On the 23rd of June 2016 the people of the United Kingdom

On the 23rd of June 2016 the people of the United Kingdom (UK) voted on whether the country should remain in the European Union (EU). Most British voters chose to leave the EU at 51.9% (Goodwin and Heath 2016, p1). On the 29th of March 2017 the British government invoked article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon which resulted in two years of negotiations that will culminate in the UK leaving the EU on the 29th of March 2019(Rothwell and Midgley2018). Brexit will undoubtably have multiple effects on the island of Ireland. Through discussing the positive and negative effects of Brexit on Ireland, this essay will argue that Brexit will not be good for Ireland. This essay will firstly discuss the positive effects before moving on to the negative effects.
One of the major positive effects of Brexit on Ireland is the fact that it may strengthen the Republic of Ireland’s economic stance in the global market as the only English-speaking nation within the EU. (Pope2016) argues that the decision of Britain to leave the EU may result in the Republic becoming “an infinitely more attractive base for multinationals and financial houses with large suitcases of cash to spend”. The author is suggesting that the Republic of Ireland will become a haven for transnational corporations in a post Brexit world due to its “educated, English-speaking population” (Pope2016). The increase in transnational corporations may increase employment and thus could result in a stronger Irish economy.
Another benefit of Brexit for Ireland is that Irish shipping services and continental trade between the Republic of Ireland and mainland may increase as a result of the vote to leave, a side effect that would be very beneficial to the Irish economy. IMTE 2017 (cited in Vega et al2018) states:
“Trade volumes through direct continental services to France, Belgium and the Netherlands have been steadily increasing since 2013, with over 15% increase in direct continental services to France, Belgium and the Netherlands in 2016” (Vega et al 2018, p1)
This increase in trade volumes to Europe along with the possibility of a so called ‘hard Brexit’, resulting in a possible withdrawal Britain from the EU customs union may benefit Irish shipping and trade routes with the EU. Vega et al (2018) state that
“new direct shipping routes to mainland Europe may be introduced as a result of a significantly large increase in transport costs and a deterioration of the level of service along the UK Landbridge.” (Vega et al2018, p1)
An increase in shipping routes to mainland Europe from Ireland may increase the chance of Ireland housing large transnational corporations, tying in with the argument laid out by (Pope2016) that Brexit may increase Ireland’s economic stance as a stronghold of trade in Western Europe.
In terms of how Brexit may be bad for Ireland, one of the ways in which Ireland will be negatively affected is through loss of trade with the British Isles. Since obtaining its independence in 1922, trade with Britain has been paramount to the economy of the Republic of Ireland and this trend has grown since both nations became EU members in 1973(Barret et al2015, p19). The impending British departure from the EU may have adverse effects on trade between the two nations due to the difficulties presented by EU by- laws and tariffs for trading with non-EU countries (Barret et al 2015, p19). When discussing the economic implications of Brexit on the Republic, Barret et al (2015) state that,
“In particular a situation where the UK would leave the EU, with or without a subsequent bilateral trade agreement, is likely to significantly impact on trade, as non-tariff barriers such as customs controls, or technical barriers would be reintroduced and there may also be specific tariffs liable on imports from the UK” (Barret et al 2015, p17)
A so called ‘no deal Brexit’ may also have various negative implications for consumers in the Republic of Ireland. The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)2018 (cited in Pope2018) state that a “‘no deal Brexit’…could cost each Irish household an average of €1,400 a year as prices rise”. Figures released from the ESRI2018 (cited in Pope2018) further state that “…the price of bread and cereals in the Republic could further rise by up to 30 per cent in a hard Brexit scenario, whole milk, cheese and egg prices could increase 46 per cent.” (Pope2018). These figures are an example of how Brexit will not be good for the Republic of Ireland and may raise the expenditure of the average Irish person on normal everyday goods by a significant amount. This predicted increase in expenditure on everyday goods is expected to increase the cost of living in the Republic by up to 3.1 per cent (Lawless and Morgenroth2018, p1). A hard Brexit may also have negative effects on consumers who wish to buy goods online from UK based sites. Pope (2018) states that,
“A hard Brexit will mean higher costs on goods bought online from Asos, Amazon or any other retailers based in the UK. Any item that costs more than €22 and comes from outside the EU is now liable to VAT, and any item over €150 is also liable to customs, chargeable on some products – notably clothing.” (Pope2018)
As this essay has previously stated, trade barriers imposed in a post Brexit world will make trade difficult between the Republic and the UK (Barret et al,2015), however these barriers will also have a diverse effect on the price of consumer goods in the Republic (Lawless and Morgenroth2018). Lawless and Morgenroth(2018) state that,
“…if Brexit results in increased trade barriers between the UK and the EU then this is likely to reduce competition in the Irish market from abroad, and lower competition allows local firms to charge higher prices.” (Lawless and Morgenroth 2018, p1)
An increase in price on a wide range of consumer goods in shops within the Republic of Ireland is an example of how Brexit will not be good for Ireland.
A direct negative result of the British vote to leave on Ireland, both North and South is the re-emergence of the border question. The peace process in Northern Ireland was centered around making the border between the North and South less important but Brexit has now completely reversed this method of dealing with disputes over partition (Leahy2016). The Border situation between the Republic and the North has remained both functional and peaceful for the past number of years and there is a political consensus to ensure that this remains so,
“The 1992 EU border-free market abolished ugly customs posts, checks and delays. Peace ended security controls. Dublin, supported by Brussels insists there is no going back.” (Independent.ie2018)
It is clear that a deal must be formed to ensure that the UK departure from the EU must contain a large amount of diplomatic discourse on the topic of the Irish border between, Britain, the EU and The Republic of Ireland. A resurgence of violence in Northern Ireland as a result of the introduction of a hard border with the South would be an extremely negative aspect of Brexit for the island of Ireland as a whole. A positive trade deal between Britain and the Republic may serve to maintain relations between the North and the South,
“A draft deal keeps the North inside the EU customs union, meaning no tariffs. The North would effectively mirror EU single market product standards.” (independent.ie2018)
This may however lead to increased political tensions between unionists and republicans in the political spectrum of Northern Ireland, the likes of which have greatly troubled Ireland’s past, “unionists fear controls for trade with England, Wales and Scotland (indepenent.ie2018)

Through the points laid out above, this essay can conclude that while Brexit may have some economic implications that are positive to the island of Ireland, they are vastly outweighed by the negative implications, thus concluding that overall Brexit will not be good for Ireland. While the positive effects are limited to economic gains, the negative effects seem to influence the people of Ireland on a much more personal level. The prospect of the return of violence in the North, the increase in the cost of living and the increase in the availability and price of general consumer goods may prove to have a significantly negative effect on the cultural, political and economic nature of Ireland.

The novel

The novel, Lord of the Flies, teaches more than hurts, but that is not an opinion all readers presently share. “According to the American Library Association, it is the eighth-most frequently banned and challenged book in the nation” Lombardi shared, in “Why is ‘Lord of the Flies’ Banned or Challenged?”. Lord of the Flies has been noted as holding excessive violence, and demoralizing to mankind. In the book, a group of middle-school-aged boys are left stranded on an island after a war evacuation plane crash. As the story goes on, a survival-of-the-fittest and savage crisis begins. Boys become brutal – hunting, harming, and killing their own kind in order to reign as chief and kings of the island. This aggressive plot has led to banning, and many challenges of the novel. The author displays the clash between savagery and civilized rules of mankind as a major theme found throughout. Golding also shows us through certain characters how important things, such as morality and logic, are often overlooked by what is popular. The story will open eyes on how inherently flawed humanity is, therefore, this book should not be challenged, banned, or controlled because it will not change people’s behavior and thinking in a negative way.
Lord of the Flies should not be restricted or controlled because it teaches many great lessons. One example is Golding’s use of characters to show how humanity must be retained, and to cherish what is good before it is destroyed. Through Piggy, we see the logic side, and no want for savage acts. But for Roger, he wants nothing to do with civilization and rules. Simon symbolized all innocence and humanity in the group. Once he was gone, all evil broke loose and that’s when we begin to see the brutality grow. After the deaths of both Piggy and Simon, all faith for morality and compassion was lost which is displayed in Ralph’s character. The novel instructs the readers about the importance of not always following what is popular, like joining Jack’s group to hunt and have fun, because majority of the time it ends up failing or ending poorly.
The audience of the book may have a change in behavior, but positively. Being able to connect with the characters allows for more understanding of the feelings being produced from certain actions. The negative or undesired characteristic of this book is found to be the “great deal of instances of violence” and will change the way people think or behave, and therefore it is dangerous

Throughout history

Throughout history, the mediterranean has offered a vast amount of political transformation, leading to both cultural continuities and variances. On the main political changes that occured in this area was the fall of the Roman empire and the rise of the Byzantine empire , which took place from around 200 C.E. to 1000 C.E. While these empires consisted the same culture and differently in political structure and which led to some differences. Other alteration that came up were the rise of Islam and invasion of Germanic tribes.
Many relate the fall of the Roman Empire to being split in 284 A.D, however the roman empire fell in 476 C.E. When Germanic tribes overthrew the western

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The concepts of politeness and impoliteness have been the subject of several studies of various experts across different fields over the years


The concepts of politeness and impoliteness have been the subject of several studies of various experts across different fields over the years. In this study, however, the main focus is on the concept of impoliteness. Several literature and studies are presented here to support the current study.

Impoliteness Defined
The concept of impoliteness is not as easily defined as one might think. Several scholars have pointed out the seeming lack of literature that explores the concept. Although there seems to be no single, unanimous meaning, several definitions are offered in various studies and scholarly works. Bousfield in his paper defines impoliteness as:
…constituting the issuing of intentionally gratuitous and con?ictive verbal face-threatening acts which are purposefully performed: unmitigated, in contexts where mitigation is required; and/or with deliberate, aggression, that is, with the face threat intentionally exacerbated, ‘boosted’, or maximised in some way to heighten the face damage in?icted. (2007, p. 2186-2187).
In Bousfield’s theory, the intent with which the act/statement was made is a crucial factor. Whether or not a person intentionally commits offence is a crucial part in determining if the act/statement is considered impolite. In addition, Aliakbari and Hajizadeh (2018) noted that impoliteness may be defined, in the traditional approach, as “strategic” or “instrumental”, denoting as Beebe believes, “a function that the speaker intended, and was not failed politeness” (as cited in Aliakbari ; Hajizadeh, 2018). Accordingly, it has been defined by referring to those actions that might damage the image of the speaker (p. 91). On the other hand, Culpeper, one of the most commonly cited authors/scholars in the study of impoliteness, offers this definition:
Impoliteness is a negative attitude towards specific behaviours occurring in specific contexts. It is sustained by expectations, desires and/or beliefs about social organisation, including, in particular, how one person’s or a group’s identities are mediated by others in interaction. Situated behaviours are viewed negatively—considered “impolite”—when they conflict with how one expects them to be, how one wants them to be and/or how one thinks they ought to be. Such behaviours always have or are presumed to have emotional consequences for at least one participant, that is, they cause or are presumed to cause offence. (Jamet ; Jobert, 2013, p.5).
This offers a more encompassing definition than those that put much emphasis on the role of intention and resolves his own reliance on the notion of “face” from Goffman, which is defined as “the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself sic by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact” (Jamet ; Jobert, 2013, p.5). By not relying heavily on the notion of face, the concept of impoliteness can encompass a wider array of situations not limited to that of an intentional face-threatening attack. There may be instances where a person might not be intentionally trying to cause offence on another but may be received as such. Intentionally or unintentionally, an impolite act or utterance may be committed.
Moreover, Omar (2010) suggests that impoliteness is context dependent and can be analyzed from the speaker’s and the hearer’s perspectives depending on the speaker’s intention and the hearer’s reception. This is backed up by Keykhayee’s view that the situation or the context of the conversation is critical because the interpretation of both participants of the conversation may depend on it; a certain utterance may be taken as polite in one situation and can be very impolite in another (2013, p.352). In both instances, impoliteness is seen as a subjective concept which varies from person to person and relies on individual perception regardless of intent.

Impoliteness Strategies
Culpeper uses the term impoliteness to describe the linguistic strategies to attack face – to strengthen the face threat of an act (as cited in Muslim and Sabbagh, n.d., p.3). Further, he described five super-strategies as follows:

(1) Bald on record impoliteness in which face-threatening acts (FTAs) are intentionally performed in a direct, clear, unambiguous and concise way;
(2) Positive impoliteness, concerning the strategies used to damage the addressee’s positive face wants which include ‘ignore, snub the other’, ‘exclude the other from an activity’, ‘disassociate from the other’, ‘be disinterested, unconcerned’, ‘use inappropriate identity markers’, ‘make the other feel uncomfortable’, ‘use taboo words’, and ‘use derogatory nominations’;
(3) Negative impoliteness which involves the use of strategies designed to damage the addressee’s negative face wants which include ‘frighten’, ‘condescend, scorn, or ridicule’, ‘invade the other’s space’ ‘explicitly associate the other with a negative aspect’, and ‘hinder linguistically or physically’;
(4) Sarcasm or mock politeness refers to the situation where politeness strategies are used insincerely and remain surface realization; and
(5) Withhold politeness conveying the absence of politeness where it would be expected. (Innervate, 2014-2015, p.2010-2012)

Relatedly, Bousfield (2007) suggests that the contexts in which impoliteness appears and is utilized strategically must have been previously invoked, that is, the interactant who utters impoliteness must have felt suf?ciently provoked at some point prior to actually delivering the impoliteness. Further, it is thought to be essentially triggered by what is perceived to be a threat to some aspect of the impoliteness utterer’s face (p. 2190). The triggering event as well as the use of any of the super-strategies identified by Culpeper constitutes the beginning of impolite exchanges. As Bousfield (2007) sums it up, the onset of impolite-containing utterances by a particular interlocutor is virtually any (at least, perceived) aggressive, antecedent, event (intentional or otherwise) which offends, threatens or otherwise damages the face of the interlocutor (p. 2195).

Impoliteness Counter Strategies
In contrast, Bousfield (2007) discusses counter strategies which may be classified as (1) offensive strategies primarily countering face attack with face attack; and as (2) defensive strategies primarily defending one’s own face, or champion that of a third party (p. 2199). However, these two classifications are not as distinct/clear cut from each other. Culpeper notes that offensive strategies, to some degree, have the secondary goal of defending the face of the responder; defensive strategies, to some degree, have the secondary goal of offending the face of the speaker of the original impoliteness act (as cited in Bousfield, 2007, p. 2199). This shows that whichever counter strategy the recipient of an FTA utilizes, there will always be the possibility that the response might elicit another FTA.
The defensive counter strategies identified are as follows:
(1) Direct contradiction a.k.a. inversion provides a simple denial of the propositional content of the linguistic face-threatening act made by an interlocutor (Brenneis and Lein);
(2) Abrogation (social and/or discoursal role-switching) involves the user attempting to deny personal responsibility for the offending, trigger event which has caused him or her to become the focus of another’s exacerbated (impolite) face threatening act(s) (Culpeper et al.);
(3) Dismiss (make light of face damage, joke) works by “dismissing” the face attack as inconsequential and/or non-damaging (Culpeper et al.);
(4) Ignore the face attack (whether explicit or implied), offer insincere agreement is achieved through allowing the interactant issuing the face attack to ‘let off steam ‘by expressing surface agreement or ignoring the implied face attack (Culpeper et al.);
(5) Offer an account/ explanation is an attempt to introduce new and potentially mitigating facts concerning the triggering event which has caused one’s interlocutor to be impolite in the ?rst place (Cohen et al.);
(6) Plead is a theoretical defensive option characterized by copious use of politeness strategies and deference which may also conspire to make the offender look odious for not retracting or mollifying the face attack (Bous?eld);
(7) Opt out on record involves the interactant going on record to indicate that they are ‘opting out’ of the conversation (Culpeper et al.); and
(8) Treat the situation as a different ‘activity type’ wherein the defender linguistically shifts the context from one ‘activity type’ (in which the linguistic lexemes and structures used could be construed as being impolite) into another ‘activity type’ (where the selfsame lexemes and structures used are not construed as being impolite (Culpeper et al.). (as cited in Bousfield, 2007, p. 2200-2201)

Impoliteness in fictional context
According to Muslim and Sabbagh, impoliteness is a type of aggression and aggression has been a source of entertainment for thousands of years. They further theorized that impoliteness in a fictional context such as a drama, has two reasons a character’s behavior bears more interpretative significance than would the same behavior in real life: (1) having the complete set of behaviors that constitute a particular character is impossible in real life, and (2) the audience knows that any character behavior is not just determined by the fictional personality, but could also be the result of the motivated choice of the writer (n.d., p. 4). Impoliteness can be observed in a unique sense in that the observer/audience get a glimpse of three perspectives—the speaker, the receiver, and the author.
Moreover, Richardson recognized the language of television as a relevant area for investigation as it gained popularity all over the world, testified in the phenomenon of fandom, and have developed their own narrative strategies and conversational features which have often become so popular and well spread that some set phrases have promptly been adopted in spontaneous speech too (as cited in Bruti & Zanotti, n.d., p.1). With fictional work now easily available across different platforms, instances where life imitates art is not a novel concept any longer. Real-life social interactions can be easily influenced by the things that people watch on TV, see in the movies, hear on the radio, or read in print, at times adopting language that is observed in fiction.
Laitinen (2010), in her research, examined the impoliteness strategies used in the American medical mystery TV-series House M.D. focusing mainly on verbal impoliteness with a brief look at the hearers’ reactions to impoliteness (p.4). This study capitalizes on the observation that the show is different than typical medical shows in that it often makes its viewers laugh and, very often, the humour is created specifically through impoliteness (Laitinen, 2010, p.4). Laitinen (2010) categorized selected excerpts of Dr. House’s interactions with his patients according to Culpeper’s strategies of impoliteness to analyze the data. The result of the study revealed that bald on record strategies and sarcasm are the impoliteness strategies most frequently used in the series and that the patients’ most common responses to Dr. House’s impoliteness was to completely ignore the impolite, sometimes extremely insulting, remarks. However, due to the fact that the patients are actors in a series, it was impossible to analyse the truthfulness of their reactions (Laitinen, 2010, p. 24). In this case, the impoliteness strategies bald on record and sarcasm are commonly used to inspire humor which may also be observed in real-life scenarios as in making a joke or in some cases making fun of other people. The difference may be in that in real-life situations, the receiver of the FTA may not just ignore the impoliteness but reply with his/her own impolite remark.

Additionally, Muslim and Sabbagh (n.d.) point out that impoliteness analysis attempts to describe how participants manipulate their message to face and that such attacking face not only has the general potential to be entertaining, but more importantly, can bring about furthering characterization and plot in a work of fiction (p.10). The study revealed that apart from identifying the use of a significant number of impoliteness strategies in Shaw’s play Pygmalion, the choice of strategies used differed from one character in terms of the social level they belonged to (Muslim and Sabbagh, n.d., p.10). This result is consistent with Griffith’s study which asserts Shaw’s search for equal life standards and his purpose of reaching the ethos of tolerance, the crucial intellectualism and exclusiveness (as cited in Muslim & Sabbagh, n.d., p. 11). In this case, not only was impoliteness used for entertainment and fictional characterization, but also serves as a reflection of the author’s beliefs.

Impoliteness in reality television shows
Brown and Levinson identify three sociological factors that affect the politeness level between the speaker and the hearer: the relative power (P) of the hearer over the speaker; social distance (D) which is the social similarity or familiarity between the speaker and the hearer; and the ranking of the imposition (R) involved in doing FTA or the degree of threat and topic sensitivity in the relevant culture (as cited in Karina and Putri, 2015, p.33). Karina and Putri (2015) believe that celebrities, concerning the image they want to create, or the image that media wants to construct, sometimes use a certain verbal impoliteness in order to cause offence toward their fans and bring popularity and the entertaining element to the show (p.33).
In analyzing the impolite utterances in a reality show, the factors that cause them, and what makes them have entertaining value, Karina and Putri conclude that the impoliteness utterances made by the judge and creator of the reality TV show The X-Factor USA, Simon Cowell, are used in order to attack the contestants’ positive and negative face. Consequently, Cowell considered sarcasm to be the best way to be impolite in the context of entertainment business thus creating his own trademark as a celebrity. Further, the factors which bring entertaining value proposed by Culpeper such as intrinsic pleasure, voyeuristic pleasure, ‘the audience is superior’, and ‘the audience is safe’ factors were also observed in the study, revealing that as much as impoliteness is considered as rude and offensive behavior, it also plays a crucial role in entertaining the audience (as cited in Karina and Putri, 2015, p.39-40). This finding is similar in employing impoliteness in fictional works such as plays and novels. A reality TV show, though featuring actual people, have a certain amount of fiction in it. The genuineness of the utterances cannot be easily determined.
Irony as an Impoliteness Tool
The concept of irony can also be related to impoliteness. In a study by Tselika (2015), pinpointing the abilities of irony which gives it the dual role of being used politely and impolitely; and showing that it is not just a face-saving strategy as is traditionally considered in the literature but as a face-aggravating strategy as well, were the main focus (p.90). According to Tselika (2015), irony balances between politeness and impoliteness with its different subtypes being defined and discerned rather difficultly and carrying a different degree of offensiveness (p.105).
Consequently, Tselika identified several different uses of irony not only as a face-saving strategy but also as a face-aggravating strategy:
The Case of Overpoliteness – excessive politeness bears an ironic tone and is usually judged as insincere by the hearer but allows the speaker to make an impolite remark without appearing socially inappropriate;
Irony as Self-containment – Social appropriacy is the second trait of irony which allows people to make criticism without attacking someone straightforwardly and therefore appearing rude;
Cancellability of Irony – allows initially the speaker to cancel the utterance communicated according to the reaction of the speaker or the audience and deny ironic intention; and secondly, to communicate one message to the hearer and another to the audience;
Intentionality of Irony – the speaker can easily withdraw from what is said because her real intentions are not always clear;
Irony Among Equals -in cases of equal relationships, irony is used as mock-politeness for jocular purposes and its function is face-saving;
Going ‘Downwards’ – in cases of unequal relationships (e.g. military context), irony is used as mock-politeness to enhance the strength of criticism with a negative perlocutionary effect on the hearer. (2015, p.105-106).
In the above instances, irony is presented as having the dual capacity of being a polite and an impolite act depending on how it was used.

Impoliteness in the virtual world
According to Wibowo and Kuntjara (n.d.), Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) has revolutionized linguistic and social interactions enabling people to interact in far distant space and time (p.166). In studying the Okezone, an Indonesian football website, Wibowo and Kuntjara (n.d.) points out that the non-face-to-face communication style gives the participants a chance of doing impoliteness. Consequently, the likelihood of participants in CMC using comparatively impolite ways in communication in comparison with face-to-face communication is increased (p.166). Anonymity plays a crucial role in exhibiting impoliteness online as the risk of seeing the effect of an FTA on the receiver and the culpability of the one delivering the FTA is reduced, if not eliminated. People generally avoid causing offence towards another individual especially if the chances for accountability for another’s feelings is more likely.
Similarly, video gaming, another modern platform, has become more popular over the years. In fact, Moiseev (2015) noted that it has become so large that South Korea and Sweden have recently offered ‘e-sports’, i.e. online competitive gaming, to be viewed on national television and be viewed online (p.1). More importantly, the highly competitive, social gameplay nature of video gaming makes for an interesting new forum with which to research (im)politeness (Moiseev, 2015, p.1).
The League of Legends (LoL), the subject in Moiseev’s (2015) study, provides a fast-paced, real-time strategic, role-playing game where two teams of powerful champions, each with a unique design and playstyle, battle head-to-head across multiple battlefields and game modes (p.4). In addition, a chat system within the game allows players to bond and discuss strategy for the specific games (Moiseev, 2015, p.6-7). This allows the players to interact and communicate as they would in real-life but having the interaction occur in a virtual world. However, quite often the communication between players becomes negative and impolite (Moiseev, 2015, p.7). To address the issue, a code of conduct (i.e. Summoner’s Code) is given in the world of LoL as well as a system (i.e. Tribunal) of reprimanding or cautioning players who violate the code. Although this measure does not totally eliminate the possibility of impoliteness, it provides some type of restriction towards the behavior.
The results of Moiseev’s (2015) study show that the top two reasons for impoliteness in LoL—other players dying and other players going AFK (away from the keyboard)—two major contributors to losses in a ranked game, reflect the competitive stressful environment contributing to a large and diverse frequency of impolite English language (p.92). Essentially, Moiseev’s work supports the significance of the present study by recognizing the importance of studying online interaction. It identified the role social media and online video gaming has played in the daily interaction in which people engage; and recognized the difference of online communication from real life interaction, mainly due to partial or complete anonymity and the lack of face-to-face cues (Moiseev, 2015, p.95).
In the modern world, where social interaction and forms of communication have markedly evolved into a vast array of platforms, it is essential that the way we view and understand communication also evolves with it. We cannot be limited to traditional analyses of face-to-face interactions, fictional works resulting from an individual’s creative thinking, and written works, in understanding how social interaction and linguistic styles of people operate. The key is in adapting to the ever-changing nature of time.

Wan Hafizol Bin Wan Omar also known as Fizo Omar is Malaysia actor-turned-enterprenuer

Wan Hafizol Bin Wan Omar also known as Fizo Omar is Malaysia actor-turned-enterprenuer. Fizo who win second place in “Hero Remaja” 2007/2008 is now owner to Hot Burger Malaysia Sdn Bhd. He started with small stall in 5 state which is in Kota Bahru, Malacca, Johor Bahru, Klang Vallley and Setiawangsa. All this stall is fully operated by himself with finances help from his business partner, Asri Hamid and Rizal Musa. After a year, the business grew and Hot Burger have 150 outlet all over country and led to him to open 5 offices with 50 worker to handle it. With tagline “Harga Kaki Lima, Rasa Bintang Lima”, their burger attract a lot of customer from all over country. Their main attraction is even they only sell at street, they still manage to provide high quality of variety patties. Not only selling chicken and beef, they also have ostrich, rabbit, mutton and venison. Now, Hot Burger Malaysia Sdn Bhd is extending their market to Indonesia.
Not just focusing on the quality of their product, Fizo also take a good control toward his franchisee. Fizo use a retaining fee method where each of his franchisee need to buy all the ingredients from him and they can keep whatever profit they manage to make. Other than that, Fizo also provide a classes to them to train them and share their SOP. We can see that Fizo not only give opportunity to people started a business but also teach them to make more money and be financially independent. Fizo who is motivational speaker not only help people in generate money but he also helping in motivate people to not give up and define our weak point to turned it into positive point.
Other than Hot Burger, Fizo Omar is now working on new venture called “ABC( ADO BELAKO CORNER)” in Kota Bahru. This venture gathers many type of hawker stalls under one roof.


Interpersonal roles
Interpersonal roles is a person need to be a leader, figurehead and liaison to their organization in order to connecting their organization and other constituents. Manager need to interact and make a relationship with other people to expand their market. There 3 roles in interpersonal which is figurehead, liaison and leader.
Figurehead means manager need to representing their organization to any formal or informal events. By that, manager can easily meet successful people and make a relationship with them. Its will help organization in finding investor. In their company, manager need to play the roles as figurehead in welcoming new staff and awarded staff based on their performances. Example: Fizo Omar need attend the formal events to represent Hot Burger Malaysia Sdn Bhd
Leader means manager is the one who responsible for their organization’s success and failure. So, they need to lead the organization to success. Therefore, they need to plan, organize, control, motivate and develop their member within organization toward their objectives. Other than that, manager also need to work with and through their member to ensure they achieve their goal. Example, Fizo Omar not just control the quality of product but also he really about his franchisee’s achievement.
Liaison is as a leader, they need to communicated with internal and external user to have a good network on behalf of your organization. For internal user, manager need to coordinating activities among the member. Example, Fizo Omar will

Informational roles
This is roles where manager need to collects and transmits all the information from internal and external resources regarding their organization. Manager also need to monitor the situation within the organization and provide all the information needed by external users. There are 3 roles in informational roles which is monitor, spokeperson and disseminator.
Manager as monitor is when manager collect all information regarding their organization such as report from each department. Not focusing on internal information, manager also need to monitor the external information as well. Manager also need to arranged and analyze the information to help organization’s member determine the opportunity and challenge. Example, Fizo Omar collect all the information about his franchisee’s achievement. Therefore, he will know how to help his franchisee in maintain their profit
Spokeperson is manager need the represent the organization in deliver message to outsiders. Their main purpose to expose organization’s information to external user is to increase the organization’s reputation and attract investors. For example, Fizo Omar need to tell the media about his burger and what the specialist they have.
Disseminator is when manager deliver all information that they have from monitory the organization. Manager need to make sure that information is delivered to all units in organization. This really important to ensure that organization’s member know about it to ensure the efficient of the works. For example, Fizo Omar will held a classes that share SOP to his franchisee.
Decisional roles
We know that manager need to make decision in alk aspect of organization. There is 4 types of decision roles which is entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resources allocator and negotiator.
Entrepreneur roles is manager need to make a decision about changing their method or style in order to gain the new opportunity. By making changing, organization can compete with their competitor easily. Example, Fizo Omar as a entrepreneur need to alert with customer’s changing taste.
As disturbance handler, manager need to know how to manage a problem and solved it without losing anything. Manager sometimes need to deal with untolerated customer, therefore, they need to handle it without ruin their reputation. For example, Fizo Omar sometimes need to handle dishonest franchisee who cheat on their business.
Other than that, manager also is a resource allocator. The manager need to making decision in allocating finances, equipment, workers and other resouces. They need to make a good decision to prevent waste in resources and will affect organization’s profitability. Example, Fizo Omar give a limit of patties’s amount that his franchisee buy from him to control his franchisee’s loss.
Last but not least, manager also must be negotiator in some situation. Discussion and tolerance is main thing in making consideration with other people. In this case, manager need to negotiate with all organization’s member. For example, Fizo Omar himself will negotiate with unprofessional franchisee and advise them that they have a goal to achieve.


Conceptual skill
This skill is skill where manager can think creatively to solve a problem and have ability to analyze a complicated problems. This skill is important to top management because they need to do a strategic planning for organization. This skill required manager to get information from external and internal environment and implications of that information. Not just important for top management but its also important to middle and first-line management. Example, Fizo Omar as top management need to do a strategy to attract customer to buy his burger eventho its only a street stalls.

Human skill
Human skill is ability to work with other people effectively whether in group or individually. This skill is a must to every level of management. With this skills, they need know how to motivate, communicate, inspire and lead other people. Middle management is the one who comply a lot of this skill since they need to communicate and interact with both top and first-line management. This level of management need to use human skill in coordinating all the resources and control all the first-line’s work. Other than that, they also need to inform all the organization’s member about organization’s goals. For example, Fizo need to inform to all his franchisee about their trademark to ensure that they didn’t do something wrong that will affect his company.

Technical skill
It is a skill that need u to apply all the tools, technique and procedures in your field. This is what first-line management have because they need to use all of this in their daily work’s routine. This skill doesn’t means you need to know handle machine but sometimes its can be information technology, scientific tasks or programming languages. Therefore, all management at least have a little bit knowledge about it. Top management and middle management doesn’t need a lot of this skill since they didn’t work directly to production or services. For example, Fizo Omar is a businessman who started from bottom. He started his business by open a stall that been operated by himself. So he know the technique of cooking burger.


POLC is a management function. Its is very effective method in manage an organization. POLC stands for planning, organize, leading and control. All this function is useful in management because its helps leader starting from make a clear vision about objectives to the day of production of goods or services. Started with planning, manager need to setting their organization’s goal and list all the activities that necessary to achieve the goals. This is the most important function of management because manager need to aware with their environment to grab all the opportunity and minimize all the risk that they will face. Therefore, in the way of achieving objectives, all organization’s member know and well prepared with all the possibility that will happen. For example, Fizo need to do a planning about the target of franchisee he want to have within a year.
Second step is organizing. Organizing is coordinating all the resouces in order to maximize returns and minimum the expenditure. Manager need to consider all the resources and facilities available and distributing it fairly and effectively. This step will helps organization’s member knowing their work scope and responsibilities. Even its main purpose is maximize returns and minimize expenditure, organizing must be structured to achieve their main objectives. Example, Fizo need to arrange their resources such as patties to make sure they sure a quality patties with lowest price.
Next function is leading. A organization need a manager who capable in leading their others member to work efficiently. Leader need to influence and motivated people to cooperate in their group. This is important to create harmony among individual efforts who working together in achieving goal. Example, Fizo motivate and guide his franchisee in making business to not only focusing on profit but also on how to generate it.
Lastly, controlling is where manager monitor all the work have been done to ensure its helps in achieving goals. Manager needs to make a comparison between the actual performances and the planned. From that, they will make a decision whether want to pursuing the planning but in aggresivel ways or change the plan according to the current situation. Example, Fizo Omar control his franchisee’s achievement in order to accomplish his goal.

Nick Colantonio 3/1/18 Mrs

Nick Colantonio 3/1/18
Mrs. Kissel DBQP6
The Middle ages began after a fall of the Roman Empire. It can be known as one of the
times with the least cultural and scientific achievements, suffering, feudalism, and power of the
church. The labels for the Middle Ages that best describe the era between 500 and 1400 in
Europe are the Dark Ages, the Age of Feudalism, and the Age of Faith.
The Middle Ages should be labeled the Dark Ages because of the years of suffering that
was caused from invasions. Invaders, usually from the North, would come into towns and
completely lay waste to everything. The invasions made people live in fear and abandon their
homes in refuge or safer places. Document one says that ” They sacked town and village and laid
waste the fields…there is no longer any trade, only unceasing terror…the people have gone to
cower in the depths of the forest or isolated regions.” Besides people's homes being destroyed
from the invasions, many people were killed and their belongings and even loved ones were
taken! In document three it says “842, in this year there was a great slaughter in London and
Quentavic and Rochester…843 the Northmen,with their boats filled with booty, including both
men and goods, return to their own country.” The Dark Ages has a negative effect to it, so this
label definitely matches the terrible invasions that occurred leaving families devastated.
The Middle Ages should also be labeled the Age of Feudalism for many reason. It
should be because of the absence of imperial authority th was replaced by local political
organization known as the feudal system. The feudal system was based on loyalty and
obligations between landlords in their vassals. In exchange for protection and land or fiefs from
the Lord, the vassal gave the Lord his loyalty, military service, and ransom if needed.after the
fall of the Roman Empire, its territories in Europe had to protect themselves from the outside
invader. Doc.4
Finally, the Middle Ages should be labeled the age of faith because of the solid
organization and power the Catholic Church demonstrated. The power of the church can only be
seen through its cathedrals. A Lot of money,materials, and labor were required to build the
cathedral and only a weathyand powerful organization could build them. The church tried to
limit warfare between landlords by decreeing days of peace when no battles or attacks could
occur. In document five, the church believes in the word of God and called for the observance of

Nick Colantonio 3/1/18
Mrs. Kissel DBQP6
robbery, or assault.” besides power, the Catholic Church had a lot of influence over people.
Some people gave up the life they knew to follow God and join a monastic order. Doc.10,5
In conclusion the Dark Ages, the Age of Feudalism, and the Age of faith are labels that
best describes the Middle Ages. the Middle Ages were low on cultural and scientific
achievements and lived off of the knowledge from civilizations before them. Document six,”It
performs the function of the knowledge and treasures of what had come before.” its output of
creativity and originality did not in any way exceed the confusion from invasions, political
organization from feudalism, or the power of the church, to be known as a golden age. Document
7,”medieval culture was in perfect, was restricted to a narrow circle of superior minds.”

Global warming Yicong Zhang

Global warming
Yicong Zhang (Simon)
Global warming refers to climate change in which the earth’s atmosphere and oceans rise due to the greenhouse effect over time. In our process of powering modern life, humans have caused warming for most of the last century by releasing calorie gases.

Global warming, it is causing a set of changes to the Earth’s climate, or long-term weather patterns. Several factors affected global warming, obviously, human need to take one of the responsibilities. With such a large population, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by itself alone will be an astonishing figure, and the result will directly lead to an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

One reason of Global Warming is that too much industrial emissions and poisonous gases which were made by human beings vented to our atmosphere. Especially methane and carbon dioxide. These gases make the temperature rise day after day. And that will cause many natural disasters. Like tsunami, flood, drought and so on.
Atmospheric environmental pollution, deterioration of marine ecological environment, destruction of land, sharp decline of forest resources, acid rain hazard, accelerated species extinction, water pollution, toxic waste pollution. All belongs to human factors either.

As the ocean temperature rises and the volume of seawater expands, the continental glaciers of the Antarctic and Greenland will also accelerate to melt, causing sea level rise and flooding coastal low-altitude areas. There are many cities in the world like Miami that face the threat of rising sea levels.

Scientists can measure the impact of the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, the Colorado River’s flow has increased sixfold. They also predict that if the ice shelves in Greenland and Antarctica continue to melt, by 2100, the sea level will be 6 meters higher than it is now. This will flood many tropical islands and low-lying areas of Indonesia, as well as Miami, Manhattan, Bangladesh and City New York.

About 150,000 people die each year from diseases related to climate change, and all heat-related heart problems and respiratory problems caused by malaria are growing. How is hay fever associated with global warming? This is because warming of the temperature increases the generation of smoke, increases the number of cases of asthma attacks, and further contributes to the growth of weeds, which has laid the foundation for allergic patients.

As the temperature increases, the cost of making up for losses due to climate change is increasing. Agricultural losses caused by severe storms and floods amount to billions of dollars, and the cost of treating infectious diseases and preventing the spread of diseases also requires a lot of money. Extreme weather can also cause an extremely serious economic downturn.

Economic factors affect every aspect of human life. As insurance premiums for health and households increase, consumers also face rising food and energy costs. Governments will also suffer from the slump in tourism and the decline in industrial profits: soaring energy costs, food and water demand, disaster losses and unstable border situations.

“Depression is a mental illness that is characterized by negative thoughts and behaviors

“Depression is a mental illness that is characterized by negative thoughts and behaviors. It is a disorder that has symptoms such as increased sadness, anxiety, loss of appetite, depressed mood, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities” (Parekh, 2017).
Some treatment options may include medications, therapy, and self-care. Examples of self care include sleep, physical activity, and diet. Needless to say nutrition has a major effect on human cognitive abilities, behavior, and emotions (Tello, 2018).

“Depression is a mental illness that is characterized by negative thoughts and behaviors. It is a disorder that has symptoms such as increased sadness, anxiety, loss of appetite, depressed mood, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities” (Parekh, 2017).
Some treatment options may include medications, therapy, and self-care. Examples of self care include sleep, physical activity, and diet. Needless to say nutrition has a major effect on human cognitive abilities, behavior, and emotions (Tello, 2018).


https://www.anotherbookreview.com/2013/05/different-seasons-review.html King consist of four short or long ,depending on how you look at it novellas that each conveys a different message and eliciting various emotions from the readers .when looking for my next book to read by the great man himself, I saw this book making it to someone’s top 10 Stephen’s king’s list and thought to give it a try since I’ve rarely seen it in a ‘top 10’list before. Usually most readers put the stand as number 1 hated that book personally .up until now , Stephen king has been a hit or miss with the book I’ve read written from him . I wanted to try something a bit different and different seasons seems to be what I was looking for. Upon completion of the book ,I came away with two awesome stories, one ok and one below average it was a pretty good ride but there definitely were some things that I didn’t like the more got into the book
While I had watched the movie a long time ago, I totally forgot that it was based on the novella by Stephen king himself. I really liked this story and I can see why it’s one of the most popular one’s taken out of different season .the mysteriousness of Andy Dufresne and his carefree attitude made things really interesting and you just can’t help but wonder how it’s going to end. Throughout the story, while you can’t help but think about just how Andy will escape from Shawshank prison , this I don’t think is a story about a simple prison break. There’s much more to it than that. The story is being told through the eyes of red, another prisoner in Shawshank and slowly but surely, he recounts his tale about Andy Duresne. How does andy behave so
That other’s don’t ? I really liked the ending to this novella even though some might disagree. Some might find it as a bit of a cliff hanger but truly believe this is the best novella out of the four in different seasons.

The second novella is another one of my favorites and most memorable. It depicts of a young boy learning a dark secret of his elderly neighbors. I had no idea that this story was eventually going down the path of darkness and horror. When I did, it was amazing. Anytime you deal with Nazi’s and the horrors of world war II, it definitely draws upon readers all kinds of emotions and feelings. Just how far can emotions and feelings. Just how far can one’s curiosity go until it completely devours them? This is what I love best about Apt pupil. A young boy and an old man basically are at a tug or war to see who will relinquish first in their game of blackmail. The darkness of this novella is definitely what I consider bone chilling and it was a great to see the author once again writing something as dark as this. The story immediately caught my attention right at the start and I found the story itself to be quite fascinating. I found myself loving the dark ending. It fits with the rest of the story so well!
Breathing method is the worst novella in four in my opinion but fortunately it’s also the shortest of them all. It revolves around a lawyer being invited to some special old man’s club by his boss. the author spends a lot of time building the hype and mysteriousness of this club.no latter than that are the readers than tossed into a story told by one of the club’s member about how a women going through childbirth should control their breathing. It’s kind of weird and I’m sure no many readers know what to make of it at times. Just what exactly is the message here? What I got from it is the will and determination a single women has to go through to bear the child in the period of time the ending of this story within a story was definitely gruesome and unexpected to say the least. The ending itself for the main story is quite disappointing because I feel that the whole mysteriousness of the club and the character Steven himself was totally unnecessary and a complete waste of time. Heck even the main character of David himself has no bearing whatsoever on the story and is just there as a filter to take up space.

Introduction The status of undocumented immigrants/illegal alien is a hot topic not only for the United States but for the world in general

The status of undocumented immigrants/illegal alien is a hot topic not only for the United States but for the world in general. We have seen across the world the issue of undocumented immigrants and migrant searching for opportunities, seeking asylum, or simply searching for safety. With this said, the importance of policies surrounding health care has become prevalent. These barriers for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. Health care for undocumented immigrants in the Unites states is the topic that I will discuss and provide a potential policy change.
Definition and description of the issue
The definition of an illegal immigrant or illegal alien is defined by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952. If a foreign national enter the U.S. without following the legal immigration process to enter and remain in the country, are considered to be illegal immigrants. This also means that anyone who was not born in the U.S. or parents is not U.S. citizens will be considered an immigrant. Illegal immigrants cannot vote, receive social services from federally funded programs or social security benefits. (McFadyen, 2017). So, the issue is if they are illegal immigrants in the U.S. illegally and have not made the proper steps to become a citizen then why they should have the right to medical care in the U.S. but what is not look upon is the fact that health care is viewed as a society as a whole, and you cannot just declare that one part of the society is denied the right to health care. The thing is undocumented immigrants compare to their counter parts- legal immigrants are not afforded protection and programs, however they still get diabetes, have heart disease, break bones, etc. just like everyone else. And their health needs are just as important if we care about public health as a whole.
Exploration of the background of the issue
Undocumented immigrants living inside of the United States are the largest group of the population without health insurance. We have approximately 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S. and a third of the 49.1 million of uninsured individuals in the United States are illegal immigrants. One of the issues surrounding undocumented immigrants and health care is who should pay for it? Medical help for illegal immigrants is prohibited under the Patient Protection and Affordable care Act, which was signed into law to make health insurance more affordable for low-income Americans. But the thing is we already pay for illegal immigrants that might seek medical treatment. Through our tax dollars, so what would be the difference. We also have to think about when illegal immigrants come here to work they still pay some form of taxes. Such taxes include, state, local, income, property and sales taxes. The 11 millions of undocumented immigrants pay 8% of their incomes to state and local taxes. It is said that undocumented immigrants pay billions, upward of 12 billion each year in taxes. Also, a study performed found that as much as 75% of the undocumented population is believed to pay into the social security system which is a benefit that they wouldn’t even be able to receive unless they become a citizen. (Soergel, 2016). A lot of undocumented immigrants pay these taxes in fear and the hope is that if they pay then they might have a better chance of becoming citizens. So undocumented immigrants are already contributing to taxes to fund health care.


I'm Lillian

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out