Unit 3 Assignment 2 CJ216 Ifeoma Ezenwa Purdue University Global Introduction The impact of technology on policing patrol is enormous

Unit 3 Assignment 2
CJ216
Ifeoma Ezenwa
Purdue University Global

Introduction
The impact of technology on policing patrol is enormous. Ranging from the use of in-car computer (mobile data terminal), Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) software to electronic tag readers. The in-car computers helps patrol officers to make, transmit and print reports electronically. The CAD software helps dispatchers to assign the closest patrol team to respond as quickly as possible to citizen’s calls. Dispatch centers also keep track of every phone and radio communication within a patrol team and cross reference them to corresponding cases, numbers and officers. Thus, CAD helps police departments in managing its resources adequately while at the same time ensuring speedy response to crime scenes. The electronic tag readers are usually mounted on the exterior of patrol cars and it uses the camera connected vehicle information system to read and analyze license plates and other tags within its reach for authenticity.
The Political Era (1840-1920)
Technologies and their impact: In this era of policing, patrol was mainly carried out on foot and horseback. The technologies that characterized this era of policing with special reference to patrol are guns, telegraph, telephones, auto mobiles, Bertillon System of Identification and fingerprint (Ratcliffe ; Sorg, 2018).
Guns were used to exercise police authority over criminals. Telegraphs were used as the communication tool to coordinate patrol officers during emergencies. One of the most outstanding technologies of the political era is the use of telephone for communication (Brandl, 2017). It empowered police departments to dispatch patrol teams to respond to emergencies as quickly as possible. This era also saw the use of Anthropometry to identify criminals. The introduction of patrol wagons and fingerprint technology were the high points of the political era. These technologies made crime response and apprehension of criminals easy.
Benefits and Challenges: Technology had a great impact on police patrol in the political era, as it ensured swift communication between the police department and patrol teams. Response to emergency was equally enhanced.
The downside of technology in this era is police brutality orchestrated by the use of gun. Through communication technologies available at that era, police made themselves a readily available tools in the hands of politicians and were therefore categorized as corrupt (Brandl, 2017).
The Professional Era (1920 -1970)
Technologies and their impact: As the name implies, the main goal of this era was to rid the police of corruption that characterized the political era and make them to function more professionally (Jones, 2018). Foot patrol gave way for automobile patrol. Two way radio improved police communication. Both automobile and two way radio enhanced police response to crime calls. The introduction of radar to traffic unit further resolve traffic issues and ensure road safety. Simply put, the combined effect of the technologies of this era made it possible for police to respond rapidly to crime.
Benefits and Challenges: The police in this era rid itself reasonably of corruption that characterized the previous era but disconnected so much from the citizens that they were seen more by the public as enemies. This situation created a different kind of problem that demands immediate attention. The need to remedy police public perception led to the next era known as community oriented era.
The Community Oriented Era (1970 – Date)
Technologies and their impact: The mainstay of policing in this era is to involve the public in crime prevention in order to redeem the police battered image in the eyes of the public. Coupled with the invention of transistors and microprocessors in computer technology, this era witnessed tremendous improvement in policing. Databases, such as AFIS and NCIC were created to collect, store and analyze data. AFIS is a national database that can be accessed by law enforcement agencies to match fingerprints found at crime scenes. This speeds up the fingerprint identification for crime scene technicians, detectives, and anyone else concerned with evidence management. NCIC connects fingerprint information to individual criminal records, such as; criminal record, tattoo pictures, offender photographs, current status of offender (i.e. Parole or punishment information) and any other identifying features that can be recorded (Cordner; 2014, Lum et al, 2017). This technology saves officer’s valuable time in having the records readily available whether in the office or the patrol car. It also allows officers responding to helpline calls to look up offender information on license plates, addresses, or drivers licenses from their cars which now are equipped with computers, before they have to have contact with suspects. The officers are more informed and can use more caution, when they are made aware of violent tendencies, or other suspect information. ‘Fingerprint information, was sped up even further with the invention of the fax machine. Information can be transmitted between agencies or from NCIC to the requesting agency in seconds, when mailed requests took weeks to receive results,’ (Ratcliffe & Sorg, 2018). Other advances in technology in this era include Geographic Information Systems, which help in locating suspects and victims, and Global Positioning technology, which uses satellites to locate people and vehicles.
Benefits and Challenges: The main benefit of technology is the online real time access to information by patrol teams. Be that as it may. Rapid urbanization, rising population and growing inequalities are creating a different kind of challenge in this era. While it is generally accepted that advances in technology have gone a long way in affecting police service delivery, the same technology that advanced police service delivery have sophisticated crime (2014, Lum et al, 2017). Criminal cartels and gangs have used sophisticated technologies to commit crime without leaving a traceable or linking evidence.
Conclusion
There has been continuous improvement in police operations occasioned by the invention and introduction of technology to police departments. Every era of policing have enjoyed the benefits of using technology to enhance service delivery. However, the same technology that improves police service delivery also aids crime thereby making it a double edged sword.

References
Brandl, S. G. (2017). Police in America. SAGE Publications.
Cordner, G. (2014). Community policing. The Oxford handbook of police and policing, 148-171.
Jones, G. J. (2018). Enhancing Patrol Management Strategy and Deployment Efficiency of Police Managers by Utilizing Automated Vehicle Locator (AVL) Technology (Doctoral dissertation, George Mason University).
Lum, C., Koper, C. S., & Willis, J. (2017). Understanding the limits of technology’s impact on police effectiveness. Police quarterly, 20(2), 135-163.
Ratcliffe, J. H., ; Sorg, E. T. (2017). A History of Foot Patrol. In Foot Patrol (pp. 7-20). Springer, Cham.

Breeana Moore Professor Beck South University NSG4029—Leadership In A Diverse Society May 29

Breeana Moore
Professor Beck
South University
NSG4029—Leadership In A Diverse Society
May 29, 2018

Conflict Handling Style.

Conflict is defined as a state of discord that comes when there is an opposition of needs, values and interests. It can be internal, conflict within an individual or external, among two or more parties involved. It is normal and sometimes healthy for individuals and groups to contradict in an organization or in the society. (Azcentral, 2012). But the consequences may be worse than expected. In the recent past, studies have established that most health care workers, especially nurses, have had their disagreements result in job dissatisfaction, absconding of their duties and low output. All these generally affects the turnover to low levels since the conflicts took long or were totally not addressed. This paper thus focuses on a greater need to understand conflicts and how its resolution can be of positive impact on nurses as healthcare workers.

The different styles involved in conflict resolution are as listed below.
Avoiding the conflict-In this, the conflict is treated by an individual as if it does not concern him or her at that moment, pretending that it never happened. Sometimes one may procrastinate the issue at hand.
Giving in- This involves accommodating the other party by accepting the terms that he or she provides. It bears the element of self-sacrifice.

Compromise- It takes one courage to employ compromise in conflict resolution. Both parties are not only cooperative but also assertive. (Dougsguides, 2018). Individuals are more than willing to trade some of their needs so as to win concessions from the conflicting side. Though challenges such as fair evaluation arise as the terms of exchange may be valued differently. (Dougsguides, 2018)
Collaborating- The individuals or group that are in conflict come together and listen to each other’s opinion on how to resolve the matter. Mutual understanding is arrived at after the discussions of agreements and the set goals.

Compete- This style becomes handy when the outcome is much beneficial to an individual and bears much importance. Sometime the driving force may be the knowledge that one is right and also the quest of one standing for his rights. This method also becomes handy when quick decisions are to be met. (Notredameonline, 2018)
Change theory.

Conflicts may arise in an organization due to changes, which are inevitable. The forms of organizational changes that may stir conflict are anticipatory changes, reactive, incremental and strategic changes. For the best output to be realized, an institution must have well-motivated employees. Conflict management is among the recommended ways of making employees committed to their course. Before any change is made in any organizational structures, the management must have knowledge of change concept theory. They should be able to visualize both the internal and external factors that may lead to success and those that can derail the progress.
Conflict theory.

It is suggested in this theory by Karl Marx that conflict arises from the different social classes as they compete for resources. Individuals are driven by their own self-interests and desires. In this, the parties that disagree bear unequal power and so one must emerge as the victor. Georg Simmel, a German sociologist who concurs with Karl Marx argues that the intensity of the disagreements may elevate when emotions are incorporated. (Lumenlearning, 2018)
Change Agent.

Anyone who brings a positive change to the healthcare environment is known as a change agent. Nurses are regarded as change agents by offering their services in the best and improved manner. As a change agent, they must first identify the problem at hand and have confidence in solving the matter. Apart from bearing the qualities of being proactive, they should be active listeners and remain calm in whatever situation. Another quality that should be exhibited in nurses as a change agent is that they should seek for solutions. Nurse leaders should not take sides when handling conflicts. Instead, they should remain neutral and focus on managing the situations.

Conclusion
The success of an organization totally depends on how individuals relate. In this case, when nurses work in harmony, better healthcare is offered. This leads to a more healthy society. Conflict resolution thus brings a sense of respect as people work together.
References.

Azcentral. (2012, August 15). What Is Organizational Conflict? Retrieved from https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/organizational-conflict-1227.html
Dougsguides. (2018). Compromising conflict resolution style| dougsguides. Retrieved from https://www.dougsguides.com/compromiseNotredameonline. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.notredameonline.com/resources/negotiations/the-five-styles-of-conflict-resolution/#.Ww2VNu6FPIU
Lumenlearning. (2018). Reading: Conflict Theory | Sociology. Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/conflict-theory/

Abstract Parking lots in the university city of Sharjah campuses problem has been rising rapidly

Abstract
Parking lots in the university city of Sharjah campuses problem has been rising rapidly. Number of private cars owned by students, employees, and faculty members is increasing. Due to this large number of enrollments in the university leads to a shortage of parking lots capacity.
The case of the study is being discussed, and one of the outcomes was building a new parking lots was not a possible option by the university. So, fast solution is needed without having a huge cost. Thus, this report discusses some solutions that may have some restrictions that should be given by the university that will be demanded to everyone for the change of some cultural aspects that are coming from the students that would make the problem solved easier. The solutions discussed in this report: (1) Encouraging carpooling, (2) building a smart parking in other areas and provide buses and (3) paying Fee’s for parking lots.

My Project report Deema AlMazrou ID

My Project report

Deema AlMazrou

ID:2850

Graphic design elements is the process and art of combining text and graphics to communicate an effective message in the design.

principle or graphic design address ways in which a graphic designer can assemble the individual

elements into a cohesive whole.

Designers draw the viewers attention to an important element by placing the important element in the place where the eye naturally falls!

Basic elements

1-Lines

2-Shapes

3-Texture

4-Colour

5-Value

6-Size

Principles of graphic design :

1- Balance

2- Alignment

3- Repetition

4- Proximity

5-Contrast

6-Space

The basic colour schemes colours affect us in numerous ways, both mentally and physically. Being able to use colours consciously and harmony can help you create spectacular results.

The colour wheel is designed so that virtually any colours you pick from it will look good together.

colour impact is designed to dynamically create a colour wheel to match your base colour.

complementary colour schemes are tricky to use in a large doses , but work well when you want something to stand out.

Make sure you have enough contrast when choosing an analogous colour scheme.

What is a logo a good logo is the corner stone of your brand it helps customers understand what you do and who you are and what you value.

for example, a company might use imagery into their logo to show that they operate in the software industry.

This is especially important if your business has competition.

Commonly we see logos online, on business cards, in storefronts , advertising and it prints the logo simply holds the visual associate to those things.

A logo build a recognition helps your costumer keep your brand in there mind, makes them think instantly about your store.

What are the important elements of a logo?

Colour

Context

Imagery

How to design a logo , creating a logo demands critical thinking, creative input, and methodical planing. Make sure to dive into your logo templates to help push your design along faster when creating a logo, the obvious sources of inspiration are design-centric websites like logo gala.

In its basic form, a well designed logo is a form of brand identity.

Look into the different factors involved in designing a logo the typography is important. Learn from others take there opinion on your work let them give you a scale from one to ten.

give your every energy to the brand , sketches are most important thing its helps to organise your work. Research online about inspiration, make the design simple,decide your fonts carefully,

design an active logo, think about the colours carefully, take time to practice on your logo to make it look its best.

Developing your logo is the most important trying more then three times to develop your logo to get a good and best looking logo

What makes a good logo a good logo is distinctive , appropriate practical , graphic simple in form and canvas.

Making it simple , memorable timeless , versatile, appropriate.

A simple logo design allows for easy recognition antalious the logo versatile and memorable.

An effective logo gives you vibes about the store or office your going to it makes you understand what’s inside the place your going in.

A memorable logo is how good was it looking and whats inside your store they memorise the logo because it might be there favrioute shop.

a timeless logo is how many years , days , months of remembering and how logo is your places going to be popular all this things stays times more if you did the logo by a professional

let your logo be simple how to make a simple logo?

make the colours look nice and with shapes and a simple font.

What is a typography , typography is the visual component of the written words there are lots of typography tutorials around to help you master the discipline . But good typography is often don to creative intention.

A typeface, like any form of design, is created by craftsmen over a period of time , using the talent they’ve been honing for many years.

typography is quite simple the art and technique of arranging type.It’s central to the skills of a designer and its about much moreqthen making words legible.

About business card.

Business cards are traditionally the primary way that business people present their contact information to other business people and potential customers or clients. A fundamental role of a business card is to quickly store contact information with someone.

The front of a cad normally

has the business person or professional business information. The back of a business card is usually black but not always.

A business card is to make you popular when anyone sees the business card

the know where is you place or your social accounts and the places number and let them know what is your idea of business.

cards are known when you go to a company to show your work and let them know your accounts and to contact you and save it when ever they need anything from your stuff.

What is a poster

A poster is any piece of printer paper designed to be attached to a wall or surface.

A poster includes both textual and graphic elements it has to be eye-catching and informative it’s designed to show on the wall of any shop or station.

In its most basic form,though,a poster is a temporary promotion of an idea,product , or event put up i a public space for mass consumption.

A poster is the most important to show the audience what makes your store special then others shows about your place how does it look how is it different.Your colours have to be eye-catching

What is a banner ?

A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, logo, slogan or other message. A flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms (but usually in a square or rectangular shape) is called a banner of arms. … Banner-making is an ancient craft Your advertising banner is most often the first thing to represent you, your site or organisation there for , the design of your banner should done by a professional and experienced banner designer or design.

the elements of a banner are-

1-Animation

2-Size

3- Intersation

4- Appropriate content.

What is a calendar?

A printed table showing all the days,weeks,and months of the year.

A list of events and dates within a particular year that are important for an organisation or for the people involved in a particular activity. There are a lot of types of calendars.

About the signboard

The signboard identifies as a station ,shop or a ship also identifying name displayed a name board is generally defined as any kind of graphic display intended to convey information to an audience.

The purpose of a sign is it helps knowing what kind of business it is

What is a paper bag

A paper bag is made of paper it helps you carry your stuff that you bought from any shop

Design of paper bags;

Keep it simple

be creative

make your logo big and bold for instant recognition.

Your paper bag has to be thick and not very light.

Paper bags come in two colours :Brown and White While brown paper bags are used more frequently than their white counterparts.The units used to measure the capacities of paper bags include ounces, pounds ,inches,pecks ,quarts, and liters.

My project is about A garage store

This store sells vintage stuff like clothes, bags, shoes and accessories. My store is influents by using recycled fabric to make a clutch out of it with arabic letters and names it comes with 1 to 5 colours. Because there aren’t a lot of fabric used from recycling because the fabric that i want for my accessories like denim,

My store has some used stuff and this money goes to charity.

My store is going to be in my house garage for starting my project.

My target audience will be teenagers and adults around 8 to 30 years old.The reason behind this project is to create awareness and habits in the community to not waste and recycle old fabrics. For my graphic design project I will be producing logo, business card, poster, calendar, name board, banner, paper bag

I saw an old movie with vintage clothes where i noticed the style and the clothes grabbed my attention,the dresses were pouffy and had off shoulders, also the jeans were baggy and big and it had different bright colours and i started thinking about how owning such clothes would bring character to your appearance and how it’s eye-catching and interesting so I want my final major project based on a vintage store

and the clutch idea my cousin and I have a business that makes a clutch from recycled fabric and alter arabic letters and the money goes to charity.

I will attach photos in appendix as an example of what we are producing in our store

I chose this idea for my project because I like wearing old vintage accessories and shoes and clothes, It looks interesting and unique nowadays not all people like old stylish clothes. My store is my idea of a shop because i get most inspired from vintage movies and there are a lot of vintage clothes and most of them are old but looks more nicer and beautiful then nowadays our clothes nowadays are inspired by old vintage clothes.

Most of my inspiration are from movies and old actresses and shows

like Marlin monroe , Elizabeth Taylor, Audrey Hepburn, Marlene

Dietrich,Rita Hayworth, Sophia Loren

They are the most old stylish actresses in the world

My project comes by any vintage thing i want to make our style old again.

My calendar

My poster

Development

The child sex ratio has ever been declining

The child sex ratio has ever been declining. It has been observed that there is a preference for the male child over the female. In desire of the male child, several malpractices were done and sex selective abortion and female feticide was on a rise. The situation was alarming. In wake of this the PCPNDT (Pre-
Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques) Act was enacted by the Government of India in the year 1994 to stop female feticide and arrest the declining sex ratio in India.
According to the 2011 census report, the child sex ratio of states like Rajasthan and Punjab was found to be as low as 888 and 846 respectively. It was surprising that urban and developed areas like Chandigarh had child sex ratio as low as 880. This was a blow to the thought that the rural and the uneducated preferred the male over the female. Similar trend was found in the urban areas including the educated masses. The concept of strong son preference in India was prevalent and deeply rooted. The mindsets of the people needed to be changed.
To bring in a new dawn and to end the darkness of malpractices like female feticide, the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi had called for the eradication of female feticide. The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) scheme was launched on 22 January 2015. It aims to generate awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services intended for girls. It also aims to address the issue of the declining child sex ratio image (CSR) and is a national initiative jointly run by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Ministry of Human Resource Development. It initially focused multi-sector action in 100 districts throughout the country where there was a low CSR.
The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme primarily constitutes of three pillars. It consists of an interplay of the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Health and Family Welfare (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare) and the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Strategies employed to successfully carry out the scheme are: Implementation of a sustained social mobilization and communication campaign to create equal value for the girl child and promote her education. Placing the issue of decline in child sex ratio/sex ratio at birth in public discourse, improvement of which would be an indicator for good governance.
The collaboration of these three departments have played an integral role in the success of the ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana’. The declining child sex ratio being a multidimensional and multi-faceted problem, it is of utmost importance that we understand that it is important for various departments and sectors to come together and join in hands to curb female feticide and improve the sex ratio by promoting education, enhancing health and making stricter laws to bring in revolutionary changes and reforms in the society.

Evaluate the benefit of promoting positive values

Evaluate the benefit of promoting positive values, attitudes and behaviour in children and young people. 4.2.1
All children are given explicit guidelines on their expected behaviour within the schools premises and all expectations are given in clear and precise manner paying attention of the relevant age range.
Good behaviour results from parent and adults rewarding the child with encouragement and positive words. If a child feels good about something that they have did and achieved they are more likely to repeat the good behaviour.
In an educational seating, anti-social behaviour would have a negative impact in the learning process of the children, and disturb the teaching and may have a long –term psychological affect in some learners and staff members too.
Creating a positive environment, would encourage independence and development of self-of esteem and enable children to care for themselves and be responsible for their own safety and take ownership of their own actions also take pride of their achievements. It stops all forms of bullying, racial and sexual harassment.
Also, developing a good standards of behaviour should be promoted across the school and from children’s home and parent’s discipline. It’s important to make it clear to the child so he/she will not have the same behaviour. When teachers recognising that children are behaving well and listen, then the teacher gives them praise for their good behaviour.
Once children realise they are obtaining teacher’s attention, then they will repeat having the same behaviour. If children want the teachers’ attention, then will know how to achieve it. Doing this will promote positive behaviour as B.F. Skinner discovered that it’s important to concentrate on the positives and certain behaviours can be changed and improved. The alternative such as nagging children to stop, being quiet, and sit down as that I am paying attention to children who are misbehaving.
Significant challenging behaviour is tough there is no combined description of what is a challenging behavour is. However different behaviours are acceptable in different situations such as screaming and shouting in football match but not during assembly or classroom, but it became challenging when it’s not appropriate in a given situation

1

1.How does this episode reflect the political reality of the 1950s? Write an original response that answers the question?

The Twilight Zone was the television series brocading during the 1950s, while the world was changing, so American society and culture too. This television series tries to capture the American mindset during the era. After World War II, Americans were hoped it will continuous for long time. Unfortunately, we involved in Korean war and same time cold war begins with Soviet Union. North Korea and Soviet Union, both countries were Communist as a result American leadership were sacred of it. There were Red Scare among American people. In the name of fighting communism, the people, media person, politicians were wrongfully accused. During the era, McCarthyism were in practice of making accusations of subversion and treason without proper evidence. President Truman signed and executive order to screen federal employees, Joseph McCarthy was the man behind it, he was senator from Wisconsin, and he tried to make American people Awareness that Communist especially Soviet Union can declare was any time. In the Twilight Zone episode, people were killing each other without proper evidence, people were panicking, sacred from each other. The episode clearly shows that people’s mindset, prejudice, thoughts are more dancegoers than bombs and explosions.

2. Which character best represents the thinking of Joseph McCarthy in this period, and why?

Character Named Charlie in the Twilight zone episode represent the Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy, He was the man behind spread the Red Scare in the States, eventually know as McCarthyism fear. During McCarthyism era he accused the many famous actors involved in communism, many federal employees were screened to check whether they worked as for Soviet Union spy agents. In the name of clean the communism from American society, the Government scared own people, accused them without any evidence. In the show, Charlie was the first character who started shooting and after that situation were chaos. So, in my opinion character Charlie is best represents the thinking of Joseph McCarthy in the episode.

Adsorption of brilliant green

Adsorption of brilliant green, toluidine blue and trypan blue dyes onto [email protected] was investigated by Batch technique. Well- Known concentration 25 mL of dye solution in different tubes at constant pH with specific amount of [email protected] were mixed for pumping 1h. The residual dye solution was measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer at ? max specializes for Br.G, To.B and Tr.B dyes to get absorbance. By knowing C? (initial concentration, mg/L) and Ce (concentration of dye remains, mg/L), V (volume of Br.G, To.B and Tr.B dyes) and m (gram added from [email protected]). The percentage removal (%E) of dyes and capacity of [email protected] was calculated by equations:
%E=(C?-C_e)/C?×100 (1)
Q=C?EV?m (2)

The Death Penalty Research Paper-Week 08 Olga Martinez Criminology SOCI3310 Professor Bremer July 22

The Death Penalty
Research Paper-Week 08
Olga Martinez
Criminology SOCI3310
Professor Bremer
July 22, 2018

THE DEATH PENALTY 2

The death penalty was introduced in the 18th Century B.C. in Babylon by King
Hammurabi in which they used the death penalty for 25 different crimes. The death penalty also
was used in the 14th and 7th Centuries but they were a bit harsher because they used the death
penalty for all crimes committed by individuals. In those centuries, death sentences included
crucifixion, burning alive, drowning and beating someone to death. Hanging became part of the
death penalty in the 10th Century A.D.. rulers allowed any forms of death sentences except for
William the Conqueror who did not allow hanging except in times of war and for treason.
Treason until present day can receive the death penalty. Henry VIII highest the rate of death
sentences in which totaled tom about 72,000 people under his reign and his methods of the death
penalty consistented of hanging, boiling, beheading, and even burning at the stake. By the 1700s,
the death penalty included offenses which in present day we call misdemeanors like stealing.
Juries would not convict many defendants if the offense was not too serious because the death
penalty was given for almost any petty crime committed. (Randa, 1977)
The death penalty came about in America by the British. When America was discovered
by Europeans they brought along the death penalty as means of capital punishment. The first
execution recorded in the colonies was Captain Goerge Kendall in Jamestown Colony in
Virginia in 1608. The Divine, Moral, and Marital Laws were enacted in 1612 by Governor Sir
Thomas Dale which allowed the death penalty to be used for minor offenses which we consider
misdemeanors in our time. The misdemeanors in our day and age receive a fine and/or 1-year
county jail time. In their time, petty theft would cost you your life. Other colonies like
Massachusetts created their own laws in which a defendant could get the death penalty and many
of their offenses were breaking the Ten Commandments. Dr. Benjamin Rush believed that the

THE DEATH PENALTY 3

death penalty was being used as a deterrent but instead it increased criminal conduct of
decreasing crime. (Schabas, 1997)
In America, Philadelphia was the first state to consider the death penalty by the degree of
crimes. In 1794, the state was using the death penalty only for first-degree murder. By this time,
many states started making penitentiaries to house criminals instead of just using the death
penalty. In the 1800s, the states started executing inmate inside the penitentiaries instead of
making them public. The last public execution was in 1936, where a Kentucky man was hung
and people from all the over that states came just to witness the executions. Some states even
charged an admission to watch the executions. Executions now can have relatives of victims and
prisoner, spiritual advisor, warden, and correctional officers but it also varies from state-state
policies. Michigan in 1846 was the first state to abolish the death penalty except of course the
death penalty in cases of treason. Rhode Island and Wisconsin followed Michigan in abolishing
the death penalty. (Bohm, 1999 and Schabas, 1997) Capital punishment was allowed for slaves
who committed just about any crime. In 1888, the first electric chair was created in New York
and in 1890, William Kemmler was the first inmate executed by the electric chair which we no
longer use because it was considered inhumane. As of 2004, the firing squad was no longer being
used as a method of execution, but it has returned since lethal injection is getting more
expensive, as a back-up for the lethal injection.
In the early 1900s, six more states had abolished the death penalty and three states were
using the death penalty for cases of treason or first-degree murder of a law enforcement official
but then as WWI progressed 5 out of the 6 states reinstated the death penalty. (Bedau, 1997 and
Bohm, 1999) Nevada was the first to try using cyanide gas as a method for the death penalty and
the first person executed with the cyanide gas was Gee John in which the penitentiary tried

THE DEATH PENALTY 4

pumping the gas into the cell which did not work out very well. During the Great Depression, it
saw its highest rate of executions than in any other decade. Texas currently has the highest rate
of executions since 1976 followed by Virginia but it doesn’t even come close to Texas. By the
70s, the inmates being executed had declined drastically.
By the 60s, the death penalty was being challenged as a cruel and unusual punishment. I
believe if you take someone’s life why should we spare you your life? There are crimes which
someone should be given the death penalty as their sentence especially in cases of children,
elderly, and handicapped because they obviously cannot defend themselves. The first case was
U.S. v. Jackson (390 U.S. 570), where the Supreme Court heard arguments regarding a provision
of the federal kidnapping statute requiring that the death penalty be imposed only upon
recommendation of a jury. The courts were not too happy with this idea because if the defendant
waived his right to trial by jury, the accused would be guaranteed not to receive the death penalty
as a punishment for crimes committed. The other 1968 case was Witherspoon v. Illinois (391
U.S. 510). In this case, the Supreme Court held that a potential juror’s mere reservations about
the death penalty were insufficient grounds to prevent that person from serving on the jury in a
death penalty case. Jurors could be disqualified only if prosecutors could show that the juror’s
attitude toward capital punishment would prevent him or her from making an impartial decision
about the punishment. In 1971, the Supreme Court again addressed the problems associated with
the role of jurors and their discretion in capital cases. The defendants argued it was a violation of
their Fourteenth Amendment right to due process for jurors to have unrestricted discretion in
deciding whether the defendants should live or die, and such discretion resulted in arbitrary and
capricious sentencing. The juror’s responsibility is to decide based on the facts and evidence if
someone is guilty or not guilty for the offenses they are being charged with. I’ve had jury duty

THE DEATH PENALTY 5

and you get asked basic questions, are you racist is basically one of the most important questions
asked.
There have been debates over the death penalty since the beginning of the death penalty,
is it humane or justifiable? Some people even state that we are not God to judge and take
someone’s life into our hands. I live in Texas and here we believe in an eye for eye especially
when it comes to crimes committed against children, elderly, handicapped, and law officials. The
issue of arbitrariness of the death penalty was again be brought before the Supreme Court in
1972 in Furman v. Georgia, Jackson v. Georgia, and Branch v. Texas (known collectively as the
landmark case Furman v. Georgia (408 U.S. 238)). Furman, like McGautha, argued that capital
cases resulted in arbitrary and capricious sentencing. Furman, however, was a challenge brought
under the Eighth Amendment, unlike McGautha, which was a Fourteenth Amendment due
process claim. With the Furman decision the Supreme Court set the standard that a punishment
would be “cruel and unusual” if it was too severe for the crime, if it was arbitrary, if it offended
society’s sense of justice, or it if was not more effective than a less severe penalty. After this
case, Florida and 34 other states proceeded to enact new death penalty statutes. These guided
discretion statutes were approved in 1976 by the Supreme Court in Gregg v. Georgia (428 U.S.
153), Jurek v. Texas (428 U.S. 262), and Proffitt v. Florida (428 U.S. 242), collectively referred
to as the Gregg decision. This landmark decision held that the new death penalty statutes in
Florida, Georgia, and Texas were constitutional, thus reinstating the death penalty in those states.
The Court also held that the death penalty itself was constitutional under the Eighth Amendment.
On January 17, 1977, Gary Gilmore was executed in Utah by a firing squad. That year,
Oklahoma became the first state to adopt the lethal injection as a means of execution. On

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December 7, 1982, Charles Brooks became the first person to be executed in Texas by the lethal
injection.
Like anything else in the legal field, there are some exceptions to the death penalty and
some I agree with and some I don’t for instance, if you brutally rape a woman but she survives
then the offender will not receive the death penalty. I believe in those cases, you try each case
differently depending on actual crime committed, how it was crime, what was used to rape or
sodomized the victim, and the lasting effects on the victim. If she was brutally raped and now is
confined to a wheelchair but the offender is still able to walk around the penitentiary, how is that
justice for the victim. The Supreme Court does not allow people are legally insane to be given
the death penalty which is understandable, but too may offenders try to use the insanity card in
their cases. Juvenile offenders are also an exception to the death penalty because of their age and
mental ability. Currently in the United States, 19 states with the death penalty will not execute
anyone under the age of 18.
Women are no exception to the death penalty, the first woman to be executed in the
United States was Jane Champion back in 1632 in Virginia, she was hung but her crime has been
never known. In 1633, a second woman in Virginia, Margaret Hatch, was hung for murder. The
first woman in Texas to be executed by hanging was Chipita Rodriguez in 1863 for murder.
Texas which has the rate of executions, also has the highest rate of women executions, since
1976, 16 women have been executed. Women are only about 3% of all executions in the United
States.
In Texas, since 1976 to present time, 552 offenders have been executed. Texas which has
the rate of executions accounts for about one-third of all executions in the United States. In my
town of Lubbock, we have had about 25 executions from Lubbock or around our city. The crime

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of murder in Texas must be a capital offense which includes murdering a law official or public
safety official, commit murder while committing another crime like robberyor aggravated
kidnapping, commit murder while escaping from a penitentiary or murders an official of the
prison unit or other inmate, murders multiple victims at one time, or murders anyone under the
age of 10 years of age.

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References

Amnesty International, “List of Abolitionist and Retentionist Countries,” Report ACT 50/01/99,
Updated June 2004
Baker, D. “A Descriptive Profile and Socio-Historical Analysis of Female Executions in the
United States: 1632-1997”; 10(3) Women and Criminal Justice 57 (1999)
Bedau, H., editor, “The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies,” Oxford University
Press, 1997.
Bohm, R. “Deathquest: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Capital Punishment in the
United States,” Anderson Publishing, 1999.
O’Shea, K., “Women and the Death Penalty in the United States, 1900-1998,” Praeger 1999.
Randa, L., editor, “Society’s Final Solution: A History and Discussion of the Death Penalty,”
University Press of America, 1997.
Schabas, W. “The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law,” Cambridge University
Press, second edition, 1997.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment_in_Texas#Capital_crimes

Although CSR initiatives

Although CSR initiatives, it has wins and flaws as it continues to be the part of the most important aspects of business. According to Bryan Horrigan (2010) “there is no definite answer to what CSR is owing to the high level of ambiguity and controversy related to the topic”, but the are those who think otherwise, and each formidable evidence on their stance on why they are for against CSR. Which leaves the question if the global economy should or should not implement it? On one hand enacting CSR: improves the rep for the corporation giving competition edge, grows the attraction and retention of employees, the government loosens up on mandating harsh rules to keep companies inline, brings in more capital inflow by the new-found customers and generation of renewable and clean sources of natural energy. We see leaders in corporations agree that social responsibility is correct thing to do, but few can articulate a strong analytical foundation for this belief (Eric C., origins of CSR 1, 27 May. 2017). For, it holds flaws such as no financial benefit to the corporation will come or consequences in implementing. Which is viewed as the general purpose to satisfy shareholders and suppliers. A Company’s reputation might take a hit, if they have to disclose shortcomings of their own products if they are found to violate the CSR program. An example would be a phone manufacturing company calling back or having to replace many of phones when they are found to have glitches after sales or CSR programs also increase expenditure of the company’s production. Another flaw to implementing CSR would be, CSR being used as a cover for failure of executing what a company claims to be their purpose, used as a loop hole to gain edge over the market. As the recent Volkswagen case. Where “the company set out to design a means to circumvent emissions control- a stratagem known at the highest levels with the aim of giving the company an unfair advantage over its competitors. Meanwhile it was poisoning the planet” (Enrique Dan’s, Forbes, 27 Sept. 2015). In the same article Enrique says ” the sad truth is that this conclusion applies to vast majority of companies: a head of CSR is appointed, given an air of respectability, and runs a department the job of which is to keep the company’s image clean, despite the filth it is mired in, as is clearly the case with Volkswagen. The vehicles poisoned the planet by emitting 40 times the legal limit of nitrogen oxide.
Through Volkswagen and others, the environment today is in major upheaval, with resources diminishing and climate change affecting the earth’s surroundings and inhabitants. With the planet’s picture despoiled , harried and population outcry for immediate action. A corporation like Marks and Spencer’s by Richard Gillies brings forth its famous ‘Plan A’ as a counteractive to the environmental problems, which looks over CSR as just Philanthropy but a non-negotiable purpose. (life and death of CSR parag 3. 27 June 2018. Foundation forum, Anthony Hilton, ED Smith, John O’Farrell, London Evening standard, PWC). So far, the company has reduced its energy and packaging by 25 percent, cut waste by 40 percent and eliminated recourse to landfill. Gillies adds, “it’s a journey that goes step by step” a corporation has to be sustainable satisfying its shareholders, then move on to all other stakeholders. He states three main points in which they were considered to enable, 5 years with no waste going to landfill or careless disposal of plastic: society and the environment is non-negotiable, the pressure to change as a company is an opportunity, and this opportunity dwarfs the threat of doing nothing.
The environments brutal state due to business manufacturing and production, has become one of the major issues that companies implementing CSR are focusing on. Just like M&S another company that has taken initiative of business sustainability, the environment and the customer society is Maple leaf food, a protein company. Which according to Lynda Kuhn the senior vice president, public affairs and purpose champion, at her presentation at (the soul of the Next Economy Forum 2018,) says “their goal is working toward more sustainable food production more sustainable protein industry.” To attain sustainability as a business, she says is to move towards shared value, an idea by Michael porter, “the interception of the worlds needs in our own capabilities.” The company has taken initiative in these three areas: product development, such as reducing and eliminating the use of antibiotic in raising their animals which reduces environmental impacts, animal welfare and increase in nutritional value. Using resources more efficiently and lowering costs, by reducing environmental footprint in energy consumption, waste, and water usage, improving waste diversion rate, which since their baseline year 2014 they have reduced electricity by 70786 (MWH), 6428408 Meters cubed natural gas and 986519 meters cubed in water (mapleleaffoods.com, 2018). The goal being reduce environmental footprint by 50% by 2025. Which has given Maple foods, an edge in the market and opportunity in becoming the North American leader in pork grazed without antibiotics and number one in Canadian poultry. Lynda talks of in bending conservation into every element of their business, that to be sustainable they as a company must be responsive to the needs of society. There is proof of this in where in 2016, Maple leaf centre for action on food security opened. A registered charity to work collaboratively to reduce food insecurity by 50% by 2030. Meeting the external needs of the world in creating products and services that help the worlds society flourish as Van Duzer sates in his book (why Bus matters to God, Duzer).
Continuing in the aspects that Van Duzer highlights of business having an intrinsic value, the Coca-Cola company. Is working on bringing more prosperity to communities and meaningful, purposeful work for employees specifically women, by starting the 5by20 program in 2010. Whose purpose aims to empower young women entrepreneurs, creating programs that uniquely address the barriers they face in the global initiative, local context and to bring five million women into their business by 2020 (Coca-Cola company.com, journey, 5by20. 24 Aug. 2018). According to jerry wind, the academic director of Wharton university of Pennsylvania, “research suggests that such an investment in women, like Coca-Cola is in, can have a multiplier effect that leads not only to increased revenues and more workers for business but helps the community flourish” (Mehak Kaur, linked in, the importance of a CSR strategy. 4 Aug.2015). The company suggests that when more women work, the economy grows, due to having more workers and new ideas. The program has enabled more than 660000 women entrepreneurs in 2017 and has broadened it across the globe, the program has reached and helped more than 2.4 million women across the world. In, this Coca-Cola has created a valuable brand representation in their CSR initiatives. That separates them to new pillars, with new market, increase in revenue and satisfaction of shareholders while being socially conscious.
Being socially responsible within corporations is key, for a business’s sustainability and as “Van duzer” states in his book it engages companies, in work that matters to God. For, he believes that the material world matters to God, and that him that created it “declared it good” and it was for the humans to flourish(why Bus matter to God,chap1). So, when business produce material things or services that enhance the welfare of the community they are engaged in work that matters to God, and that’s what CSR is. For, companies not to work focusing on return on investment, but also for the non-negotiable responsibility, focusing on its surroundings and population, “business done in this manner has intrinsic value, not merely instrumental value” (chap1). Duzer, states that men and women were given the responsibility to facilitate flourishing, called to be stewards. Van Duzer says that acknowledging this is the first step in understanding the intentions of business in the society and Gods intention. In, which CSR is the stewardship, to which companies are to recognize that given “the core competencies of their organization, it’s the people, society’s and the assets under its control.”
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