sections of second order can be configured to be universal filters. Cascade connection of biquads are used most frequently when filters of higher order are to be designed. We will discuss in this chapter specifically the second order lowpass and bandpass filters and leave the more general biquads next. We shall start by defining a few basic terms and the notation used by filter designers and we shall than investigate how fundamentally a biquad can be designed to meet arbitrary requirements.

4.2 THE SECOND ORDER CIRCUIT
The transfer function for the lowpass filter derived as in equation was written in a normalized form such that T(j0) = 1 . A more general form for T(s) in active circuits will recognize the possibility of gain and also that the associated circuit may be inverting or non-inverting. Such a transfer function is
226692095760
(4.1)
Normalized frequency Sn = S/Wo.

Result is same as we set Wo = 1 (setting Wo=1 is scaling).

Rewriting the function
2324880135720
(4.2)
In time domain, s is replaced by differential operator, so Laplace transform of second order differential equation is
18669005080
(4.3)
Dividing by s is much easier by which we get the equation for BP, LP ; HP.

2048040-60840(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
4.3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF LOWPASS AND BANDPASS CICUITS
4.3.1 Lowpass Filter
Let us simplify the equation by scaling transfer function by H, as we assume H = 1 and removing the negative sign i.e. non inverting circuit.

226692010080
(4.7)
For this quantity we found that the magnitude is given by
2152800124560
(4.8)
And phase is given by
226764057240
(4.9)
Here,
1381679105480
(4.10)
Similarly for phase
145728057240
(4.11)
Magnitude function of lowpass filter
171132599695
Figure 4.1: Magnitude response of lowpass filter
Phase response of lowpass filter
18243556350
Figure 4.2: Phase response of lowpass filter
4.3.1 Bandpass Filter
The Bandpass function is
2107439104760
(4.12)
And we know
2610360114840
(4.13)
Putting K in Bandpass function
220103966600
(4.14)
We set Wo = 1, Bandpass Magnitude function
217188066600
(4.15)
And Phase
224784019080
(4.16)
Magnitude response of Bandpass function
14020807620
Figure 4.3: Magnitude response of Bandpass filter
Phase Response of Bandpass function
center73660
Figure 4.4: Phase response of Bandpass filter
4.4 INTEGRATORS: THE EFFECT OF A(s)
We know that the biquad was designed on the assumption that the op-amps were ideal. The only effect that frequency dependent op-amp gain can have is to change the performance of integrators from their ideal behaviour. In capacitor, losses are modelled via a resistor RC. A loss capacitor generates a voltage by integrating current in time domain.

224784067320
(4.17)
Or in Laplace domain
2210400104760
(4.18)
On jw axis equation becomes
220968047520
(4.19)
The integration is described as
center13271500

(4.20)
We define the general integrator function F(s) as
7620009461500
(4.21)
4.5 THE EFFECT OF A(s) ON BIQUAD
Effect of A(s) is to make integrator lossy.

244872038880
(4.22)
Q = Error caused by non-ideal op amp and Tau(J) = Integrator time constant.

Q is function of frequency and inversely proportional to op amp gain. q is proportional to square of W hence losses increase with increase in operating frequency.

From behaviour of two integrator loop biquad, we replace ideal integrators +-(1/s) in eqn V2/V1. From BP function,
center-318504(4.23)
Dividing by Tau1 and Tau2 and q=0 for lossless tau(i) normalized = 1, Equation reduces to
2066925151765
(4.24)
And Pole Frequency,
2372400133200
(4.25)
CHAPTER 5
PROPOSED KHN BIQUAD CIRCUIT
5.1 KHN EQUIVALENT BIQUAD USING CURRENT CONVEYOR
A new current conveyor based biquad, equivalent to the well-known KHN circuit is introduced. The proposed circuit employs exactly the same number (five) of Ccs and resistors (six/seven) along with two grounded capacitor as in the two CC biquads recently reported by Soliman. However, in contrast to Soliman’s circuit, the proposed biquad offer several other advantages.

5.2 INTRODUCTION
Recently, Soliman presented two current conveyor base circuits equivalent to the well known Kervin Huelsman Newcomb (KHN) biquad. Both of these circuits employ five Ccs six (or Seven) resistors and realise exactly the same three transfer functions (lowpass, bandpass and highpass) as in the KHN circuit. An advantage of these CC based circuits is the use of two grounded capacitors, a feature not available in the opamp based KHN circuit.

The purpose of this letter is to introduce another CC based KN equivalent biquad, which uses exactly the same number of active and passive components and employs two grounded capacitor as in Soliman’s circuits, but in contrast to these, offers some additional advantages.

5.3 PROPOSED KHN EQUIVALENT BIQUAD
The KHN biquad (reproduced here in figure 5a) is essentially an opamp implementations of the state variable structure shown in figure 5b. The proposed biquad (figure 2) evolves by implementing the inverting integrators by Ccs 1 and 2 (and associated RC elements) and implementing the summer (shown in figure 5 within dotted box) by Ccs 3-5 and resistors R3-R6. Our circuit differs from those of 1 in the manner in which the summer part of the structures of figure 5b has been implemented. It is this difference in the realisation which results in several additional advantages over its predecessors in 1.

Figure 5.1: KHN Biquad and its state variable representation
a KHN biquad
b State-variable representation
The three transfer function realised are given by:
T(LP)(s) = (b1/T1T2)/D(s)
T(LP)(s) = -(sb1/T1)/D(s)
T(HP)(s) = s2b1/D(s)
Where D(s0 = s2 + s(b2/T1) + (b3/T1T2)
The three transfer functions realised by the proposed circuit, which employs all second generation Ccs (CCII), characterised by i(y) = =0, v(x) = v(y), i(z) = +-i, are given by
(5.1) ; (5.2)
And
(5.3)
Where
(5.4)
Note that Soliman achieves equations exactly identical to those of the KHN circuit, by selecting R5 = R, R6 = 2R for the first circuit of 1 and R5 = R6 = R7 = R for the second circuit of 1. Thus without taking these conditions, the resulting transfer function will not be exactly the same as those of the KHN circuit; nevertheless, the circuits of 1 are still valid analogues of the KHN circuit because of the exact duplication of the mechanism of the state variable structure of figure 5b as is our structure of figure 2. The proposed circuit has been formulated in such a manner that no component matching conditions are needed whatsoever, while employing exactly the same number of Ccs, resistors and the two grounded capacitors as in the Soliman circuits 1.

Figure 5.2: Proposed KHN equivalent using CC
5.4 ADAVANTAGES
Advantages over KHN- Equivalent CC biquads of Soliman: The proposed circuit offers the following additional advantages over the structures of Soliman:
The first significant advantage is in respect of the controllability of the various parameters of the realised responses. A careful inspection of the expressions of the structures of Soliman (and hence also those of the circuit of Figure of opamp equivalent) reveals that independent control of the parameters Ho, Qo and Wo is not possible in any of the three responses; at most, a sequential tuning of the parameters Ho, BW and w is feasible only in the case of bandpass response. In comparison, in the biquad presented here, independent control of Ho and Qo is possible in the case of lowpass and highpass responses through separate resistors R5 and R3, respectively, whereas in the case of the bandpass response, Wo can be tuned independently by R2, BW is independently controllable by R3 and finally, the desired midband gain Ho can be independently adjusted by R5.

The structures of Soliman employ 2 grounded capacitors as preferred for integrated circuit implementation. Our circuit also has all the resistors grounded. This is particularly advantageous in facilitating electronic control of the pertinent parameters by replacing appropriate resistors by FET-based voltage control-resistor(s).

Neither structures of Soliman nor the original KHN biquad have infinite input impedance. Our circuit offers ideally infinite input impedance by virtue of the input terminal being the y-terminal of a CC.

5.5 PSpice SIMULATION
The proposed KHN biquad equivalent circuit is implemented and simulated on PSpice software. Theoretical value is calculated and verified with the practical values observed from the simulation. The circuit Diagram of KHN equivalent is shown in figure.

Figure 5.3: KHN Equivalent Simulation Circuit
5.6 PSpice SIMULATION OUTPUT
The circuit above in figure 5.3 is simulated in PSpice software and response of the circuit is shown in figure 5.4. The practical observed value from the circuit response is verified with the theoretical value. Output response of above circuit is given below in figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4: Simulation Output of KHN equivalent
5.7 CONCLUSION
In conclusion, a new formulation of a KHN- equivalent CC biquad is introduced which employs exactly same number of CCs and RC elements and employs 2 grounded capacitors as in circuits of Soliman, but in addition offers three more advantages as outlined above.

Lastly, it should be mentioned that based on the state variable structure of the Fig 5.2 and its other possible variants, several other CC-based or OTA-based biquads of varying complexity are derivable by exploiting the degrees of freedom in devising and combining the required blocks. However, all such alternative structures may not necessarily be equivalent to the KHN Biquad.

REFERENCES
1 SOLIMAN, A.M: ‘Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb circuit using current conveyors’, Electron. Lett., 1994, 30, pp. 2019-2020
2 KERWIN. W., HUELSMAN, L., AND NEWCOMB, R.: ‘State variable synthesis for insensitive integrated circuit transfer functions’ , IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 1967, SC-2, pp. 87-92.

3 R. Senani and V.K. Singh: ‘KHN-equivalent Biquad using Current Conveyors’ ELECTRONICS LETTERS 13th April 1995 Vol.31 No.8
4 Rolf Schaumann and Mac E. Van Valkenburg: ‘DESIGN OF ANALOG FILTERS’, Oxford University Press(2001), ISBN- 0-19-511877-4(cloth)
5 Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith and Adapted by Arun N. Chadorkar:’ Microelectronic CIRCUITS Theory and Applications 6th Edition ‘, Oxford University Press INC, ISBN- 13:978-0-19-808913-1

Relevant Turnover Debate Position in India

Relevant Turnover Debate
Position in India:
The main reason behind the liberalisation of the Indian Economy in 1991 was the creation of wealth. There was an increase in internal competition as the liberalisation brought new investments and global players into the market. With the changing economic scenario, there was a need to regulate and control the markets and the MRTP Act was enacted to curb the growth of monopolies and unfair or restrictive practices that they indulged in. However, it proved to be inadequate and obsolete in certain important aspects, particularly in the light of international economic developments relating to competition law.The Indian Competition Act was, therefore enacted in 2002 to protect and nurture competition in the internal markets in India. The Competition Act, 2002 is a regulatory legislation enacted to maintain free market so that the Adam Smith’s concept of invisible hand operates un-hindered in the background. The act aims to prevent practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and sustain competition in markets, protect interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants.
The Competition Act has created a seven member regulatory and adjudicatory body which is the Competition Commission (‘CCI’) and a three member Competition Appellate Tribunal (‘COMPAT’), chaired by a sitting or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or Judge of the Supreme Court, to hear appeals from orders of the CCI and to adjudicate on claims for compensation. The Act gives the CCI and COMPAT wide discretionary powers to deal with transgressions of the law. The CCI can (i) pass ‘cease and desist’ orders in respect of anti-competitive practices, as well as orders to modify such anti-competitive agreements, (ii) impose heavy monetary penalty (calculated as percentage of turnover or multiple of profit) (iii) impose fines and/ or imprisonment for not complying with an order/direction of the Director General( ‘DG’) and the CCI.
It is observed that competition law does not lay down guidelines on how the CCI should calibrate the amount of penalty/fine to be imposed. The Act, under Section 27(b), only prescribes a ceiling. The penalities imposed by the CCI in most of the recent cases have been questioned and revised by the COMPAT. There is a lot of ambiquity and confusion regarding the penalty to be imposed whether relevant turnover or the total turnover should be considered while calculating the penalty. There is no credible framework for deciding the penalty and we can see it evolve over time. It has been mostly derived from globally accepted benchmarks to decide to the final quantum of the penalty. The rulings of the COMPAT and the Supreme Court will play a crucial role in shaping this framework and install regulatory certainity.

The relevant case laws on imposing penalties and COMPAT modifications of fines imposed by the CCI and the reasons therein are discussed below.

Reduction in CCI- imposed penalty by the COMPAT
In Coal India Limited (CIL) V. Gulf Oil Corporation Ltd (G0CL), Hyderabad
Boycott of Electronic Reverse Action and bid- rigging by the OP’s were found to be in violation of Section 3(3)(b) and (d) by the CCI. It imposed a penalty of three percent of the average turnover of three years, aggregating to Rupees 58.83 crores. Nine- explosive suppliers filed an appeal to the COMPAT. It agreed with the CCI’s order on breach of Section 3(3)(d) but held that the CCI had not considered ‘mitigating circumstances’, The Penalty was then reduced to ten percent of the amount as per the CCI order which was Rupees 5.88 crores.

A Foundation For Common Cause ; People Awareness v PES Installations Pvt. Ltd
The CCI found breach of Sec 3(3)(d) read with Sec 3(1) and imposed a penalty of five percent of turnover on the OP’s. The CCI relied on circumstantial evidence for finding bid-rigging in supply and installation of Modular Operation Theatre (‘MOT’). It also considered the comments of the Central vigilance Commission and the Comptroller & Auditor-General qua these bidders in other contracts. The total penalty aggregated to Rupees 3 crores. On appeal, in MDD Medical Systems India Private Limited v. Foundation for Common Cause & People Awareness, the COMPAT agreed with the CCI findings and agreed that there was breach of Sec 3(3)(d).

But with regard to the punishment the COMPAT observed that the CCI should have considered the aggravating as well as the mitigating circumstances. The COMPAT also considered the fat tat parties were cartelising for the first time and also the MOT worked well during the Delhi Commonwealth Games and gave credit to MDD. But the penalty was reduced to three percent of the turnover which was Rupees 1.81 crores.

In Re: Suo-Moto Case Against LPG Cylinder Manufacturers
The CCI identified and found evidence of caramelisation among few LPG cylinder manufacturers and held them guilty of bid-rigging which is a breach of Section 3(3) read with Section 3(1). A total penalty of Rs. 165.59 crores which is seven percent of the turnover was imposed on them. The COMPAT on an appeal in M/S International Cylinder (P) Ltd. v. Competition Commission of India & Ors agreed that there was a breach of Section 3(3).

Regarding the penalty, the COMPAT observed that ” where a particular concern is a multi-commodity company, the relevant turnover should be considered and not the total turnover”.The COMPAT also noted certain things like, India being a nascent jurisdiction, the companies were first time offenders and also the possibility of industrial activity being choked because of the hefty penalties. These issues were not raised before the CCI and as an exception, it allowed the parties to go back to the CCI with the same arguments and ordered for re-assessment of penalty by the CCI.
After re-consideration, the CCI imposed the same earlier fines and corrected a factual error for one party whose penalty reduced.

Analysis of the orders:
From the above orders, a lot of different approaches between the competition authorities can be found mainly with regard to award of penalty. In some cases, the COMPAT reduced the penalty awarded on the grounds that the CCI had not computed penalty on ‘relevant turnover’ or that the CCI had not considered ‘mitigating circumstances’ etc and in few cases it upheld the findings and the penalty awarded by the CCI.

It can be clearly seen that there is no specific formula or method that emerged from the penalties imposed but have raised certain aspects which are to be noted when imposing punishment. There s no clarity as to if the ‘relevant turnover’ or the ‘total turnover’ should be used. Except the statutory ceiling laid down in the Act, there are no guidelines for the exercise of discretion by the CCI while awarding penalty.

However, the Supreme court delivered a landmark judgment and upheld the principle of “relevant turnover ” for determination of penalties in competition law contraventions and tried to settle this critical issue which was highly debated amongst all stakeholders. The CCI in most of the rulings fined companies on the “total turnover” of companies and this decision will now bind the CCI to limit it to “relevant turnover” only.
An analysis of the case, Excel crop care,
Facts-
The above judgment arised out of a proceeding involving a contravention of Section 3(3) of the Competition Act, 2002 in the public procurement of Aluminium Phosphide (ALP) Tablets by the Food Corporation of India (FCI). The Competition Commission of India (CCI) found a violation of Section 3(3) of the Competition Act and imposed a penalty at the rate of 9% of the total turnover of the concerned ALP manufacturers namely, Excel Corp Care Limited (Excel), United Phosphorus Limited (UPL) and Sandhya Organic Chemicals Private Limited (Sandhya).

The Competition Appellate Tribunal (COMPAT) in its final order upheld the CCI’s order as to the existence of the contravention under the Competition Act. However, it significantly reduced the penalties imposed by the CCI. COMPAT’s modification of penalties was based on the principle that the reference to the term “turnover” in Section 27(b)1 of the Competition Act would, in the facts and circumstances of the case, mean “relevant turnover”, i.e. turnover derived from the sales of goods or services, which are found to be the subject of contravention.

COMPAT’s order was challenged by the CCI before the Supreme Court. CCI contended that the term “turnover” as used in the Competition Act must always be interpreted as “total turnover” of the enterprise in contravention. The CCI contended that the COMPAT had added words to the Competition Act by inserting the word “relevant” before the term “turnover”.

Judgement:
The Supreme Court held that while deciding the issue of penalties, the parameters for imposing penalty should be the “relevant turnover” rather than the “total turnover” of the enterprise. The Supreme court felt that limiting the penalty to “relevant turnover” to be more appropriate considering all the aspects of Competition Act and all other legal provisions which relate to the imposition of penalities. The court also relied upon other relevant principles in the European union, United Kingdom and South Africa. The main factors which were favourable to the ruling that “relevant turnover” rather than “total turnover” should be considered as a basis for imposing fine are,
1) A violation of the Competition Act must relate to an “agreement”, which in turn relates to particular product(s) even when there are other unaffected products, which must not be subject to inequitable treatment;
2) Interpretation which brings out inequitable or absurd results has to be eschewed;
3) If two interpretations are possible, one that leans in favour of infringer has to be adopted on the principle of strict interpretation of penal provisions;
4) It defies common sense to fine companies based on products/services that do not contribute to the infringement;
5) Under the doctrine of proportionality, the penalty cannot be disproportionate and it should not lead to shocking results;
6) Applying the doctrine of “purposive interpretation” the nature of contravention and benefit derived therefrom must form the basis of penalizing; and
7) Section 27 of the Competition Act is aimed at achieving the objective of punishing the offender and acts as deterrent to others. Such a purpose can adequately be served by taking into consideration the relevant turnover.

Analysis:
This judgement gives clarity, certainty and transparency in penalty imposition. This will help in building a framework. This is a big advantage for large multi-product companies where the infringement might be related only to one product. This also lays down that the penalties imposed should not be arbitrary and should in tune with the doctrine of proportionality. It should also consider other factors like mitigating factors and aggravating factors.

Conclusion:
Through various rulings of the COMPAT and Supreme court the CCI’s approach to assessment of penalties will evolve over time. This judgment will play a critical role in shaping this evolution. The discussion of various aspects like the doctrine of proportionality, mitigating and aggravating factors, social and economic aspects will provide framework for determination of penalties. This would help the competition regulatory authorities to build its credibility and install regulatory certainty.

lol

lol: The new language and spelling revolution in instant messaging among social media

Abstract
Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and different types of electronic correspondence seems to have created ”new language” of truncations, acronyms, word mixes, and punctuation. In this naturalistic investigation study, young people gathered their texting conversations for a 1-week period span and afterward finished a spelling test conveyed over texting. We utilized the discussions to create scientific categorization of new language use in texting shortcuts, including abbreviations forms, acronyms, and one of the kind spellings were most predominant in the text discussion, trailed by sober-minded signs, such utilization of emojis, emotion words, and accentuation, and typographical and spelling blunders were moderately phenomenal. With uncommon special cases, outstandingly obvious spelling blunders, spelling capacity was not identified with the utilization of new language in texting. The scientific classification gives a vital device for exploring new language utilize and the outcomes give halfway proof that new language does not harmfully affect ordinarily written language.
Keywords Spelling, Instant messaging,

Introduction
Electronic technologies offer a wide range of chances for written communication. Expanding quantities of individuals are speaking with each other through different technologies, for example, telephone-based text messaging, Internet-based texting, synchronous chatting, offbeat talk gatherings, and email. A large number of these correspondences are intelligent, much like conversation however directed at a separation (regularly both in time and space) and in composed shape. Conceivably to accelerate the open trade (Werry, 1996), communicators have created shortcuts for communicating words, expressions, and feelings and in addition literary and graphical pragmatic devices. These shortcuts and commonsense gadgets have turned out to be so universal in electronic communication that they are currently being collected in lexicons (e.g., Jansen, 2003; Shoeman and Shoeman, 2007; http://www.netlingo.com; http://www. urbandictionary.com).
Electronic communication is extremely popular among youngsters ; as indicated by progressing overviews from the Pew Internet and Family Life venture, by far most of youthful on the planet take part in different types of electronic conversation daily, and instant messaging is a standout amongst the most mainstream types of electronic conversation or social media life for this age . (Lenhart, Madden, and Hitlin, 2005; Lenhart, Madden, Macgill, and Smith, 2007; Lenhart, Rainie, and Lewis, 2001). Texting is a synchronous type of conversation between at least two individuals, (an) utilizing a specific Internet application, for example, Whatsapp, Messenger, Facebook, tweeter inside the online application. Through social networks sites, for example, Facebook or MySpace Instant Messaging. These texting applications commonly open a little window for conversation. Every member in the conversation is distinguished by his or her username and messages are shown in the request in which they are posted. The organization of these wrote messages graphically speaks to turn-taking in a conversation (Grinter, Palen, and Eldridge, 2006; Merchant, 2001).

typing is much slower and more mistake inclined than is speaking (Herring, 1999, 2003); potentially to make up for these issues, individuals communicating through instant messaging have created easy shortcuts to composing full words, such as, l8r for late, or acronyms for normal expressions, for example, brb for be right back (Werry, 1996). Though the emotion is frequently accepted in online messages (Kruger, Epley, Parker, and Ng, 2005), users may have created graphic content and realistic even minded gadgets to help or upgrade conversation functions (Lewis and Fabos, 2005). These texts and pragmatic devices include text or graphic or ”smileys” or emojis to pass on an expressive function of language, or abbreviations, for example, YW for the sentence you are welcome to express a phatic work (Jakobson, 1960). While the media and a few specialists, educators, and guardians (e.g., http://www. oxfordlearning.com/letstalk/messaging versus composing the-issue with-moment message/; Lee, 2002) may decipher the in fact wrong language and spelling ”mistakes” in texting messages erchant, 2001; Spatafora, 2008; Tagliamonte and Denis, 2006) suggested that this phenomenon to contemporary slang, a procedure in the development of the English language. Others (e.g., Crystal, 2006; Davis and Brewer, 1997) go further to recommend the new linguistic structures developed for online communication may produce the formation of ”new media language,” particular from yet integral to traditional written English. as well, this new language may profit understudies as far as empowering innovativeness in The present investigation study concentrated on two goals: our first goal was to investigate the nature of words created in texting Our second goal was to analyze the connections between spelling ability and the using of the new language. Developing a scientific classification of ”new language” used in texting or instant messaging is vital for understanding this distinctive communication medium, observing its development over time, and contrasting instant messaging and different types of PC, and mobiles-intervened communication. To examine our first goal of analyzing the utilization of new language in online chatting, a group of young was selected as participants since this age assembles has grown up with the Internet and is the significant client gathering of instant messaging. Participants gathered a past filled with their texting for a week. We controlled an institutionalized spelling test over a similar texting program to gauge spelling capacity, giving a biologically legitimate measure of online spelling in that the members typed their spelling in light of carefully recorded words. We sorted out the utilization of new language in instant messages into categories to shortcuts and pragmatic devices and checked clear typographical mistakes and incorrect spellings as appeared in Table 1. We started with more broad scientific classifications new language use by individuals in chatting, another sort of synchronous PC based communication that serves unexpected capacities in comparison to texting in the procedure of communication. These scientific classifications included identifying abbreviations, acronyms, letter or number word substitutions, and emojis; our scientific classification, as appeared in Table 1, incorporates these categories and in addition the new language use in those young’s’ instant messaging. As well, we additionally inspected the linguistic context in which the new language terms and characters were utilized Message and their function within the conversation.
To address our second goal of relating spelling capacity with the utilization of new language, we examined connections between spelling capacity and general new language use and in addition, distinctive kinds of new language utilize. If the new language of instant messaging is truly new language genuinely new or a complementary language (e.g., Crystal, 2006; Lewis and Fabos, 2005), at that point we may expect both positive and negative exchange between the two ”languages” (Figueredo, 2006; Sparks, Patton, Ganschow, Humbach, and Javorsky, 2008) in light of interdependencies between the two languages (Cummins, 1979). Great spellers in traditional English may make more noteworthy utilization of new language contrasted with poorer spellers. Then again, in accordance with parental and media concerns, we enrolled those participants who utilized instant messaging all the time to take part. The members spared their texts for a 1-week time frame and afterward, we arbitrarily pick a 100-word sample from each individual to incorporate into our corpus. We additionally mentioned a standardized spelling observation objective fact test to the members over texting. In this manner, we gathered valid instant messages and spelling to analyze the new language utilizing and spelling ability.
Category Example Example in context
Short cuts
Insider word hottie make out with what hottie
Abbreviation feelin how r u feelin?
Prolly you could prolly look them up on the net
Word combination wanna i wanna sign up for the yhl
gonna i am gonna be gone sat and sunday
Acronym bf she has a bf
omg omg that is terrible

Alphabet/letter u what do u wanna talk about?
2day did u go to skool 2day?
Phonetic yer you get yer stuff done tonight?
wat wat u doin?
Lower case I i almost cried
hesham r u talking to hesham?????
Contraction im im so excited
thats thats not cool
Pragmatic devices
Emotion word hahahaha hahahaha okay
Soooooo wow im soooooo nice
Emotion acronym lol lol im not talking to you
omg omg for social we have to do this ..
Upper case THAT Not THAT nervous though.
WASH u might have to actualy WASH that sweater
Emotion punctuation ……….. so i was thinking………..
🙂 🙂 doo it hahah
Errors
Typographical error carzy im too carzy
frwnch just finished studying 4 frwnch
Misspelling embarrassing how embarrasing….
progect it’s for like a psychology progect

Method
Participants
Members were 50 youngsters (23 young ladies and 27 young men) extending in age from 20 to 26 years. The members represented an accommodation sample, that is, they were known by researcher directing the investigation study. Members were better than expected in writing ability, with a mean institutionalized score on the Wide Range observation test.

BIOGRAPHY OF ALBERT EINSTEIN Albert Einstein was a gifted German scientist and mathematician

BIOGRAPHY OF ALBERT EINSTEIN

Albert Einstein was a gifted German scientist and mathematician. He created many theories and equations that had changed the world, such as the very popular, E=mc2 or the quantum theory. Although he is thought of as the smartest person alive, he has not always been this way. In his early years, he has always been curious, thought out of the box, and was very logical. He had been a loner and kept asking questions. However, he had not done well in school, he had once stated, “school has failed me, and I had failed school. The teachers acted like sergeants. I wanted to learn what I did not know, but they wanted me to learn for the exam”.

During Einstein’s early years, he had been born in Ulm the German Empire. His parents had been working class salesman and engineers, Einstein’s family were Jews. When Albert turned 15 the family moved to Italy where his parents encouraged him to be a mechanical engineer. Albert’s reports did not show any sign of this whatsoever even though he had an intelligent brain and was very gifted. Instead, it showed that Albert was not very bright and had

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1. The word ‘bible’ is a Greek word which means ‘the books’.
2. The Bible was written roughly between 1200 and 100 AD.
3. There are 66 books in Protestants Christians Bible.
4. Ethiopian Orthodox Christians recognize 81 books in the Bible.
5. Greek Orthodox Bible has 75 books in the bible.
6. Most parts of Old Testament was written in Hebrew.
7. The New Testament is written in Greek.
8. The complete Bible is translated in around 670 different languages.
9. Bible is most famous and most published book in the world.
10. The New Testament is translated into 1521 languages.
11. Every year approximately 100 million copies of the Bible are sold.
12. Oldest man in the bible is Methuselah, he lived for 969 years.
13. The Bible has more than a single author, it was written by kings, fisherman, prophets, shepherds, poets, farmers, musicians, doctors and many others.
14. There are poetry, legal documents, songs, letters, eyewitness accounts, people stories, historical documents and advice material in Bible.
15. Most Catholics recognize 73 books in the Bible.
16. According to the stories in the bible, Satan killed only 10 people but God killed more than 2,400,000 people.
17. To read the entire Bible, it takes 49 hours, i.e. slightly more than 2 days.
18. Goliath was the tallest man in the Bible; he was 9 and half feet tall.
19. The first English translation of Bible was made in 1382 A.D., by John Wycliffe.
20. The shortest book in the New Testament is 2 John with 13 verses.
21. The longest book in the New Testament is Acts. It has 28 chapters.
22. Women, old people are the most maximum readers of the Bible.
23. Noah built the ark to protect family and animals to survive the flood, and he was 600 years old when he made an ark.
24. According to Bible Jesus lived on the earth for forty days after his supernatural resurrection.
25. The longest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119.
26. The shortest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 117.
27. The bible is the most shoplifted book.
28. The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9.
29. There are total 1189 numbers of Chapters in the Bible.
30. There are two men in the Bible who were taken up to heaven by God, without dying. They are Elijah and Enoch,
31. There is a description in Bible that after Crucifixion of Jesus, many saints rose from dead and were seen by people.
32. China is world’s largest producer of Bibles.
33. The words: “Do not be afraid” appear 365 times in the Bible.
34. Total number of Chapters in the Old Testament is929.
35. There are 260 Chapters in the New Testament.
36. The word “Christian” appears only 3 times in the Bible.
37. “Mahershalalhashbaz” is the longest word in the Bible.
38. “Amen” is the last word in the Bible.
39. Bible has 100 positive statements about the right hand.
40. There are no original texts of the bible.
41. The Old Testament was written in 1000 of years but New Testament was written in a period of 50-75 years.
42. There are many songs lyrics that are inspired by Bible.
43. As bible is offered for free in hotels and worship places it is the most commonly stolen book in the world.
44. After the death of Bob Marley, he was buried with his guitar, a Bible and stalk of marijuana.
45. There is no phrase in Bible like ‘God never gives you more than you can handle’ but the opposite is said in the bible.
46. Solomon was the wisest man in the Bible.
47. Jehovah’s Witnesses don’t celebrate holidays and birthdays.
48. Swearing on the Bible is forbidden by the Bible.
49. 7, 12 and 40 are the numbers the bible repeatedly repeats.
50. The most highlighted or read Kindle books are The Bible, Steve Jobs’ bio, and the Hunger Games.
51. Having Bibles, watching South Korean movies and distributing pornography in North Korea may be punished with death.
52. Dominican Republic flag has the bible on it.
53. In Bible, there is no physical description of Jesus.
54. In 1631, two London Bible printers accidentally left the word “not” out of the seventh commandment, which then read, “Thou shalt commit adultery.”
55. In the Bible, ‘666’ number is a sign of the beast.
56. There are plenty of puns, funny names, humorous imagery, sarcasm and irony in Bible.
57. In the bible, there is no mention of three wise men, just three gifts.
58. Bible states that the Earth is free floating in the space.
59. In the Bible, God sends 2 bears to murder 42 children because they had mocked the bald man.
60. The Old Testament has more than 60 passages; Christians believe its prophecies of Jesus.
61. There is mention of unicorns in Bible.
62. In Bible the greatest warrior was Gideon, he defeated 135,000 Midianites with the help of God.
63. According to Bible, Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines.
64. There is a description in Bible that earth is round.
65. There are around 2,500 prophecies in Bible.
66. “Jesus wept” is the shortest verse in the bible.
67. There are total 31,173 Verses in the Bible.
68. Most scholars believe that Jesus never viewed himself as creating a new religion per se, just reforming Judaism.
69. Jesus had several sisters and brothers, names of sisters are not named in the Bible.
70. The Bible contains around 774,000 words.

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