Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide

Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the sequent loss of liver function is a critical clinical challenge. There are many different types of liver disease, which can be broadly grouped into three categories: chronic liver disease caused by metabolic dysfunction, acute liver failure that does not damage normal tissue structure, however is related to direct injury and rapid deterioration of hepatic function. Also, chronic liver failure that is associated with widespread tissue damage and scar-based remodeling, which can eventually lead to end-stage cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma 1.
Hepatic damage can be induced by several factors including viral infection (hepatitis B and C), alcohol abuse, autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiopathies. Also accelerated liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with obesity rates. This situation can cause chronic hepatic inflammation and deregulated wound healing process in the liver, which, if prolonged, can lead to fibrosis 2.
1. Hepatic fibrosis
Hepatic fibrosis is the main complication of chronic liver failure and characterized by the excessive accumulation of an altered extracellular matrix, that is extremely rich in type I and III collagens. Deposition of scar tissue results from a wound healing response that occurs to maintain liver integrity after several insults from various biochemical metabolites 3. However, the continuous unbalanced synthesis of matrix protein and degradation leads to an incomplete matrix remodeling and irreversible cirrhosis 4.
Cirrhosis is a late stage condition in which the architecture of the liver becomes abnormal, the function of hepatocytes is reduced, and the hepatic blood ?ow is altered due to vascularized ?brotic septa surrounding regenerating nodules. Liver cirrhosis results in multiple complications such as coagulation defect and portal hypertension, including ascites, variceal bleeding, renal failure, hepatic encephalopathy, bacterial peritonitis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma 3.
2. Architecture of the normal liver
2.1. Anatomy
The liver is the heaviest visceral organ in the body, expressing 2–5% of body weight and exhibits an iterative, multicellular architecture. The organ is divided into four lobes; yet, the liver lobule represents its functional units.
Each lobule is composed of hexagonal cords of hepatocytes arranged around a central vein that drain into the large hepatic vein. The corners of the hexagon constitute the portal triad consisting of a portal vein, hepatic artery and biliary duct (Figure 1-A). Within a lobule, two afferent vessels supply hepatic blood: the hepatic artery and the portal vein, and flows in specialized sinusoidal vessels towards the central vein 1.
The hepatic sinusoid is a complex vascular channel built from specialized fenestrated endothelial cells of the liver also it is the residence of the hepatic macrophages named Kupffer cells. Stellate cells are located in the sub-endothelial space known as the space of Disse that separates the hepatocyte cords from the blood and the sinusoids (Figure 1-B). Bile, that is produced and excreted by hepatocytes into the bile canaliculi, flows in the opposite direction to sinusoidal blood flow towards the intrahepatic bile duct, which is lined by epithelial cells called cholangiocytes 5.
2.2. Function
The liver exhibits many functions in the body, including filtration and volume regulation of the blood, endocrine control of growth signaling pathways and biliary excretion (bile salts and bicarbonate) that facilitates digestion of fats and lipids 1. The liver also provides immune system support, detoxifies chemicals such as xenobiotics, and metabolizes drugs and macronutrient supplying the body with the needed energy.
Carbohydrate storage as glycogen and glucose manufacture via the gluconeogenic pathway is the most critical liver function, in addition to cholesterol homeostasis, lipids oxidation, and storage of excess lipid in other tissues, such as adipose. Finally, the liver is a major producer of the proteins secreted in the blood, their conversion into amino acids, and removal of nitrogen in the form of urea metabolism 6.
2.3. Cells within the Liver
There are four major cell types that play different roles in order to allow the proper functioning of the liver.

One social category I believe is socially constructed is money

One social category I believe is socially constructed is money. The money would not exist without human interaction. We wouldn’t know how much money was worth or how it would look or how to really use it. Money only has a value to us at all because society recognizes it as so. We would just automatically assume that $20 is worth that amount when it could be worthless in some countries because that is what it is put as an image. Money could just be a piece of paper and we wouldn’t know it. The fact of the matter, our coins are not worth what they cost. Also, the paper bills and coins are just paper and metal which conclude that the money in our bank accounts is just numbers.
I do believe money is identified as social inequalities in society today. You must be in a certain group to advance a better opportunity to move up the ladder. There is certainly a person to have a positive outcome if he or she put themselves in a position to be noticeable by having a higher education level with the possibilities of changing the social class status. I feel as long social inequalities continue all the hardworking people will never have an equal opportunity. This will have to work that much harder just to survive.

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA KAMPUS PUNCAK ALAM FACULTY OF ACCOUNTING MGT 400- INTRODUCTION OF MANAGEMENT TITLE

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
KAMPUS PUNCAK ALAM
FACULTY OF ACCOUNTING
MGT 400- INTRODUCTION OF MANAGEMENT
TITLE: VIVY YUSOF AS A LEADER IN FASHION VALET AND THE DUCKGROUP
PREPARED BY:
NUR DINAH MARDIAH BITI MAD NAZIR
2018201224
AC2201A
PREPARED FOR:
NOR INTAN SHAMIMI ABDUL AZIZ
Date of Submission: 19 October 2018
1.0 INTODUCTION

Leader are very important position in the organization. Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. They must capable of understanding and figuring what will happen in the future
The leader that I admire most is Vivy Yusof or her full name Vivy Sofinas Yusof. Vivy Yusof`s position in her organisation is the co-founder and Chief Creative Officer and her organisation named is FashionValet and The duckGroup. Co-founder is a person involve in the invention of the entity meanwhile chief creative officer create their brand and communicate with their audience. She runs Fashion Valet with his husband Fadzaruddin Anuar who holds the Chief Executive Officer position in the company. Both the founders got married in 2012, and they have three kids. Vivy is a blogger, fashion icon, influencer and an important person in Malaysian online business world. Vivy who was born in Kajang, Selangor and her currently age is 30 years old. She was a law graduate from London School of Economics and does not have a background in business and zero in the world of fashion but she loves fashion. After she graduating university and returning to Malaysia, she realised that e-commerce was non-existent at Malaysia back in 2010. So she and her husband, started Fashion Valet (FV) in November 2010, a fashion, e-commerce site that brings homegrown, high-end designers closer to consumers.

From a RM100, 000 capital, 10 local designers and a staff of 20 she started her FV. After two years on the relatively new e-commerce scene, they participated and won MYEG Make The Pitch Season 2, a nationwide TV programme, in 2012. However now Vivy and has hundreds employees and more than 500 brands from Southeast Asia. FashionValet focus on the market in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Australia and the United Kingdom.

Other than FV, The duckGroup also under Vivy Yusof. This product growing in advance in the shortest time. From the scarves, they produce stationeries, home and living, cosmetics and the latest is bags.

2.0 ROLES OF MANAGERS
Henry Mintzberg argued that there are ten primary roles or manner that can be used to categorize a manager’s different functions. The role is a relevant behavior and in line with the position held. He could classes management work into ten roles, grouped into three categories which is interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. 
2.1 Interpersonal Roles
Interpersonal roles appear directly from manager’s formal authority and status, and involve relationships with other people both in and out of the organisation. The tree interpersonal roles played by the manager are figurehead, leader, and liaison.
A manager has to perform some duties as a figurehead. They are the public face of the management team and represent the business in legal, economic, and social forums to those internal and external of the organization and it depends on her position in the organizational structure. For example Vivy Yusof always attending the launching new brand in FV at their outlet. Vivy Yusof also one of the sponsor, mentors and judges in Astro programme Generasi Fashion ‘GenF’. She also receive a lot award like Bella Business Award 2013.
The second role in interpersonal roles is leader. Responsible for the motivation and activation of subordinates which is responsible for staffing, training and associated duties. Also responsible for the success or failure of their organizational units or the organization overall. For Vivy Yusof as a leader, she always support her subordinate with appreciate all their work as simple as “good job” besides she guiding her subordinate. To increase productivity of FV employees, Vivy Yusof provides a very comfortable office atmosphere as we can see at Vivy Yusof vlog on YouTube.

Finally, leaders serve as liaisons. That is, they coordinate the activities between individuals and work groups is on the track or not. Managers must communicate with internal and external contacts. Leader need to be able to network effectively on behalf of your organization. Vivy Yusof is a very easy to approach with anyone. She is very committed in her job, when she off day because she just gave birth to her third child but she still give comitment on job which is she comunicated with her employees using skype while meeting at office.
2.2 Informational Roles
All managers are required to perform informational roles. They have to collect information from organizations and institutions outside their own. Managers also play the role of distributors when they provide information to subordinates in the organization. Responsible for ensuring that the people with whom they work have sufficient information to do their jobs effectively. The tree informational roles played by the manager are monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.
As a monitor the manager gathers all internal and external information that is relevant to the organization. Manager also responsible for arranging, analysing and assessing this information so that he can easily identify problems and opportunities and identify changes. For example, vivy yusof always get information about acceptance or criticism about her product from customer from media social so she can plan something to upgrade her product quality.
Disseminator role under which the manager transmits and propagate special information into the organization by his work through reports and letters. This is where manager communicate potentially useful information to colleagues and team. For example, Vivy Yusof will inform the sales target to sales supervisor through memo for certain period.
Spokesperson is managers represent and speak for their organization. In this role manager responsible for transmitting information about organization such as corporate policies, performance and other relevant information and its goals to for external parties. For an instance when she started the business she won the first price which is got 1 million investment from investor from myEG Services Bhd on television programme, Make The Pitch. In this programme she and her husband which is her co-founder in FV present about their idea on FV to the judges that assessing their company’s ability to the next level.

2.3 Decisional roles
Managers are responsible for decision-making and they can do this in different ways at different levels. The leadership style is important in decision-making. Decisional roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.
As an entrepreneur, serves as a pioneer, designer and encouragement to change and innovation. Vivy Yusof always have new creative idea to their company such as in The duckGroup she always produce a new product which is from scarves to stationeries, home and living and the latest is produce bags on The duckGroup brands.

Disturbance handler is the manager will always immediately respond to unexpected events and operational breakdowns to be resolve. For example, when someone not responsible has aggravate on her company that causing adverse effect on the sale of its product so Vivy Yusof will fix it with do a press conference.

In resource allocator, the manager controls and authorizes the use of organizational resources. For example, as a chief creative officer she organized the source of funding to each department because she able to develop suitable budgets for producing new product or project.

As a negotiator manager responsible for representing the organisation at major negotiations. For example, to produced product such as The duckGroup handbags, she as chief creative officer responsible to take part in and direct, crucial negotiations within FV employee.

3.0 Managerial skill
Managerial skills are what the manager uses to assist the organization in accomplishing its goals. Managerial skills are technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills.
Technical skills are knowledge of and ability in activities involving methods, processes, and procedures. Also help top management to formulate policies and objectives. For example, vivy yusof help the employee at warehouse packing the parcel to customer.

Human skills is the ability of working with people, individually and in a group. The ability to communicate with various groups of people or society. Managers with good human skills can create an environment where people feel secure and free to express the view.

Conceptual skills present knowledge or ability of a manager for more abstract thinking. That means can easily see the whole through analysis and diagnosis of different states. For example Vivy Yusof sets the company’s objective because she has a wider idea about company development.

3.0 Function of Management Can Help Leader Manage Their Organization Effectively.

The four function known as planning, organizing, leader and controlling. Planning is the process in which the leader set the goals to be achieved and decide the most right action to take at whole levels of the organization to arvhive their goals. With the planning of activities, the business can be implemented very smoothly. For example, Vivy Yusof has an objective of increasing sales for a certain period. She and her team do some brainstorming to mapping about the plan to up the selling such as do the collaboration with popular celebrity, or increasing advertisement in all platform which is media social or television platform. So to increase the sale they may follow that plan.

Organizing is the process by which leader arrange and spread organizational resources to carry out assigned tasks in order to achieve organizational objective. For example Vivy Yusof will provide direction to each department to do the work that can archive the goals.
Leadership is a leader try to influence the manner of employees so that they can do their task effectively and easily to achieve organizational goal. For example, Vivy Yusof will affecting her employees with do their work together and guide them to the right plans so that the objective will archive.

The lastly is controlling. Controlling is the leader supervise the current performance and takes corrective operation to ensure that the objective archive. For example, Vivy Yusof will make sure the quality material for each brands is under her control to avoid anything problem in future.

In conclusion, function of management are very helpful to leader in managing the company. A project can be run smoothly and constantly with a less mistake. So the organization objective can archive.

REFERENCES
The Mind Tools Content Team (2018) Mintzberg’s Management Roles, MindTools https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/management-roles.htm
Michelle Goh(2017) Things We Can Learn From Vivy Yusof, theAsianparent Malaysia

Things we can learn from Vivy Yusof


Qistina-Hajar-Emi(2016) Biography of Vivy Yusof, the Superwoman, What an Entrepreneur
http://whatanentrepreneuris.blogspot.com/2016/04/biography-of-vivy-yusof-superwoman.html
David Boddy (2005) Henry Mintzberg- ten management roles Management An Introduction 2nd edition page 21 to 23

2

2.8. An over view of children migration and trafficking in Ethiopia
Children under the age of 18 comprised close to half of the Ethiopian population, which was estimated to be 72.4 million in 2004 (UN, 2004).
According to CSA’s the 2007 population and housing census of Ethiopia, results for SNNPR, Gamo Gofa Zone and Chancha woreda, Children under the age of 19 in comprised more than half of the Region’s population, which is 8,164317 accounting about 59.1%, 852,730 / accounting about 58% and 55,699 /accounting 53.54% of the total population of geographical areas respectively.
Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in the world. On account of different human development indicators, Ethiopia is ranked 169th out of 175 countries. During the period between 1990 and 2001, 81.9 percent of the population was living under 1 USD a day, and 44 percent of the population was living under the national poverty line (UNDP, 2003).
Agriculture, which is the largest sector in the country, is not developed. The main reasons for the poor performance of agriculture include insecurity of land tenure, diminishing size of farm plots, and lack of sufficient investment in the rural economy by government and the private sector (Desalegn&Aklilu, 1999)
The role of resource constrain as a hurdle to child right promotion is partly reflected in the failure or ineffective functioning of social services such as health and education, which is illustrated in the high malnutrition rates, high illiteracy figures, and the spread of HIV/AIDS, which has taken epidemic proportions.
According to Save the Children, the country has the lowest percentage of social services amongst poor countries (SC, 2001).
Trafficking occurred both internally, from rural parts of the country to cities, and abroad for the purpose of domestic work, agriculture, trading, sexual exploitation, and for petty crimes like begging. Adults, too, are trafficked for various reasons within and outside of the country (Aronowitz 2009: 80).
A research report by UNICEF (2000) revealed that the stiff demand of labor from children triggered children migration from rural parts of Ethiopia to the urban towns. ESRC Research Group (2006) even more confirmed that the exploitative nature of child labor forced the situation of child migration chronic in Ethiopia. The clear visualizations from diversified sources show that the problem is more persistent in Ethiopia from rural-urban and urban–urban than rural-rural and urban–rural pattern increased due to construction work opportunities in urban areas. (Pankhurst, 2005; ESRC Research Group on the Well being of Developing Countries, 2006). Child migration may occurs since there are ”pushing factors” such as the absence of occupational opportunities in the rural areas, and; prevalence of famine, drought, and conflict. (Gebre; Ezra cited in Menberu, 2006; Forum on Street Children, 2004).
Forum on Street Children Ethiopia (2004) augmented as child migration from rural to urban areas is evident since individuals tend to look for the gleaming city life. Moreover, young children migrate from rural areas of Ethiopia to the urban areas in order to avail educational access. (ESRC Research Group, 2006).
According to FSCE (2008), every year children are trafficked in large numbers particularly from Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional States to Addis Ababa. FSCE further disclosed that, the statistical information obtained for about four consecutive years (2004-2007) shows that domestic child trafficking is dramatically increasing. From 2004-2007 a total of 2243 children were trafficked from rural areas to Addis Ababa. The data also shows that every year, children are trafficked in large numbers particularly from Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional States to Addis Ababa (FSCE, 2008). A baseline study conducted by MCDP on Child Trafficking in ChenchaWoreda of GamogofaZone, revealed that male children are mainly trafficked from this location for the purpose of engaging them on weaving activities (MCDP, 2004).
The study conducted by IOM (2006) on Trafficking in women and children in Ethiopia also depicted that, every day, large number of children and young girls flock from various corners of the rural areas to the major cities either forced or deceived by traffickers and their close relatives. It was inspired from the study that the trends of trafficking in children from rural areas of Amhara Regional State to Addis Ababa and or the regional towns mainly for the purpose of prostitution and domestic works. Another route was identified form Gamogofa Zone of the Southern Region Nation Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, through which boys are trafficked for the purpose of engaging them in the traditional weaving industry.
A clear psychological investigation conducted by different scholars in Ethiopia uncovered some facts regarding children’s problems whether trafficking, migration etc may be a reflection of an authoritarian cultural orientation; and several activities, and decisions containing the specific child bearing (Ehetu cited in Belay Tefera, 2006) to ways of child rearing (Abraham; Habtamu quoted by Belay Tefera, 2006) are adult-centered and fulfill the interest of adults than children.In Ethiopia, most parents continue breading as many children as they can (Assefa;Dilnessaw cited in Belay Tefera, 2006) without sufficient source of revenue since children by per se are capable of making money, and which they are considered as the properties of their parents whenever they could be exploited (Eheteu quoted by Belay Tefera, 2006).CSA Ethiopia (2005) even revealed many of Ethiopia parents tend to have more than 8 children per a woman that may facilitate the situation for child labor exploitation, trafficking , migration and any form of maltreatment.
UNICEF (2007) has identified poverty, large family size, rapid urbanization among others as the major factor why many children are vulnerable to trafficking. Parents with large family are often prone to those traffickers deceit in giving away some of their children to city residents or even strangers promising a better life for them. Trafficking deprives child victims the privilege to exercise their wide range of rights, including the right to belong and identify, the right to freedom, education among others. ANPPCAN(2010).
The United Nations General Assembly (1990) attempted to indicate the causes of migration comprehensively. The agency claimed that migration has tremendous etiologies, and usually explained as due to interdependent factors like that of deficiencies in the economic, social and cultural dimensions.There are other specific factors that may cause child migration and trafficking. For instance, death of parents.(De Lang, 2007; Forum on Street Children Ethiopia, 2003); physical abuse by parents/guardians.(Forum on Street Children Ethiopia, 2004; Habtamu, 2006).Experiences from America and Western societies reveal that urbanization and industrialization increase the demand for cheap labor. In the 19th Century, this resulted in requirement for child labor in the cities of Europe and North America. This is paralleled today by the high demand for child labor in the manufacturing industries in India and other South Asian countries, particularly in the informal, unregulated sector of the economy (Dottridge, 2006). Such trends are also reflective in Ethiopia since children get in to trafficking from the southern part of Ethiopia; for example, from Chencha district to Addis Ababa for weaving, whereas from Wolaita areas to Arsi and Bale to take part in farming activity and herding. (Endashaw, et al., 2006).

2.9 Conclusion
The vast majority of human trafficking studies in Ethiopia deal with the misery which Ethiopian victims of human trafficking experience in the destination areas. Majority of the studies focus on the life experiences, recruitment process, and expectation of those returned victims of human trafficking. There is lack of research in Ethiopia on the factors that affecting child trafficking face in the home or village and trafficking process, on the trafficking trajectories of victims, and on the operation and networks of traffickers. As a result there is a limited understanding of the factors that affecting child trafficking and trafficking trajectories of child trafficking victims in Ethiopia. There is also a poor understanding of the networks of traffickers and their modes of operation. In general the current state of knowledge about child trafficking in Ethiopia is poor and insufficient.
Overall, overviews of the available studies show that there is lack of any comprehensive research carried out in relation to all aspects of child trafficking in Ethiopia. The majority of information available in this area is focused on the exploitation and life experiences of victims, their expectations before migration, and the prospects and challenges of work migration. These studiesmay not accurately reflect the trafficking trajectories of victims and the problems they face before and in the trafficking process; and the networks and modes of operation of traffickers.

NAME

NAME: MUHAMMAD IQBAL
ROLL NO: 36
CLASS: M. Phil (Applied linguistics)
SEMESTER: 2nd
TOPIC
USE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT TO IMPROVE NARRATIVE WRITING SKILLS OF STUDENTS AT MIDDLE LEVEL
CONTENTS
CHAPTER #1
INTRODUCTION
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
NARRATIVE WRITING AND FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
AIM OF THE STUDY
HYPOTHESIS
RESEARCH BENEFITS
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
CHAPTER# 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
FEEDBACK
STUDENT MOTIVATION
SELF-REGULATION
CHAPTER#3
EXAMPLES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR THE TEACHERS
TECHNIQUES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
DEBATES
ROLE PLAY
MINI CASES
THINK-PAIR-SHARE
MINUTE PAPERS
FORMATIVE QUIZZES
CHAPTER#4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE SCHEDULE
RESEARCH TOOLS
POPULATION
SAMPLE
CHAPTER# 5
DATA ANALSYS
INSTRUCTIONS
WRITING TASKS
TOPIC
NARRATIVE WRITING PROGRESS CHART
CHAT REPRESENTING THE PROGRESS
TABLE 1
RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS AFTER PRETEST
POST TEST RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS
CHAPTER# 6
CONCLUSIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS
WRAPPING UP
REFERENCES
CHAPETER# 1
INTRODUCTION
Traditionally, summative assessment was the tool for the assessment of the students. So assessments in the class were done to make decisions of the performance of the students to reward them on the bases of measuring, testing and counting.
As a result, the learning of the students was based on getting good grades or marks in the exams. This method of assessing the students was not helpful for the learners as it provided no means of improvement in the course that they were undertaking to improve the English language. They could complete the course but they had no idea how well they have done it during the course.

Formative assessment therefore can be of great importance if it is part of the learning and teaching process for the teachers and the students to enhance the performance.

In this research I will provide a definition for the term formative assessment and its application before- during and after instruction of students at middle level.

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
The term formative assessment has been defined by many researchers as Irons (2008) and Clark (2008) as the ongoing process that continuously gathers information about learning abilities and teaching effectiveness. It is, also, described by Greenstein (2010) as a “systematic way for teachers and students to gather evidence of learning, engage students in assessment, and use data to improve teaching and learning”.

Formative assessment is often referred to as assessment for learning to mean the process by which both students and teachers are engaged in. Thus, it is all about collecting data about students’ learning in order to identify their development of skills, needs, and abilities as their strengths and weaknesses before, during and after the instructional course for the purpose of improving student’s achievement and learning.
Furthermore, the term has been described by Bloxham and Boyd (2007) as “any activity during a module which provides information to students and tutors on their progress” (p.52). In other words, formative assessment is used to provide feedback to students on how well they are progressing and learning. Consequently, formative assessment is used to inform both teachers and students about the successfulness of teaching and learning processes.

NARRATIVE WRITING AND FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
Language skill can be improved efficiently by doing writing practice. As we know that checking and marking the papers is very much time taking process, so it is not easy to provide rapid and proper feedback to the students in time who are involved in learning.
This research article will explain the development it use and the results that will be drawn from the students of middle school level after the implementation of formative assessment by the teachers to improve the narrative writing skills of the learners for English essays. The teacher will assess the students and his teaching techniques for narrative writing skills and will provide the feedback to the learners about grammar, content, and organization of the topic that the learner is undertaking. The students will also be provided with the support to plan the lesson and revision also with some writing tasks that are shown to the students. Narrative writing can be improved after doing a lot of practice of reading and writing skills of English language and proper feedback given in time is very important. Any written task that is completed in time shows good performance. Few researches have been done that show that formative writing practices have been improved by the help of formative assessment.
Reading Next (Biancarosa and Snow, 2004), Writing Next (Graham and Perin, 2007), Writing to Read (Graham and Hebert, 2010), and Informing Writing (Graham, Harris & Hebert, 2011), these show some practices which were applied in formative writing to improve the learning of the students. A number practices are done to improve the narrative writing of the students. They include:
Teaching the students learning strategies
Planning, revise and editing the composition by the teacher

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As formative assessment is the input of the teachers on everyday bases and its student’s everyday out as well. The role of the teachers is to provide a positive feedback to the students which is very much important for the students to improve the narrative skills and also to control the mistakes they do and to over them. As for as students are concerned, narrative writing task is very difficult for them to represent because narrative writing needs a lot of practice and techniques to get fully command in it. So the teachers must guide the students to give full attention to the feedback that is given to them and they must have record of it in order to improve the narrative writing tasks and to overcome the deficiencies.

So in this research article i will show the importance of formative assessment on the student’s progress but main emphasis will be on enhancing narrative skills of the students. On the other hand I will also show that the role of the teachers is very much important in developing the narrative writing skills of the students by different approaches and strategies by which the students will give effective response and results.

For this reason my research work will be based on these research questions:
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Does formative assessment have positive effect in enhancing student’s narrative writing skill at middle level?
What is the teacher’s role in developing students’ narrative writing proficiency?
AIM OF THE STUDY
The most important objective of this research is to find out the effectiveness of the formative assessment on the narrative writing skills of the students. In this research I will also show the important role of the teacher which is very important for the narrative writing process and for the help of the students to develop their narrative writing skills.

More important is that this research will provide good approach and knowledge about the importance of formative assessment and feedback that can be helpful in their teaching.

HYPOTHESIS
To find out the answer of my research questions I have hypostasized:
The narrative writing skills of the students at middle level can be improved if the teachers provide them with efficient formative assessment with proper feedback.

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research article is to equip the teachers and students at middle level a comprehensive theory and the practice that based on the effects which are positive and very effective after the implementation of the formative assessment in the process improving of narrative writing skills.
This research article will be benefited by two groups
Firstly it will help the teachers to get deeper understanding of their students and their needs during the learning process and the mistakes they make while learning. It will also help the teachers to know the learning styles of their students.

In this way the teachers will be able have comprehensible methodological adjustments for the effectiveness of the teaching process and they will be able to guide the students about the narrative writing tasks in order to achieve the required goals and good performance in the designed course for the students.

Secondly, it will be helpful the students who have interest in the improvement of the narrative writing skills. This research will help the students to know their capabilities about the narrative writing skills and the deficiencies and the abilities that they have for the improvement.

Research benefits
 
If the formative assessment is implemented properly at middle level it will bring some benefits:
Learning goals will be defined
Firmness in the learning process
Academic achievement will be improved
Students motivation level will be increased
There will be an increase in the students engagement with the process of learning
Learning from the personal experiences will be improved
The students will become self regulated
Decisions will be made on the bases of the data that is drawn

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The best example of formative assessment is given by Wiliam(2011) who thinks that the objective of formative assessment is to mention the formative nature of the learning and teaching.

The achievement of the students will be elicited, interpreted, and used by the students or with their fellows then an assessment will function formatively to make the further decisions and the steps to make for the betterment of the learners and students.

Basically formative assessment is not formative by design. It depends how formative assessment is used for the learners and the teachers.

The basic practice is that teachers use summative assessment to assess the performance of the students and they make guidelines on the bases of the grades or marks that the learner has achieved in the tests.

A study in summative assessments has revealed that a modest and self regulated learning can be enhanced with the help of summative tests and practices in the preparation of the tests (Ricky Lam 2012)
The teacher may have to change the results that he gets in formative assessment after the discussion or the evidence that he gathers from the informal data from the class discussions with the learners. Even he can have a one to one detailed briefing with the student about his or her homework.
Formative assessment can also be used by the teachers even the learners because it inform the teachers that how to make improvement in the strategies and planning of teaching and it also informs the learners how to make improvement in the understanding of the concepts and knowledge.

In the documents like the growing success has mentioned that the data or the information which is gathered from the assessment is used for learning so the teachers can plan the guidelines and instructions for the assessment for the students to set the objectives and goals for learning and teaching (OMET, 2010, p.31).

The main purpose of formative assessment is that the teachers provide proper feedback and guidnace for the improvement in the learning process (OMET, 2010).

Intricately connected with effective formative assessment practices is the need to establish clear learning goals. Research on goal-setting suggests that students need to be made aware of the learning goals and success criteria for a particular task in order to effectively attain them (Locke, 2000; Sadler, 1989; Shepard, 2006). Shepard (2006) argues that a focus on learning goals and success criteria in the classroom will not only help students but it will also help teachers design better instructional and assessment practices. Currently, educational administrators have adopted policies that promote instructional practices that explicitly help students clarify and understand learning goals and success criteria (OMET, 2011;WECDSB, 2010).

FEEDBACK
It has already been noted that Wiliam’s (2011) definition of formative assessment suggests that evidence elicited from an assessment must be interpreted and used by the learners as well as their teachers. Feedback plays an important role in this process. Ramaprasad (1983) defined feedback as information about the gap between actual level and the desired level of performance, which in turn leads to corrective action to minimize the gap. He identified a dual role for feedback as well; he referred to the “feedback loop” between teaching and learning. In a four-year development and research project conducted in England, Learning How to Learn, Black, James, McCormick, Pedder and Wiliam (2006) verified that feedback provided to students by their teachers was among five of the most effective formative assessment strategies in improving student achievement. Similarly, Hattie and Timperley (2007), in their synthesis of over 134 meta-analyses, provide quantitative evidence (using effect sizes as a common measure to allow valid comparisons) that feedback was one of the most powerful influences on student achievement.
STUDENT MOTIVATION
Some researchers suggest that the assessment and evaluation system that is currently so prevalent in our education system may, in fact, be a disservice to students. Early researchers such as Deci (1971) and Lepper and Green (1973) conducted experiments to support the notion that extrinsic incentives undermine children’s intrinsic interest in an activity: children in the studies were found to be less likely to repeat an activity if they had previously been rewarded for participating in it and those incentives were then no longer provided. In later studies, where Lepper, Henderlong and Iyengar (2005) examined the correlation between the age of a student in a US classroom and intrinsic motivation, the authors found that, for students from grades 3 to 8, intrinsic motivation appeared to decrease as age increased. Thus, teachers in the intermediate and senior grades are faced with a greater challenge when attempting to provide feedback that will elicit student response. Natriello (1982) found that student disengagement from high school is related to an environment where evaluations are contradictory, uncontrollable by the student, unpredictable, or unattainable. He observed that students who experienced high levels of incompatibilities in authority and evaluations systems for academic work set their goals lower and engaged in fewer tasks that required effort. These students would experience significant variation among teachers in their approaches to the evaluation of students – some teachers have well-defined systems for assigning and evaluating tasks and others may have no system at all. Ironically, such students perceived themselves to be working harder and putting forth more effort! Kohn (2011), a strong critic against rewarding students with extrinsic rewards such as gold stars, praise, and grades, insists that, when it comes to formative assessment, no grades should be assigned. The intention is to help students develop the motivation to learn rather than achieve high grades. Other research suggests that praise may be an effective motivator for learning if it is used correctly. After numerous studies on motivation, Dweck (2007) concluded that students who had a growth mind-set (i.e., who believed that intelligence could be altered through effort and education) were more likely to put forth effort to improve learning, whereas students with a fixed mind-set (i.e., who viewed intelligence as a fixed trait) sought tasks that served to prove their intelligence and avoided those that might not. More importantly, when considering feedback practices, if students were praised for their intelligence, they were more likely to adopt a fixed mind-set, whereas if they were praised for their effort, they would adopt a growth mind-set. Thus, it seems that praise that addresses process skills such as the learning skills identified by the Ontario Ministry of Education (i.e., good work habits, organization, collaboration, initiative, independence and self-regulation) may have an important role in feedback practices since it may help to foster a growth mind-set in students. In general, research on motivation highlights that the classroom assessment environment has an impact on student learning. Good formative assessment practices not only provide students with cognitive information about where they are in their learning, they also help to develop in students a feeling that they are in control of their own learning (Brookhart, 2008). In other words, effective feedback not only should address where students are at and where they should go to next, it also should aim to create a classroom environment that promotes learning and growth.
SELF-REGULATION
As mentioned earlier, the ultimate goal of feedback should be to foster students to become the owners of their own learning (Wiliam, 2011). This has been an important theme in formative assessment research (Boekaerts, 2006; Sadler, 1989, 2010; Shepard, 2006; Wiliam, 2011). Thus, understanding the nature of self-regulation is another critical factor to consider when tailoring feedback to student needs. Boekaerts and Corno (2005) propose that, depending on the self-regulation “track” a student is on, response to feedback may vary. Students whose self-regulation processes (SR) maintain a “growth” perspective (top-down SR) have a strong focus on learning goals while those that maintain a “well-being” perspective (bottom-up SR) are more concerned with maintaining or restoring positive feelings. Most teachers of applied level students would agree that these students typically demonstrate behaviour that suggests they are primarily in the “well-being” regulation mode as they often will choose not to do a task that may make them feel incompetent. Boekaerts and Corno (2005) suggest that it is important for students to acquire meta-cognitive knowledge that will help them interpret failure and address it in a positive way – they refer to this as volitional strategies. Positive volitional strategies will help students stay on the growth track rather than resort to the well-being track. This gives teachers important insight into student responses to feedback; the challenge is to provide a classroom environment that helps low-achieving students to develop positive volitional strategies to transition them from the well-being track to the growth track permanently.

CHAPTER 3
EXAMPLES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR THE TEACHERS
In today’s world of teaching what we call a modern teaching innovative formative assessment is part of teaching and learning process. The formative assessment provides very important information about the learning of the students what they have learnt. Students get very valuable guidance from the ungraded assessments. These formative assessments will help them to improve their performance. It will also help the teachers to improve or change the introductions for the student on the bases of the problems if the students will be facing in the process of learning.

When formative assessment if consistently used, it remove the barriers and the problems that are faced by the learners and it will continuously help them to improve the grades and performance in the tests.  “… a parent teaching a child to cook would never say, “That was 74 percent.” Instead, the parent would watch, demonstrate, and allow the child a chance to get better. These acts of mindful nurturing and guidance are examples of natural learning, and we perform them instinctively.”Having this thing in mind, in formative assessment we are concerned about opportunities that help to improve the performance of the students instead it is not just concerned about just identifying what is done well and correctly  
TECHNIQUES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
There are few assessment mentioned below that are used for the sake of formative assessment for checking how well the students understands the topic which has been taught to him by the teacher in the class. These assessment can also become part of the course for the sake of short measurement which will some importance to judge the performance of the students.
The teacher can modify the planning on the bases of the formative assessment to help the students to improve the grades.

One example can be of random grading, the teacher will ask the entire class to complete a short assignment and he will randomly collect and give grades to the students. In this activity all the students will be asked to participate in the class. The teachers will grade the assignments and then return the assignment to the students with feedback. It will help a lot to the students to know about their mistakes and correct them and not to repeat in the next assignment.

DEBATES 
The teacher will give different examples to resolve a problem. Debates are one of the best ways to resolve the issues with higher order think. In this process the seats of the students will not be moved .the teacher will divide the class into different parts according to the issues or the problems that the students will be having.

The teacher will ask the one group to think about the problem and they have to come up with their own way of thinking and suggestions. Students will be given 5 minutes to think about the problem while sitting in the groups or pairs.

The teacher will ask the students to regroup themselves and students will give their feedback about the problem. The pros and cons can be explored with the help of this sort of debating technique.

The teacher can make another group who has to come up with the reasons to solve the issue or problem.

Role play
Role plays are very important in history, literature and bio chemistry classes.

In this technique the students are divided into many sections on the bases of the needs of the teacher.

The teacher will ask them to prepare the arguments for the roles to play. The students can adopt different characters to behave in front of the class which the teacher will assign them. The teacher will establish a context and will ask the students to discus in groups or pairs briefly that how their roles will react or perform.

In the end the teacher will ask the representatives from each section to come forward and give descriptions about the roles that they will play. The students will draw their attention towards the possible unanticipated behaviors.

MINI CASES
Mini cases will be used at the start of the lectures or even they can be used in the middle of the lesson when the teacher will feel that the lectures have become too long and the teacher will make the students to understand the topic through different examples from daily life.

The teacher will ask the students to make pairs or small groups with students who are seating nearby.
Ask students to pair-up or form small groups by turning around to colleagues seated in proximity. One group presents the case to the entire class then pairs or small groups work for several minutes to develop responses by directly applying the lecture content to the case example.

6. THINK-PAIR-SHARE
Think pair share is another useful change-up in a long lecture. After 15-20 minutes of lecturing, ask a question. Ask students to write down responses to the question, and then turn to the next neighbor and discuss their responses. Spend no more than 5 minutes. Then ask several pairs to share their responses and, before moving on, conclude the exercise with a correct response.

MINUTE PAPERS
Minute papers are very useful method to assess the level of learning of the students about the topic and the concepts that the teachers has covered in the class. 
The task should not be allowed to take more than 5 minutes of class time. If it is used in the middle of the lecture, then some questions might be: “Briefly explain the main concept discussed in this part of the lecture,” “Give an example of this concept or principle.” “How could this concept apply to a possible next topic in the same lecture?” “How does this idea relate to your experience with…?” When used at the end of the class period, the one-minute paper questions might be: “What are the most important things you learned in today’s lecture?” “What is the question on today’s topic that remains in your mind after this lecture?” Collect the responses. This is also a good way to take attendance if you request names. Requiring names might limit the honesty of students’ responses, however. Collected responses can be the basis of the first five minutes of the next class: you may need to revise a concept, give some examples, or clarify some topics. You may also wish to feature smart questions or share otherwise excellent examples.

FORMATIVE QUIZZES 
Formative quizzes are not the graded quizzes. They are used to evaluate the students and their understanding of the topic. The teacher will use the same questions that the students will find on the question paper in exams. The questions will be provided with the help of PowerPoint or slides or overhead. Responses can be taken by the low raising of the hands by the students.

CHAPTER 4
4.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The formative assessment is a quantitative assessment and I analyzed the students on the bases of prior knowledge of the students that they had earlier about the subject.

Students were judged on the bases of the pretests and post tests of narrative writing.

4.2 OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE SCHEDULE
WEEK .1
In the 1st week I introduced the course, objectives and small group work on brainstorming and analyzing a piece of narrative writing of the students.
WEEK .2
In the 2nd week I introduced the formative assessment with a short written assessment.
WEEK.3
An essay to write of 250 pages on the topic “unforgettable incident of my life ”
WEEK .4
Lesson plan for the improvement of narrative writing skills of the students by using formative assessment
WEEK 5
An essay on the topic “most important event of life which changed the life completely
4.3 RESEARCH TOOLS
The research tools of my research will be:
Pretest
Post tests
Interviews
POPULATION
The population of my research was the students of middle school of my area Sialkot
4.5 SAMPLE
Sample is usually drawn from the population when it is difficult to gather information from the whole of it or when it’s difficult to investigate the whole population sample is actually the representation of the population under observation.

I selected 20 students from two middle schools of my area to help them improve narrative writing by using formative assessment

CHAPTER 5
5.1 DATA ANALSYS
The ?nal thing of this study was concerned with the data of four weeks of the students of Work or tests keeping in view their narrative writing skill. To mark the papers of the students is very tough job. It is not that easy to just make the multiple choice questions or true false to have answers of the learners rather it is bit tough because each students work is checked properly.

When the students are given their own feedback, they learn quickly. More over when the teachers are reading the works of the students they need to read it two, three times to make sure that the students will be given the proper feedback. A lot of time can be taken in giving this feedback as it is a time taking process. So it is important that a teacher has to be very careful. So I marked the essays of students and recorded the scores and the students were also asked to record their scores to have record of their performance.

The scores were tabulated and analyzed to have a better understanding of the performance of students individually and collectively on the foundations of their scores their enhancement was judged that whether formative assessment if helpful for the English language learners or not. To have individual record of their own performance students were given charts to have a record of their improvement. Students were given topics to write in this form each week and their scores were recorded after marking the written works.

5.2 WRITING TASKS
Name………………………………….class………………………………………..

Date…………………………………….ID………………………………………..

INSTRUCTIONS
Write your response on a lined paper
Include your ID and date
Be neat in writing
No cutting and over writing is allowed
TOPIC
Narrate any unforgettable incident of your life that you could never forget.

5.3 NARRATIVE WRITING PROGRESS CHART
Name ………………………………class…….. …………………..

Learning objective………………………………… . .

My score at the beginning………………..

My goal is to achieve …………………………………….Speci?c thing that I am going to apply to improve my narrative writing……………………………………………..
CHAT REPRESENTING THE PROGRESS
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
1′ with the help of this chart students recorded their own personal performance on the bases of the scores they obtained in the narrative writing tasks given each week,
Score of the1st ten students for the four weeks is given below.

Students were assigned numbers instead of names for identification
TOTAL MARKS; 10
5.4 TABLE 1
Students roll# Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
1 4.5 5 5 7
2 2.5 4 4.5 6
3 6 6.5 6.5 8
4 5 5.5 6 6.5
5 7 7.5 7.5 8
6 5 5 4 6.5
7 7.5 7 6 8
8 7 5 6 7
9 4 4.5 5 6
10 2 2.5 4 6
total 50.5 52.5 54.5 69
The total scores of the four weeks show that how the improvement increased from 1st week till 4th week.

There is a considerable change in the progress of. Gradually students started improving their scores with the help of formative assessment
5.5 RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS AFTER PRETEST
TABLE 2
No of students Spelling mistakes Command over grammar Use of language Expression
1-5 20% 40% 55% 60%
6-10 20-25% 35% 60% 55%
10 30% 45% 45% 45%
1. These results show that the students made a lot of mistakes in their narrative writing essays.

2. The students made most of the mistakes in grammar and spellings. There were few students who had not been able to produce good expression.

5.6 POST TEST RESULTS OF THE STUDENTS
No of students Spelling mistakes Command over grammar Use of language Expression
1-5 10% 55% 65% 70%
6-10 15-20% 45% 55% 60%
1 20% 60% 70% 55%

TABLE 4
1 below standard 2 approaching standard 3 meets standard 4 exceeds standard
1 week 50% 40% 5% 0%
2 week 40% 45% 7% 2%
3 week 35% 55% 10% 4%
These results show clearly that there was improvement in the performance of the students. As we can see that students made less spelling mistakes and compared to previous results. It proves the fact that formative assessments helps in learning process.
It helps the students to improve their learning during the learning process. On the other hand it also helps the teachers to improve their teaching as well.

TABLE 4
This table provides the Information about the overall performance of the Students of advance diploma class. It shows students showed gradual improvement in their narrative writing skills with the passage of time. And in me last week we can see that students had learnt much which is very important to note because it proves that formative assessment certainly helps in the learning process
I mentioned in my question earlier: What is the in?uence of formative assessments on Advance Diploma students’writing?
From the data that I gathered, I observed that the students were below the average and they were not scoring good scores in the tests, it showed that the students of advance diploma did not produce intellectual answers in the paper. So the results of the Advance Diploma students used that their performance was very poor, But if we analyst the next assessments of the students we find a great improvement in the Performance.

Overall performance of the students in the narrative writing task was getting better
Students had gradual improvement in their scores and they kept improving with the help of the formative assessment. It gives me a strong position to say that formative assessments helped the students to improve their narrative writing skills. There were few students who have not been able to improve much but they could do more by putting efforts in the process of learning.

So the learners of the Ad Vance Diploma students reached the desired destination by achieving the goal with the help of formative assessment
Now I will have concern on my next question of the research and the question was: what can be the level to which formative assessments increase or decline Advance Diploma students ‘performance on writing skills?
S0 I gathered the data to answer this question. If we compare the overall Performance of the students it is clear that there is a great improvement in the performance 0f the students.

There was no student who could meet the standard in the 1st week but in 4th week the 10% of the students met the standard.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS
On the bases of formative assessment I have analyzed after this research which is dealing with the formative assessment and the feedbacks and its methodologies as well as the requirements for the traditional teaching and so I have confirmed the applicability and validity of the formative assessment. My research was based on the new sort of data for formative assessment but I also focused on the prevailing educational techniques and new trends in education to get the best results.

Resultantly I found that some requirements and situations for the feedback and formative assessment for the betterment of the students and engaging them in learning process are applicable in the process of learning for the students and teachers.

Moreover, I have made and given fourteen recommendations which are very good practices that are based on the feedback given by the students who were part of the course and practically took part in it during the process.

So by this I can conclude by giving some very good findings especially for the teachers and it can also give benefit to the students process of learning the activities that they are involved in which are based on the problems that they face during the course. The students appreciated the process in which they were given the feedback about their learning during the ongoing process of course because it helped them to remove the barriers if they had on the way of their learning.

RECOMMENDATIONS
On the bases of my conceptual and theoretical assessment I can easily conclude with some recommendations for the betterment of students and teachers in the process of learning and teaching:
The course work which is selected must fulfill the needs of the learners and it must base on the needs of the learners for the self assessment.

The course work must be designed in a way that it must engage peer work and group activities must be encouraged to increase the process of learning.

The course work must be according to the capabilities of the learners and their capacity.

The students must be guided in advance about the good performance that they have to achieve during the learning process and at the end of the course work.

The students must know the actions in advance what to do and what not to, to get the good performance.
Students must be given feedback about good performance and the prevailing performance that they are exhibiting during learning process.

Students and the teachers must have dialogue to implement the formative assessment with proper feedback from the students.

Motivation and self esteem should be created in the learners with the help of practices of formative assessment and feedback.

Students must be encouraged to have better steps or action on the bases of formative assessment and feedback.

Teacher can improve their approach or methodology on the bases of formative assessment and feedback.

The tasks which are given to the students must be sufficient to require the proper study time that they need.

It is very important for the learner to give proper time and proper effort to fulfill assessment course.

Students must be involved in assessment with the help of productive learning activities.

Regular and sufficient feedback should be provided to the learners.
The feedback should be given on focusing the performance of the learners.

The feedback should be given in time so that it is well received and the students can get benefit from it in proper time.

The teachers should give feedback that is related to the objective and assignment so that it helps in learning for the future.

WRAPPING UP
The research that I have done shows that it is important for the teachers and for the students as well. The formative assessment can be used for teaching and learning both. Teacher must prepare lessons for these both aspects.
Research shows that those school teachers who use formative assessment are more efficient in teaching process. The effectiveness of the formative assessment to improve the narrative writing skills can be seen through this research article, and it has shown the problems and their solution for the improvement of learning process.
Time is very important in the process of learning for the students and teachers. so students wants to save time with better learning, formative assessment helps in saving time and quick learning process.
When the things were discussed with students about time, it resulted that if the proper time and quality is provided then the learning process can be enhanced properly. Students revealed that when they were given proper feedback their learning process and concepts were clearer and their learning process increased.
Students are involved in the process to ask questions about the problems that they face during the process of formative assessment. Peer and self assessment are encouraged to enhance the ability of learning of the learners.

Students are involved in the whole process of formative assessment for getting the effectiveness and efficiency in the results. They will get help from it and will understand the things which are involved in the learning and the objectives of the topic that they are undertaking. This process will start from the beginning of the formative assessment and till the end of the course or the project work so that they keep getting the proper assistance and guidance in that field.

Formative assessment and feedback cannot be separated from each other. A constructive and positive feedback with reinforcements must be provided to the learners to enhance their capabilities. The teachers must keep it mind that the feedback motivate the students and encourages them to do the things properly. Formative assessment is to improve the performance of the learners and it is done by the teachers with the proper feedback.

The ultimate goal or objective of the assessment is to develop self performance of the students by using formative assessment. It helped them to improve themselves and assess their own performance. Students cannot learn self learning or self assessment from the very beginning, it happens with the passage of the time when teachers assists them by giving them proper feedback.

The role of the teachers is very crucial in implementing the formative assessment as it requires proper planning. The teacher must not hesitate to implement new ideas and strategies for the implementation of formative assessment. It is important for the teachers to know when the ideas are not working properly, he must change the strategies.

The teachers must involve the learners in peer assessments and the group work must be encouraged by the teacher so that the learning process is enhanced. Here we cannot ignore the role of course which is selected for the students. Formative assessment helps to make sure that the programme or the course work best suits the learners at secondary level. When there is any encounter with problems or issues regarding course work, formative assessment is the best instrument to make it more effective and efficient

REFERENCES
Gibbs, G. & Simpson, C. (2004). Conditions under which assessment supports students’ learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1, 3-31. Hadrill, R. (1995). The NCVQ model of assessment at higher levels. in Knight, P. (Ed.) Assessment for learning in higher education. London: Kogan Page, 167-179. Handley, K., Price, M. & Millar, J. (2008) Engaging students with assessment feedback. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Harvey, J. (Ed.) (1998) Evaluation cookbook. Edinburgh: Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative, HeriotWatt University. Hornby, W. (2003). Case studies on streamlining assessment. Aberdeen: Centre for the Enhancement of Learning and Teaching, The Robert Gordon University. Hornby, W. (2005). Dogs, stars, rolls royces and old double-decker buses: efficiency and effectiveness in assessment. in Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (Ed.) Reflections on assessment volume 1. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency, 15-28. Hutchison, S. (2005). Streamlining assessment: some options for assessment in class. in Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (Ed.) Reflections on assessment volume 1. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency, 41-48. Juwah, C., Macfarlane-Dick, D., Matthew, B., Nicol, D., Ross, D. & Smith, B. (2004) Enhancing student learning through effective formative feedback. York: Higher Education Academy. Knight, P. (2002). Being a teacher in higher education. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press. Land, R. (2005). Streamlining assessment: making assessment more efficient and more effective. in Quality Assurance Agency Scotland (Ed.) Reflections on assessment volume 1. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency, 29-40. Leach, L., Neutze, G. & Zepke, N. (1998). Motivation in assessment. In Brown, S., Armstrong, S. & Thompson, G. (Eds.) Motivating students. London: Kogan Page, 201-209. Lines, D. & Mason, C. (2005). Enhancing practice: assessment. Gloucester: Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Loacker, G., Cromwell, L. & O’Brien, K. (1986). Assessment in higher education: to serve the learner. In Adelman, C. (Ed.) Assessment in American higher education. Washington D.C.: US Department of Education, 47-62. MacFarlane Report (1992). Teaching and learning in an expanding higher education system. Edinburgh: Committee of Scottish University Principals. Moore, I. (1995). Staff and educational development for assessment reform: a case study. in Knight, P. (Ed.) Assessment for learning in higher education. London: Kogan Page, 95-109. Morgan, C. & O’Reilly, M. (1999). Assessing Open and Distance Learners. London: Kogan Page. Mortimer, J. (1998). Motivating student learning through facilitating independence: self and peer assessment of reflective practice – an action research project. In Brown, S., Armstrong, S. & Thompson, G. (Eds.) Motivating students. London: Kogan Page, 173-187. Mutch, A. & Brown, G. (2001). Assessment: a guide for heads of departments. York: LTSN Generic Centre. Nicol, D. (2009). Quality enhancement themes: the first year experience – Transforming assessment and feedback: enhancing integration and empowerment in the first year. Mansfield: Quality Assurance Agency.

“Watch your mouth” sermon by Dr

“Watch your mouth” sermon by Dr. Tony Evans.

An enjoyable sermon I must say, it was full of laughter while he gives jokes as he speaks, this sermon is mostly about the use of our mouth very compelling to an extent, and having God in your mouth and not the devil. The scripture for the sermon is Exodus 4:10-13(NIV) “Moses said to the Lord, pardon your servant, Lord I have never been eloquent, neither in the past nor since you have spoken to your servant. I am slow of speech and tongue. The Lord said to him, who gave human beings their mouths? Who makes them deaf or mute? Who gives them sight or makes them blind? Is it not I, the Lord? Now go; I will help you speak and will teach you what to say. But Moses said, pardon your servant, Lord. Please send someone else.” The purpose of this message is to supply individuals with wisdom to make it clear that when God asks us to do something that demands us to articulate he empowers us to do that through the indwelling Holy Spirit. From my personal standpoint based on the sermon, I came to an understanding that; everything that comes out of your mouth makes its impression and leaves its influence on your life whether it is good, bad, positive, negative, faith, fear, health, blessing or curse. Also, for you to walk in victory and manifest Gods best in your life individuals must submit their tongue to the control of the holy spirit and also persons must train their mouth to speak the words of the Lord and the word of God will come to pass in your life. By my reckoning, I think that Dr. Evans presenting the sermon base on his viewing “world in front of the text”. Since he voice that “God knew that your tongue was so dangerous; he put it behind bars called teeth and put it in a cage called your mouth”, he also stated that ” the holy spirit wants to audibilize your communication, but unless you are in contact with him, you will not hear him”. Nevertheless, Dr. Evans delivered the sermon in high quality because his language, vocabulary, voice inflection was excellent. He always made eye contact with the church members; always move around to engage with the audience.

Dr. Evans made a very important point that I found very intriguing he stated that ” we speak in accordance with the will of God, as the holy spirit gives us utterance” meaning that, the way that God enables Christians to vocalize the truth is through the holy spirit, who dwells within us and also God becomes our novelist and control the words we say even in the most difficult of circumstances. This text primarily will support you with the knowledge that the Holy Spirit who dwells in you will guide your speech, also informs you that when God calls you to speak the truth to others He will give you the word to speak when that time comes. However, a part of the sermon was a bit complex because being a Christian does not mean that every word that comes out of their mouth is going to be holy. No human being is perfect so there are capable of speaking corrupt at times. He basically preached this lesson to encourage Christians. Despite my assumptions, from my perspective, Dr. Evans thoroughly understands what was in the text but his explanation was ineffective. This sermon would be more productive if he approached the text with eagerness and an expectation that persons will be surprised by what the texts reveal. Howbeit, I hope Dr. Tony Evans continues to grow in effectiveness as a preacher.
TD Jakes sermon “The untold truth about forgiveness”
Our God is a God of seed. Everything He does, He does it by seed. It starts out in a seed form. He ends His word, which is a seed and the seed germinates and brings forth fruit and it brings forth life. It all starts in seed form. Your mind is the ground where the seeds are planted, that is when it is positive seeds. Seeds of life, the seed of healing and seed of restoration. However, it is bad when it is negative seeds like unforgiveness, pride, and flesh carnality. Jesus died on the cross for forgiveness, so that everybody in the world can be forgiven. God will give anything to you what he can get through you. God said whatever I do to you do it back, He shows us forgiveness, so we must kindly show it back to our companions. Forgiveness is a huge idea; it is for person that is mature enough to see the significant picture. It is easier to forgive persons when you understand them. The art of forgiving is that you will never sustain a lifelong love without forgiveness.

Johnson Town Seventh- day Adventist Church in Oliver Road, Kingston Jamaica. Sermon by Deacon David Miller. “Love” 1 Corinthians 13:4-5.
This sermon is about acknowledging the love you must give or show to one another, our friend, families, and strangers all need love because it is the feeling of love which is responsible for the existence and maintenance of society. God loves does not stop suddenly. He does not love you on the good days and despise you on your worst; His love for individuals is very patient and unfailing through wellness and infirmity, hatred and sadness, triumph and failure. For us human beings, our kindness comes through when we give up what truly belongs to us because our love for someone trumps what we think is “appropriate”. We also put aside our rights and expectations because we are more interested in what is good for someone else, even if they do not deserve it. God Talks about love passionately because he wants us to put forward the love He shows us to person overall. (John 13:34) “A new command I give to you: love one another as I have loved you, so you must love one another”. In our culture today, envy is not necessarily seen as a bad thing. However, God does not see it that way. The reason God warned us about not being envious of our neighbors, it is because he is the one that will provide for us in our good and bad times. Being jealous of something a person has will make God feel displeasure with what He has given us, and our desire to have more than what he planned. Deacon Miller ends the sermon with a special quote by Joel Osteen. Mr. Miller used this quote because he thinks that it is related to the lesson “When you focus on being a blessing, God makes sure that you are always blessed in abundance”.

“Stop blocking your miracle”. Sermon by Dr. Tony Evans. John 11:38-46
He uses this text to say you do not limit yourself to the natural and miss the supernatural. Believing is seeing, experiencing the supernatural. A miracle is when God overrules the law he set in place in order to accomplish something he wants to do. God trumps His own laws, God overrules Himself. Human beings in the modern time have educated themselves out of the supernatural, we think that we are just too smart for God, too intelligent for heaven, too brilliant for the kingdom of God and so we live within our logic, because of that we live only in the natural. Nothing will block the supernatural moment of God in your life like our logic. In the natural you will see before you bleed not so in the supernatural, you will see the glory of God. You will not see the glory of God in the physical unless you bleed in the spiritual. Your supernatural are whatever that is in God’s will, has he already agreed on in the spiritual round. That means you do not have to beg God to do something that is already in His will to do. He is not: you waiting on God if he agrees on to it, it is Him waiting for you to move the stone. So he can let you see what was already previously agreed on. We will be limited to the natural when we do not move the stone also when we do not act on what God has said, whether we understand it, can figure it out, like it or not. God does not do miracles to show off; he does the supernatural so His name will be known.

3

3. ADVERTISING
3.1 The definition and types of advertisements
Advertising is one of the approach that can be done by businesses to persuade consumers on buying their products or services. It is also a medium to provide information about the products or services to the consumer and had been used for many years to influence the buying behaviours of the consumer. According to Romaniuk and Sharp (2004), the most used promotional tool in marketing today is advertising. Similarly, Jalees (2006) considers advertising as the most effective marketing tool for any organisation. Businesses had spent a lots of money on advertisements as they believe advertisement will increase their profits. Wells, et al. 2007 mentioned advertisement is a unidirectional and paid form of communication that is used to disseminate the product or services information. Ayanwale et al. (2005) define advertising as a non-personal paid form of thoughts, notions, products or services, and information that are endorsed through mass media by an identified sponsor to persuade or influence behaviour. In contemporary marketing practices, advertisement means to create a need of the product in the mind of the consumers to influence its mind in a way that he feels thrust for that product weather he really needs that product or not (Singh, 1998). Milner (1995) sees advertising as an influential communication force and a vital marketing tool that helps to sell goods, services, images, and ideas through a channel of information and persuasion. Rafique et al, 2012 argued that advertisement is a way to communicate with the audience. Based on all these definitions, we can see points to the fact that the advertiser’s primary objective is to reach prospective customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and purchasing behaviour.
3.1.1 Techniques used in advertisements
There are many techniques used in the advertisements, for example;
Aspirational advertisement: This type of advertisement is most successful in young age people. This kind of advertisement involves the slogans and taglines which inspire them. For example “most beautiful me” and “true perfection has to be imperfect”. Aspirational advertisements are mainly based on three pillars that are perfection, sex appeal and status (OAKLEY, 2009).

Celebrity Endorsement: this kind of advertisement is very important and successful in all age group especially young people. Using the celebrity may enhance the trust of the people to buy product but it is not evident that this kind of advertisement also provides brand loyalty (OAKLEY, 2009).

Social responsibility advertisements: like dove many cosmetics brand are associated with the benefits of the society. According to survey women wearing cosmetic feel confident because these brands advertise them as providing the confident in the society (OAKLEY, 2009).

3.2 The benefits and effects of advertisements toward consumer
A good advertisement had been proved to have a direct and positive relationship with consumer behaviours. A good advertisements had influenced consumer’s decision making on buying behaviour. There are many benefits of advertisements on consumer, such as, by the present of advertisements, consumer can obtained a lots of information about a product that she interested to buy. This will help them in decision making process. On the other hand, Pope (2009) found that repetition in the advertisement hit the mind of the customers which also help them to remember that product and purchase repeatedly. Repetitive advertisement are believed as a good advertisements strategy because it can influence consumer on their buying behaviour and can attack more and more customers (Xu Yang, 2012). Laplante and Downie (2011) believes advertising effect on customer motivation from various perceptive such as happiness, fantasy, awakening, sensuality, and enjoyment on marketing globally. Gallarza and Holbrook (2011) also covered future idea to concentrating on elements like pleasure, feeling, aesthetics, emotion, and satisfaction to obtain high profitability and consumer motivations. When the consumer see such a good advertisement, with wonderful story, beautiful background and a good quality of video, they will feel happy, satisfied and confident to buy the products. Besides, Teo and Yu (2005) describe that the convenience value of customer to satisfy and cost saving will brought by advertisements such as online advertising because it allows customer to play the expected role within limited time and space in marketplace. Moreover, Bridges and Florsheim (2008) stated advertisements like online advertising as continuous service, which is available by time and space. This is because consumer can access the online advertisement anywhere and anytime that they like. Mollen and Wilson (2010) stated that customer convenience is significant to differentiate further of online advertising value because it integrates many intellectual features of attitude like economic value, quality, evaluating, matching traders, and saving time-based and psychological resources. Other than that, customer purchasing validity concentrate on total assessment of functional profits and costs such as entertainment and escapism to identify as important elements of online advertising in marketplace (Babin, 2005).
3.3 Problems related to advertisement
Although, as we can see and agree, there are many benefits and positive impacts of advertisements toward consumer, we cannot denied that there are also many problems caused by the advertisements. Majority of these problems came from contemporary and controversial advertisements. Nowadays, the way of the businesses creates advertisements, to increase their profits, are quiet offensive and inappropriate especially for children.

There are many problems related to this unethical ways of practicing advertisements. An advertisement could become controversial either because of the nature of product being advertised or the manner in which a generally acceptable product is advertised. There are many advertisement that advertising controversial and offensive products. In an exploratory study of TV advertising, two different dimensions of “offensiveness” were identified and labeled as offensive products and offensive execution (Barnes and Dotson, 1990). Generally, products that could harm the public moral or physical health, considered socially indecent and unmentionable in public are considered controversial to be advertised. According to Katsanis, 1994 unmentionables also can be defined as “offensive, embarrassing, harmful, socially unacceptable or controversial to significant segment of the population”. Past research affirms that cigarettes, condoms, contraceptives and alcohol products are considered controversial (Schuster and Powell, 1987; Willson and West, 1981). Feminine hygiene products have also been categorized as controversial products (Rehman and Brooks, 1987). Apart from academic research, professionals also consider that advertising of feminine hygiene products in general were of “poor taste”, “irritating”, and “most hated” (Alter, 1982; Barnes and Dotson, 1990; Hume, 1988). Others suggest a different typology, based on products, services, and concepts. The product list includes personal hygiene, birth control, warfare, and drugs for terminal illness. Services includes abortion, sterilization, venereal disease, mental illness, funeral directors, and artificial insemination while concepts include political ideas, palliative care, unconventional sexual practices, racial/religious prejudice, and terrorism (Willson and West, 1981).

On the other hand, many contemporary advertisements exposed and provided false information to attract customers. Islam doesn’t tolerate to do injustice with the people even if there is a risk of loss in the business. It is clearly mentioned in the book of Allah that, “Standout firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourself, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor….” (Quran, 4:135). Selling a product by telling a lie and defect the customer is totally against the Islamic way of doing business. The prophet of Allah said “The sign of a hypocrite are three 1. Whenever he speaks he tells a lie. 2. Whenever he promise, He always break it. 3. If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest” (Al-Bukhari, 1.32).
Singh, 1998 pointed out that the main problem in the contemporary advertisement is the absence of any acceptable code of ethics. In contemporary advertisement, the exaggerated features of the product are advertised and through this bluff customers are motivated to spend money on a product, which they don’t need. Islam on the other hand does not tolerate this act of deception as it is clearly mentioned in the book of Allah “Give just measures and cause no loss. And weigh with scales true and upright and withhold not things justly due to men” (Quran, 26:181). Based on Islamic business ethics, honesty is the key to all business practices. Once a Bedouin questioned to the Messenger of Allah that when the dooms day take place, The Prophet replayed that “When honesty is lost, then wait for the doomsday”(Beekun, 1997).

Next, currently in many Islamic countries including Pakistan, sexual appeals are used in advertisement to promote the products, and this is contrary to Islamic ethical system (Akhtar et al., 2011). These sexual appeals are used in different ways for example by depicting a level of nudity in the advertisement and by the use of good-looking models (Severn, Belch, and Belch 1990). Severn et al. also pointed out that these appeals might also be included suggestive verbal sentences. For example the use of such words on TV that are un-discussable publicly will create a social problem among youth.

Rogers et al., (1995) pointed out that ignoring the Islamic perspective while advertising in Muslim countries can indulge MNCs not only in risk of conflict with the local consumers but also in risk of alienation with a remarkable proportion of their target audience.

3.4 Solution on those problems created by advertisement
There are no better solution other than using Qur’an and Hadis as a guidance and using Islamic way of business to solve this social and ethical problem that are created by the contemporary advertisement practices. To overcome the ethical issue on advertisements, we can practice the roots of Islamic Business ethics that can be traced from Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUM) (Darwish, 2000) and by using Quran and Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUM) as a source of knowledge, advertisement practices are critically analyzed and arguments are constructed on the basis of this critical analysis.
REFERENCE
Fatima and Lodhi 2015)
Fatima, Samar, and Samreen Lodhi. 2015. “Impact of Advertisement on Buying Behaviours of the Consumers: Study of Cosmetic Industry in Karachi City.” Management Sciences and Business Research 4(10): 125–37.

(Zinyemba and Manase 2015)
Zinyemba, Alice Z, and Irvine Manase. 2015. “Effects of Advertising on Consumer Behavior in Low Density Houses: The Case of Marlborough, Zimbabwe.” International Journal of Business, Economics and Management 2(4): 91–99. http://www.conscientiabeam.com/journal/62/abstract/3559.

(Shyan Fam, Waller, and Zafer Erdogan 2004)
Shyan Fam, Kim, David S. Waller, and B. Zafer Erdogan. 2004. “The Influence of Religion on Attitudes towards the Advertising of Controversial Products.” European Journal of Marketing 38(5/6): 537–55. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/10.1108/03090560410529204.

(Bari and Abbas 2011)
Bari, Adeel, and Rana Zamin Abbas. 2011. “ADVERTISEMENT & ISLAM: A MUSLIM WORLD PERSPECTIVE.” Australian Journal of Business and Management Research 1(6): 152–57. http://www.ajbmr.com/articlepdf/AJBMR_16_27.pdf.

(Naser Zourikalatehsamad, Seyed Abdorreza Payambarpour, Ibrahim Alwashali 2015)
Naser Zourikalatehsamad, Seyed Abdorreza Payambarpour, Ibrahim Alwashali, Zahra Abdolkarimi. 2015. “The Impact of Online Advertising on Consumer Purchase Behavior Based on Malaysian Organization.” International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering 9(World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology): 3424–29. https://waset.org/publications/10002567/the-impact-of-online-advertising-on-consumer-purchase-behavior-based-on-malaysian-organizations.

(de Run et al. 2010)
de Run, Ernest Cyril, Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Kim Shyan Fam, and Hui Yin Jong. 2010. “Attitudes towards Offensive Advertising: Malaysian Muslims’ Views.” Journal of Islamic Marketing 1(1): 25–36.

Explain the importance of safeguarding and protecting them from harm It’s highly important that practitioners safeguard children that attend the setting

Explain the importance of safeguarding and protecting them from harm
It’s highly important that practitioners safeguard children that attend the setting . If they are not being protected it is going to have a negative effect on their future and on themselves.
It will have an affect their education, will suffer, and they may become withdraw. It will also have an affect on them emotionally again it will also have an effect on their development for example they may start to fall behind on their milestones and they may reach them later then what they are expected too . Children need to be protected against the neglect and from abused, and early years setting is a safe environment for the child which where they are care for and they are be protected from being harmed, neglect and suffering abuse shown by adults the children are being looked after by approachable and accessible members of staff the staff members are there if a child has a disclosure to make or if they have a problem and they have none else to tell that can talk to the practitioner. This is very important in a child’s up bringing because if the child id cared for correctly it will contribute to their adulthood as it will help them to reach their full protentional. Every setting that looks after children have a duty of care and the setting should have set policies and procedures that are in place this is to make sure that they meet every child’s need regardless of their race, ethnicity or their religion
explain why a child centered approach is important in partnership working
The importance of child centered approach as it is used to understand that all children are different. The framework ‘Every child matters’ was set up in order to support the combination of all the devices that ensure that every child is able to achieve all five every child matters out comes. To enable them to be healthy, for them to be able to stay safe, enjoy and achieve support is offered. All the services that are aimed at children and young people are based on the planning and the meeting of a child individual needs. It is important that a child’s wishes are considered during any decisions that have been made in order to give them a sense go belonging and not to feel like they are to blame this needs to be done in a sensitive manner and they need to be listened to because this will help you to find out how they feel and what they would like
outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures affecting the safeguarding of children in an early year setting
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The united nations convention on the rights of the child:
This is in place to ensure that children are, and they are being looked after. Children have a right to be protected from being physically harmed, from suffering from being mentally violent, being injured or any other types of abused.
Children act 1989:
parents and professionals need to work together to ensures that children are safe the local authority’s duty is to investigate when there is a suspected concern that they child has come to harm or has a risk of being harmed
The education Act 2002:
This sets of the responsibilities of the local educational authority, governing bodies headteacher and everyone who works with children to ensure that they are safe, and they are not being harmed
Children’s act 2004 and 1989
This is where the rights of children and the protection of children is written this follows the lambing report from 2003 this part is key as it is from
Working together to safe guard children 2006
The duties of the organizations are set out in this act it talks about how they should work together in order to safeguard children and young people
legislation that covers data protection, information handling, confidentiality and sharing
When a staff member starts working at a setting with children they are made aware of the confidentiality police which is in line with the 1998 data protection act. The data protection act ensures that all members of staff who work in setting respect confidentiality in all ways that they can. Information that is shared with a parent about child should only be their child. Parents of children should not have access to other children learning journeys. It is important that parents are made aware that information about a child will be shared with the next school that they go to.
All personal information that a meeting holds about a child for example social service information needs to be regarded as confidential information. Everyone who can access to the information needs to clearly understand that information about a child needs to remain confidential. In an addition practitioner should not discuss information about children with anyone outside the setting other than the child’s parents and it is extremely important that this information is not given to any their parties. If there is a child protection concern against a child’s parents/ family members then allows an allegation to be made without consent from their parents
Any personal issues need to remain confidential to all those who are involved. If there is any evidence that relates to a child’s safety needs to be kept in a file that is confidential and shouldn’t be shared in the setting with anyone except the child’s key worker and the manager of the setting all information about a child needs to be kept in a locked filing cabinet
Analyze how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day to day work with children in the areas
Health and well-being
A child’s health and well-being are key to an early year setting. Their physical protection their emotional safety and their personal care. All settings that work with children have procedures that have been set out of the arrival and the departure from the setting. This needs to include a register being completed daily there should also be a way of identity the adults who pick up the child. It is important that a staff member does a risk assessment of the activities within the setting and even when they are doing off site visit activities need to be risk assessed, staff to child ratios needs to be taken in to account because of the safety of the children
There also needs to be a hygienic procedure when carrying out their personal care which includes the changing of their nappy’s, toileting. This should also include the practitioner’s behavior when they are carrying out intimate care and example is respecting their behavior
Duty of care
All early year’s practitioners have a duty of care of the children in their setting. The duty of care sets out the responsibilities they are
Uphold a child’s right
Meet a child’s needs and prompt their interests
Promote a child’s health, safety and their well being
Ensure that there is safe practice and there is awareness of legislation
All young children are very vulnerable, and they rely on adult’s in order for them to create and to maintain relationships that are respectful and trusting. Adults need to mindful over their potential power that they have over children and it is Important that they do not talk advantage of their position that they have. When practitioners are supporting the well-being of the child they need to listen carefully to the child and they also need to respond in the right way.
Protection from harm
It is important that there are procedures that are in place to check the identity of anyone who comes to the setting and if they are in the setting the where about needs to be known. Staff members need to be familiar with the procedures that are in place and they also need to know the evacuation processed which should be practiced regularly practiced in addition some setting also protect the children’s safety by installing CCTV.
The setting needs to have a policies and procedures on safeguarding and this needs to identify the staff roles it also needs to set out their responsibilities. It should also list who the person is who should be contacted if there is a safeguarding issue. It is also important that there are clear procedures for the reporting and the sharing of concurs that there around a child and their well-being and safety the policy that talks about data protection and confidentiality needs to include the passwords that have been given for the child and the security procedures so electronic data
Protecting the practitioner
The recruitment of staff needs to follow procedures one of which need to be a staff member having a DBS check and this also should apply to any parents that help out, volunteers and the students that come in to the setting to help out. It is important that all staff members have regular training and they are kept up to date with all the aspects of safeguarding. Within the polices at the setting they need to have one that covers lone working it also need to contain guidance for staff about why it is important for staff to work in a transparent way. It is also important that there are procedures that support all staff in situations where an allegation about any poor practice that regards the children. All the staff that works with children have a responsibility in order to report concurs that they may have about a collage who is not following set out safeguarding procedures

The paleolithic and the Neolithic can be compared and contrasted in many different ways

The paleolithic and the Neolithic can be compared and contrasted in many different ways. The paleolithic also made it easy for the Neolithic. Even though they both are alike and different paleolithic had hunter gathers society and Neolithic settled societies.
The lifestyle of the two period were very different. The paleolithic lived as cave man. They moved from place to place. They did not believe in growing their food. The relied on hurting, fishing and gathering wild fruits. Which as the Neolithic settle in one area and grow they food. They did not move from place to place. They were able to discover agriculture. The Neolithic were lucky because they settle in places were the soil was rich and ready to reduce goods.

After the Treaty of Paris signed in 1783

After the Treaty of Paris signed in 1783, which demand Britain acknowledges the United States’ existence as free sovereign and independent states. The treaty led to the end of the American Revolution that lasted for eight bloody years. But right after thirteen states that once was the colonies of Great Britain formed United States, the new nation almost collapsed. Between 1783 to 1789, United States facing many of problems either the government or economic crisis, we called this period of the New nation “Critical Period.” In my perspective, all the major problems and issues are cause by the one and only, the first constitution of United States AOC (Articles of Confederation). It drafted in 1787 in Pennsylvania State House and finally ratified in 1788. The Articles of Confederation was unsuccessful, National Government (Congress) have no power opposite from States that are overpower; cause the Nation facing to almost the deadened.
Debt, during American Revolution United States, Americans (Colonists) to gain more advantage above the most power army in the world (Great Britain) required, weapons to fight against, lots of money to maintain military, and man powers to gain advantage. From the situation United States came up with things that will make the country capable to gain independence.
Certificates, both Congress and the 13 States issue their own Debt Certificates. For the States it called “bills of credit,” works like war bond that we have during World War II but instead of giving the States cash, they put up something else more valuable for collateral land. The buyers strongly thinks that if the country won, which the land that they risk for will flow back into their wallet twice more. For the Congress it called “involuntary credit extensions,” there is no interest or profit. Mostly use when the armies want to buy supplies and material to the sellers; also, soldiers were also paid in these pieces of papers either.
Loan and alliance, three years after colonists started to fight back for their own independence on February 6, 1778, one of the Founding Fathers, Benjamin Franklin signing the game changing treaty “the Treaty of Alliance” with French. The treaty creating a military alliance between the United States and France against Great Britain. Which providing aid in the form of supplies, weapons, and soldiers. United States also gain support from other Europe country. But not only support United States also make loans from countries in Europe. As the result United States become officially independence from Great Britain, but the New nation end up with a ton of debt to paid off to their own people and Foreign countries.
Taxes, first crisis begun the cause from the Article of Confederation. On article VII of the Article of Confederation said, “The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several states within the time agreed upon by the united states in congress assembled,” simplify that the Federal government have no power to taxes the states, but they could raise money only by asking the states for funds. However, the money barely raised by states to Federal government. Which mean United States Federal government had no money or barely had. Led the new nation unable to paid off the debts that they owe foreign countries and their peoples who have the debt certificated. So mostly, when those peoples try sell those certificates to investor it ends up worth less than it does.
Trade, under the Articles of Confederation, Congress had limited power to regulate trade, and no ability to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries. Also, from Article IX, “The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective State.” All the States are kind of independent from others, they could do their own things. Congress had the right to regulate the American currency as well as State, they also had the right to regulate their own currency as well. This led to the different of the currency in each state; each state also capable to prints it out without congress authorizes as well. As the result, United States facing the trade difficulties, since every state had a different unit of money, Congress most likely useless no power to negotiate, and some currency from one states might not be able to use in other states. This cause the trade between United States and global struggle and less efficient either between the states. First example, European countries would like to export the tobacco from United States instead they most likely having a trade with Virginia instead. Other example, Virginian peoples would like to buy luxury items from New York which is out of state, they required to exchange their money first from Virginia dollar to New York dollar to be able to buy the items. From this cause the economics of United States in crisis.
After all the situation the country been through, in 1789 “the Articles of Confederation” now replaced with the whole new platform “Constitution of the United States of America.” This new constitution will never be existed if it not the guy named James Madison one of the Founding Fathers of United States and “Father of the Constitution.” He is the person who wrote the document that formed the model for the Constitution. This new constitution solved and eliminated all the problems that the country facing for the past six years and evaluated the new nation into the new level. It created a federal system which give more power to National Government; also, in case the Nation Government have too much power, they divide the powers into three branches “Separation of Powers,” which include Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Powers. The Three Branches also have a system called “Checks and Balances,” that give each branch the power to limit the power of the other two branches.
For taxes, Article 1, Section 8, clause 1, “The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;” which Congress do not required to begging states for money anymore; instead give the Congress power to taxes all states and result they be able to paid off the debts to Europeans and citizens.
For trade, Article I, Section 8, Clause 3, which gives Congress the power “Congress shall have power to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes,” which Congress now have power to regulate trade, and ability to negotiate trade agreements with foreign countries that totally changed from Article of Confederation. And Article I, section 8, Clause 5, “Congress shall have power to coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures.” Congress have a power to control the amount of money they print out and set the value of it. But the many currency problem remains until April 2, 1792, the United States Congress created the United States dollar as the country’s standard unit of money which solves the trade conflict permanently.
In Conclusion, every country will not have survived if their economic systems are not stable or imbalance. Article of Confederation put United States into the economic crisis. Debts are on hold and unable to paid off since Federal Government (Congress) have no right and power to taxes. Trade that end up become no efficiency since there are dozen different type of currency in United States and Congress have no power to regulate trade. The result New nation economic negative growth. However, after roughly six-year United States of Constitution ratified and solved all the problems they been facing for long time since the country formed.

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