The most important thing that we do during our lives is learning

The most important thing that we do during our lives is learning, learning in different context
and situation. We have learned that education is a science that it had been studied for many
years and a lot of authors.
When you are involved in the world of education you start wondering about your experiences
in learning and how these change your perspective in life. This course helped us to think about
our previous experiences and to link with the main theories of the ed ucation.
The education in schools is something than it is obligatory in the majority of the countries but
when we have to think about our personal learning experiences the school is not the only
place where they took place. The maturity that children acqu ire through their experience
increase the complex reasoning they need to learn and transform this experiences in
significant learning.
Our experie nces start in our most closely environment which is ours families and friendships .
There are a lot of things that affects our knowledge, the context is the principal. It is not the
same to be born in a family wit h resources than in the poverty. F ortunately , we have in Europe
the opportunity to study, in the majority of the cases, for free and with really good sch olarship
program. The things that affect the learning experiences in children are the social c lass ,
ethnicity , g ender , disability, religion, poverty, n ationality …
According to education , it is not the sam e born as a woman than born as a man, or born in
Pe kin than born here, in t he UK. The educational systems are different in all the countries. Ass
well the situation in their houses is linked too, the rearing , siblings, school -home relationships.
Something that we can do to ease the impact of social differe nces is a school are: Improve
tutor -family communication, p oint out social exclusion and inform about that (economi cs and
support measures needed), o rganize intercultural and recreational activities with children ,
organize awareness programs, report exclus ion situations and n otice any issue related to
scholar absenteeism .
I think that the relationship between the teachers and the families it is something esse ntial in
the growth of a child. The obligation of a good teacher is to improve a better relationship
between them and children’s families, this will mean the key of success for the children . This
would reduce the inequalities children have for their different background.
About those learning experiences some authors studied how the children cognition wor ks, and
we have s tudied three essential theories: Behaviourist, Constructivist and Social Constructivist .
I’m going to explain this theories for them could make linked with my personals learning
The behaviourist is based on objectively obser vable behaviou rs and not in mental activities.
The main authors of this theory are Watson and Skinner. This is explain for the authors telling
that the psychology should operate as a s cience, with empirical data, observation and
measurement. This is the re ason for not observe how a child mind works, because the
behaviourist only focuses on observable events and this can be scientifically measured . We can
observe behaviourism in a lot of schools, we examine children to know how much they have

learned (observ able events). We must ask ourselves why we don’t think about how they learn
against how much they learn. This fact affect in our learning experiences. We think as learners
that we have to pass an exam, but when we passed we forgot all the contents and we r ealise
that there isn’t meaningful knowledge. The principal author of this theory is Skinner.
Another theory to understand the learning experiences and how they affect is the
Constructivist theory of learning established by Jean Piaget. Piaget (1988) thoug ht that the
actions of a child in the world were the things that improved their development. For Piaget a
child was a ‘little scientist’ because th ey start to understand the world through their own
discoveries. One thing that is very important to explain t he learning experiences an d how they
change us is the state disequilibrium of Piaget. When in front of a child there is something that
is totally unfamiliar appear a conflict in the child’s concept. This conflict is positive for the child
because this help s the growth of knowledge. We live in a constant conflict because we are
active learners.
The last theory that in going to talk about to analyse the learning experiences is the Social
Constructivist. The Constructivism theory says that all the children are active in the building of
their own knowledge. Vygotsky (1978) said that to this process the most important thing is the
social interaction and also the social context. The human race brings with it a genetic
sociocultural code that permits the capacity o f interact. Vygotsky talks too about the Zone of
proximal development, this is about the things that a child can do but with help of an adult or
most able students , because there are skills too difficult to do by their own. This theory can
help the teache rs to increase the children’s knowledge trough the motivation of the
cooperative learning. It’s very important in this area to consider the background of the pupil,
this fact could change the behaviour in the class and with the other partners.
Vygotsky tal k too about the importance of playing. Playing like a socio -cultural resource. Play
can increase the attention and the memory in a child. When a child learn something through
play this will improve the knowledge making it meaningful.
I’m going to talk abou t my own learning experiences and how I think they ha ve changed my
perspective in education. The most important experience that have change d me is my
exchange in Germany that I talk about in the task 1.
I´m from a small city in the south of Spain called Cádiz. My high school has established
agreements with other high schools around Europe. These agreements allow students to go
abroad for a few weeks to learn different languages. I choose to go to Wuppertal, a city in the
North of Germany. I was studying t here in a school called Pina -Baush Getsamtshule. I was
living there with my exchange partner and her family, while she was attended my same high
school. Living with this family was one of the parts of my Learning experience because they
were from a differe nt social class than mine. In Spain the salary is quite lower than in Germany
and their houses, so I could sense a different way of life. This different background made me
think about education and how important is the social context of the person who stud ies.
The school was in the middle of de field in a very green part, whit orchard and playground for
the small ones, in Spain that is unusual and this impact to me, because the schools in Spain
usually have only a building (big or small, depending of the s chool) and a recreation area. I

think this is because the money that Germany invests in education is greater than in Spain and
that and that made me think about how education in Spain is undervalued.
Here we can think about Vygotsky (1978) and how he thou ght the social interaction is very
important in cognitive development. When you do an exchange the most important part is the
relationship between the partner s, and how a person is able to deal with it in a totally different
context with unknown persons. I was there for three weeks. Living like them, meting a lot of
people of the schools and going out with them. These parts of my Learning Experience in
Germany were a way to build my self -confidence and learn to communicate to others in
another language. Com munication was a tough aspect of my trip because all of us had to speak
in a different language from the mother tongue (all of us had to speak in English). But, in the
end, it was interesting to be involved in this new learning experience.
The friends that I made and the fact that we still keeping in touch, the feedback learning
English was so important. The feedbacks in students learning ensure optimal outcomes of
education. (Lipnevich and Smith 2009)
When I went abroad I was 16. I was a minor and at the b eginning I was a bit afraid of the age –
gap between me and my schoolmates: they were all aging between 18 and 20. In addition,
they all were in higher level than mine. But this only made me to enhance my learning process.
The weather was something different too: in Spain the temperatures are much higher and for
me that was strange because it was the first time that I was abroad living in a totally different
place. Another problem to deal with was the food, because In Spain the quality of the food is
higher o n average. Anyway, all of the toughness was soften by th e astonishing green
This experience was very important for me because I learned to deal with a very different
environment from my birthplace. In fact I had to leave my comfort zone behind and that is the
most powerful learning that I´ve ever done.
Another experience that has left me with a bigger internal handicap than I dare to admit is my
piano lessons in the conservatory of music. It all began in very good way, I used to play the
piano s ince I was 4 years old. Then I decid e to enter in the conservatory, at first it was funny to
know mor e friends with the same hobbies. In the third grade I was with a teacher that I didn’t
like at all. I think that this experience is the worst I live throug h education. She always told me
that I was the worst student that she ever had and I worked very hard all the days. I used to
love playing the piano but with this situation I start hate playing. I realised all the negative
things that this bring me when I start to have stage fright. Nowadays I’ m unable to play in front
of someone else, I only do to myself.
This situat ion made me think a lot of education and the things that teachers must avoid. The
motivation is something essential to make a child learn in the best conditions. When you don’t
have someone that make you feel safe in your educational environment this will provide you
bad situation especially when you are a child with not criterion and building your own self –
esteem. Maslow (1968) talk about motivation a nd he made a hierarchy of needs. We can see
in the top the esteem needs and the need for self -actualization . We can see that the need for

achievement, competence, respect and to realize our fullest potential are real needs, I think
that we have to try to help the children in their needs as teachers.
Making this assessment I realise that we can study a lot o f education theories, but if we don’t
look in retrospect all the learning experiences that we have lived we can’t be self -critical in our
work as educators. When you think of an experience in your life that give you better skills and
you think at the same time in the people around you in that moment you can remember who
they make you feel. And you can ask yourself: this feelings help me to move forward or only to
stagnate? And then you can conclude how you want to be as a teacher and how you want to
make fe lt. Like Sydney J. Harris (1994) said ‘ the whole purpose o f education is it to turn mirror
into windows ‘

Meadows, Sara. The Child As Thinker : The Development and Acquisition of Cognition in
Childhood, Routledge, 1993. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Ginsburg, H. and Opper, S. (1969). Piaget’s theory of intellectual development. Engle wood
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice -Hall.
Berk, L.E., 1994. Vygotsky’s theory: The importance of make -believe play. Young children,
50(1), pp.30 -39.
Lipnevich A, Smith J. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, vol. 21, issue 4
(2009) pp. 347 -367
Jaramillo, J.A., 1996. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory and contributions to the development of
constructivist curricula. Education, 117(1), pp.133 -141.
Maslow, A.H., 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychological review, 50(4), p.370.
Brown, V.A., Harris , J.A. and Russell, J.Y. eds., 2010. Tackling wicked problems through the
transdisciplinary imagination. Earthscan.
Coger de mi power point las ‘references’ pq he copiado el PP

Sierra Leone is located on the coast of West Africa facing the Atlantic Ocean

Sierra Leone is located on the coast of West Africa facing the Atlantic Ocean. Freetown Capital of Sierra Leone largest city in Sierra Leone major port city in the Atlantic Ocean. Sierra Leone was colonized by British abolitionist in 1787. In 1808, the British government began to administer the colony. Although some people resisted the British influence, many saw this colonization as an opportunity for a better life.The British Committee decided to create a town in Africa for freed slaves. The British settlers landed in Sierra Leone and named the port city Freetown, which is still the capital of Sierra Leone today.


Today, no different to any other. The sheets of rain were pelting against my window. The heavy looking clouds were looming over me. I couldn’t help but reminisce what happened this time last year.
All of this thought about Gatsby was consuming me. My eternal guilt for what had happened this exact day was making me feel wheezy. Mr Wilson brutally shooting Jay Gatsby into his extravagant pool in his house, was as if someone sawed off my right leg. Gatsby’s once beautiful body floating right in the middle of his pool was brutal. It had felt like an eternity since I have expressed these feelings. The gloomy day was a great representation the feelings I was experiencing.

The past year has been excruciatingly hard. Not once did I speak to Tom about my feelings, I didn’t attend his funeral which still haunts me to this day and I haven’t spoken to anyone about it. This all made me feel pessimistic. I feel as if I hadn’t experienced little to any joy.

Overtime I believe I would have eventually left Tom for Gatsby. Tom makes me feel as if I am bounded to him. I feel like I’m just to show off to his friends as a status symbol. Gatsby showed me unconditional love. In his letter before my wedding he told me of how he dazed endlessly into the green light at my dock. However, when he organised to meet up with me at Nick’s house It was rather awkward and

The official name for Italy in English is Italian republic

The official name for Italy in English is Italian republic, so Italy is a country in central Europe, it’s also a peninsula in Mediterranean Sea, surrounded with land borders with, Switzerland, Austria, France, and Slovenia. (Clark, Nangeroni, Powell, Signoretta,2018)
The capital is Rome and it considers one of the oldest cities.
Italy is a member of the European Union and the G8 and it means the 8th largest gross domestic product in the world.
According to world meters website show that current population, of Italy 15 April 2018 was 59,305,479 and it equals 0.78 percent of the world’s population, and its about 2.6 millions for people under 5 years old, 38.2 millions between 15 and 64 years and 13.4 millions older than 65. The median age in Italy 46.3 years. (world meters,2018)
Moreover, according to human development reports showed, life expectancy at birth in years is 83.3, infant mortality rate peer 1000 live births is 2.9, public health expenditure percent of GDP is 7 (Human Development Reports, (n.d.)

Arduino is an open source

Arduino is an open source, PC equipment and programming organization, venture, and client group that outlines and produces Single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller packs for building advanced gadgets and intuitive articles that can detect and control questions in the physical world. The venture’s items are circulated as open-source equipment and programming, which are authorized under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) or the GNU General Public License (GPL), permitting the make of Arduino sheets and programming dispersion by anybody. Arduino sheets are accessible economically in preassembled shape, or as do-it-without anyone else’s help packs.
Arduino board plans utilize an assortment of chip and controllers. The sheets are outfitted with sets of computerized and simple info/yield (I/O) sticks that might be interfaced to different extension sheets (shields) and different circuits. The sheets highlight serial correspondences interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on a few models, which are likewise utilized for stacking programs from PCs. The microcontrollers are ordinarily modified utilizing a vernacular of elements from the programming dialects C and C++. Notwithstanding utilizing customary compiler toolchains, the Arduino extend gives a coordinated improvement condition (IDE) in light of the Processing dialect extend.
The Arduino extend begun in 2003 as a program for understudies at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy, expecting to give a minimal effort and simple path for tenderfoots and experts to make gadgets that associate with their condition utilizing sensors and actuators. Normal cases of such gadgets proposed for tenderfoot specialists incorporate straightforward robots, indoor regulators, and movement identifiers.

2.3.2 Arduino Hardware

Arduino is open-source equipment. The equipment reference plans are conveyed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 permit and are accessible on the Arduino site. Format and generation records for a few adaptations of the equipment are additionally accessible. The source code for the IDE is discharged under the GNU General Public License, variant 2. Nevertheless, an official Bill of Materials of Arduino sheets has never been discharged by Arduino staff.

Although the equipment and programming plans are unreservedly accessible under copyleft licenses, the designers have asked for that the name Arduino be restrictive to the official item and not be utilized for inferred works without consent. The official arrangement record on utilization of the Arduino name stresses that the venture is interested in fusing work by others into the authority product. Several Arduino-good items monetarily discharged have stayed away from the venture name by utilizing different names finishing in – duino.
An early Arduino board with a RS-232 serial interface (upper left) and an Atmel ATmega8 microcontroller chip (dark, bring down right); the 14 computerized I/O pins are at the top, the 6 simple info pins at the lower right, and the power connector at the lower left.
Most Arduino sheets comprise of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller (ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, ATmega2560) with changing measures of blaze memory, sticks, and elements. The 32-bit Arduino Due, in light of the Atmel SAM3X8E was presented in 2012. The sheets utilize single or twofold line pins or female headers that encourage associations for programming and joining into different circuits. These may associate with extra modules named shields. Numerous, and conceivably stacked shields might be separately addressable by means of an I²C serial transport. Most sheets incorporate a 5 V direct controller and a 16 MHz precious stone oscillator or clay resonator. A few plans, for example, the LilyPad, keep running at 8 MHz and abstain from the locally available voltage controller because of shape calculate confinements.
Arduino microcontrollers are pre-modified with a boot loader that streamlines transferring of projects to the on-chip streak memory. The default bootloader of the Arduino UNO is the optiboot bootloader. Sheets are stacked with program code by means of a serial association with another PC. Some serial Arduino sheets contain a level shifter circuit to change over between RS-232 rationale levels and transistor–transistor rationale (TTL) level signs. Current Arduino sheets are customized by means of Universal Serial Bus (USB), actualized utilizing USB-to-serial connector chips, for example, the FTDI FT232. A few sheets, for example, later-demonstrate Uno sheets, substitute the FTDI chip with a different AVR chip containing USB-to-serial firmware, which is reprogrammable by means of its own ICSP header. Different

variations, for example, the Arduino Mini and the informal Boarduino, utilize a separable USB-to-serial connector board or link, Bluetooth or different techniques, when utilized with conventional microcontroller instruments rather than the Arduino IDE, standard AVR in-framework programming (ISP) writing computer programs is utilized.
The Arduino board uncovered most the microcontroller’s I/O pins for use by different circuits. The Diecimila, Duemilanove, and current Uno give 14 computerized I/O pins, six of which can deliver beat width regulated signs, and six simple information sources, which can likewise be utilized as six advanced I/O pins. These pins are on the highest point of the board, by means of female 0.1-inch (2.54 mm) headers. A few module application shields are additionally monetarily accessible. The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-perfect Bare Bones Board and Boarduino sheets may give male header sticks on the underside of the board that can connect to solderless breadboards.
Numerous Arduino-good and Arduino-inferred sheets exist. Some are practically proportional to an Arduino and can be utilized reciprocally. Many upgrade the essential Arduino by including yield drivers, regularly for use in school-level instruction, to improve making carriages and little robots. Others are electrically identical however change the shape consider, occasionally holding similarity with shields, some of the time not. A few variations utilize distinctive processors, of changing similarity.

Charcoal has been considered a source of fuel for many Filipino people especially in the rural areas

Charcoal has been considered a source of fuel for many Filipino people especially in the rural areas. According to The Central Echo (2011), more than 90% of Filipinos use charcoal for cooking. While 1-2% use Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) or kerosene due to high cost of living. However, making charcoal means cutting trees. As a result, only species of trees that do not burn well are left in our forest. Therefore, there is a compelling need to find alternative fuel sources and new methods that can minimize the need for charcoal (The Central Echo, 2011).

Paper is the major contributor of solid waste by either weight or volume. Yet it is highly recyclable and can be manufactured into some other materials. Thus, paper charcoal was introduced as an alternative for charcoal. Also, it will not destroy our forests and ravage mother earth but instead, this will help minimize solid waste and reduce forest denudation due to charcoal making (The Central Echo, 2011).


Future Aspects

Future Aspects
? Soon it will be possible to access the data in smart cards by the use of biometrics.
? Smart card readers can be built into future computer or peripherals which will enable the users to pay for good purchased on the internet.
The smart card being most secure and proven for its security, but was not popular amount the payment schemes. The financial institutions were watching the developments in the area of smart card, until it get mature.

But inspite of its proven capability in the area of security, smart card failed to get enough popularity. One of the reasons of it is the lack of acceptance by the user.
The penetrations of mobile device like mobile phone and PDA have made a significant impact in the area of e commerce.

The mobile operators are also try to sell “Hard” their product by providing additional value added services. Even the Customer wants to have useful application in their mobile devices. The financial institutions are looking for a new revenue generation business and M-Commerce is one of those new areas.

Steps are taken by the financial organization to set the standards for m-commerce. From the above discussion it is evident that the financial institute, mobile operator and customer are looking towards a reliable, flexible and proven frame work for mobile commerce.
If this frame work is in place and supported by financial institutes, then customer will trust the new scheme and mobile commerce is going to be new area of commerce
Learn how smart cards do more than just open doors

Smart cards—cards with embedded integrated circuits that can process information—offer a number of features that provide or enhance privacy protection in an access-control system. Check out the following:
Authentication. Smart cards provide ways to authenticate others who want to gain access to the card. These mechanisms can be used to validate users, devices, or applications wishing to use the data on the card’s chip. These features can protect privacy by ensuring that a banking application has been authenticated as having the appropriate access rights before accessing financial data or functions on the card, for example.
Secure data storage. Smart cards provide a way to securely store data on the card. This data can only be accessed through the smart-card operating system by those with proper access rights. This feature can be utilized by a system to enhance privacy by storing personal user data on the card rather than in a central database, for example. In this situation, the user has better knowledge and control of when their personal data is being granted access—and who is involved.
Encryption. Smart cards provide a robust set of encryption capabilities, including key generation, secure key storage, hashing, and digital signing. These capabilities can be used to protect privacy in many ways. For example, a smart-card system can produce a digital signature for an e-mail message, providing a way to validate the e-mail’s authenticity. This protects the message from being tampered with, and also provides the recipient with assurance about origination. The fact that the signing key originated from a smart card adds credibility to the origin and the intent of the signer.

Strong device security. Smart-card technology is extremely difficult to duplicate or forge, and has built-in tamper resistance. Smart-card chips include a variety of hardware and software capabilities that detect and react to tampering attempts, and help counter possible attacks.

Secure communications. Smart cards provide secure communication between the card and reader. Similar to security protocols used in many networks, this feature allows smart cards to send and receive data in a secure, private manner.
Biometrics . Smart cards provide ways to securely store biometric templates and perform biometric matching functions. These features can be used to improve privacy in systems that use biometrics. For example, storing fingerprint templates on smart cards rather than in a central database can be an effective way to increase privacy in a single sign-on system that uses fingerprint biometrics as the single sign-on credential.

Personal device. A smart card is, of course, a personal and portable device associated with a particular cardholder. The smart-card plastic is often personalized, providing an even stronger binding to the cardholder. These features, while somewhat obvious, can be leveraged to improve privacy. For example, a healthcare application might elect to store prescription information on the card vs. on paper to improve the accuracy and privacy of patient prescriptions.

The Princeton Junction, NJ-based Smart Card Alliance is a not-for-profit, multi-industry association working to stimulate the understanding, adoption, use, and widespread application of smart-card technology.
The future of Smart Cards is looking bright. The many existing and potential benefits smart card has to offer both the public and the private sectors of the industry raise the interests of many large corporations such as Wachovia and Motorola. Compared to the conventional magnetic stripe cards, smart cards offer increase security, convenience, and economic advantages. Reducing fraud, reducing time to complete redundant paperwork, and having the potential to have one card to access diverse networks and applications are just some of such examples. The discussion for the future of the smart card across the global industries can be divided into public and private sectors and are discussed below.

Public Services
With the increase in the application development (due to the implementation of the smart card standards) and reducing cost in technology, plans for the card’s usage have increased. However, majority of the applications are either being piloted or implemented in Europe, but are not widely accepted in the U.S. just yet.
Health Services
Health cards with multiple functions are issued to patients in France. The card can be used to store information such as administrative, medical, biological, and pharmaceutical records. The card simplifies the administrative process and enables doctors to have access to a more complete and comprehensive healthcare information.
Multifunction ID cards are issued to students at university campuses and schools. The card has the function of identifying the student and also acts as an electronic purse and can be used purchase products from stores or tickets to public transportation.
Rechargeable contact-less cards allow ticket-less and cash-less travels. Parking and telecommunications can also be paid using the smart card. This will simplify the passenger boarding process.
Card can be used to identify the holder using a series of personal keys and fingerprint. The card holder then uses the card to access government databases and receive the welfare payment. The security will help eliminate fraud.
Entitlement Documents
Information such as those on a driver’s license can be stored on the smart card, along with an up-to-date driving records including fines and offenses. The new system can help the government keep track of individual’s records and have a higher successful rate in collecting fines.
Card can be stored with cash values and thus remove coins from public phones. This will reduce vandalism and operating costs, and increase revenue (study has shown that people using the card tend to talk longer on the phone).
According to Andy Honeywood of Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency in Norwich, England, application in the future most likely will continue to increase. However, central/federal government will probably implement the applications at a slower rate than the lower level government/public organizations. The reason being that the applications for the higher government require more security and involve greater privacy issues, thus makes the applications more difficult to develop and costly to deliver. Nonetheless, the central/federal government may reap great benefits by implementing the smart card system in the future.
Private Industry
Originally developed as a stored-value card to make small value transactions (; than $20) easier. Today, over 80% of transactions are in the form of cash. Using smart card can lower transaction cost, handling cost, and costs associated with banking system infrastructure supports. The card will bring much conveniences to the consumers by combing the functions of multiple cards into one and given the ability to make transactions on/off line and peer-to-peer. The card is currently widely used in Western Europe and Asia, and which leads to potential advancement in markets such as banking, Internet, and electronic commerce.
The limitations of the magnetic stripe and the problems with fraud and bad debt can make smart cards a better choice. It not only can store 80 times more information than the traditional card, it can also help banks to have better control over credit risks by enabling banks to customize credit lines based on individual cardholder’s risk profiles and alter the parameters dynamically as needed. Also, the financial institutes can also offer more personalized products and services to fit cardholder’s lifestyles.
The card can contain all necessary personal data for easier Web connection and personalize networking. The card, with all personal information such as user’s ID, e-mails, settings for electronic appliances, and phone numbers stored on the card itself instead of a remote device, will be able to allow network connection anywhere globally as long as there is a phone or an information kiosk. As appliances become generic tools, users will have the convenience of carrying the card alone to have a personalized networking experience.
Electronic Commerce
According to the Gartner Group, it is expected that Internet purchasing will grow to $20 billion by 2000 worldwide, with security and portability in payment transaction over the network continue to play an integral roles to the success of this marketplace. SET protocol will provide a mean to transport customer data and payments information securely over the Internet without having to be locked into using one PC. Electronic cash stored on cards will enable consumers to make micropayments (penny-payments) over the internet.

According to Dataquest, 3.4 billion smart cards will be used worldwide by 2001. Activity growth is about 30% per year, mostly outside of the U.S. About 70% of the card were used in Western Europe, and about 10% each in South America and Asia, while North America accounts for less than 5%. However, Dataquest, another market-research firm, expects that by 2001, Europe will account for only 40% of the card shipments, Asia 25%, and Americas 20%. The Insight Research Corp expects the smart card to grow to about $2.8 billion by year 2002. Also, the smart card industry will grow steadily over the next 5 years, especially in cards and devices, harnessing the power of electronic commerce. In addition, 95% digital wireless phone services will mostly likely be using smart cards worldwide. The areas that are predicted to have the greatest potential growth in the next 3 years are Asia, Latin America, and North America.

In the States and Worldwide
Smart cards are mostly accepted in Europe and Asia, especially in the less developed countries where consumers and businesses do not trust checks and other debt instruments. Other reasons are that in those countries there may be a high incidence of inflation, fraud, crime, and other factors that draw them to implement smart card technology. In the U.S., the credit cards and ATM card are working very well that Americans are hesitant to switch to this unfamiliar technology. One of the reasons is their concern over security in having money stored on a card. However, pilot projects are being implemented to test consumer’s future acceptance. Transit authorities in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Finland are taking up this challenge. Canada’s Quebec Soccer Federation will try registering members at the tournaments using the smart card system, and McDonald’s restaurants will test out accepting the card as payments. Ohio and Wyoming will test this technology to make government benefit payments. Globally, smart card are currently being use for payphones, wireless telephony, Internet access, banking, healthcare, and payTV.
Smart cards may look like any other plastic card with a magnetic stripe on the back, but they're a radically different technology. While consumer advertising has tried to downplay the differences between smart cards and normal credit cards — other than to tout them as "safer" — the differences are what make smart cards worth considering.
1. Persistent, protected storage. Persistent storage is an obvious piece of the smart card, and one that makes it similar to an ordinary mag-stripe card. Smart cards have memory; how much memory depends on the application, but 4K to 32K is typical. While this is dramatically more than what can be stored on a mag-stripe card, the key to the storage is protection: You can't just wipe the card against a reader and expect to pull everything off it. While experts have determined that a scanning electron microscope can circumvent the protection built into a smart card, this is not the kind of tool you can pick up at Radio Shack.
2. Processing power. Most smart cards have a small CPU, which means that they can do things other than parrot data stored in the card. The CPU can protect the information, for example, by requiring the user to enter a PIN code. Here's where smart cards have a huge advantage over mag-stripe cards: the CPU can count. Get the PIN code wrong seven times, and the CPU may refuse to let you try again for an hour or a day. Or, with some applications, the CPU may simply wipe the information if you get it wrong too many times, or force you to call a customer support number to retrieve a special unlock code.
In fact, the smart card may never have to actually give up the data at all. For example, when smart cards are used with X.509 digital certificates for applications such as VPN or Windows 2000 authentication, the private key part of the public/private key pair linked to the certificate never leaves the card. The private key is generated by a random number generator on the card, and when data needs to be signed with the private key, the card does the signing.
3. Packaging. While they're not as cheap as credit cards to manufacture, in moderate quantities of 100 or so, smart cards will cost less than $10 each, making them dramatically less expensive than other authentication technologies, such as digital tokens.
The smart card can come in different form factors to work with a wide range of devices. Smart cards were originally modeled on credit cards and were built the same size. American Express' Blue is an example of a combination smart/credit card. But smart cards are used around the world in GSM cellphones (ubiquitous in Europe and available in the U.S.). Those smart cards are cut down to a size little larger than the familiar multipad connector to fit the small handsets. Some wireless LAN adapters, such as Nokia's C110 (, have small smart card readers to carry configuration data or authentication information.
Inexpensive (less than $50) smart card readers are now available for PCMCIA, serial and USB connectors on personal computers. The packaging doesn't even have to be in the shape of a card.
For example, Rainbow Technologies has combined a smart card with its own USB reader in its iKey product, a single token smaller than your thumb.
The benefits of smart cards are directly related to the volume of information and applications that are programmed for use on a card. A single contact/contactless smart card can be programmed with multiple banking credentials, medical entitlement, driver’s license/public transport entitlement, loyalty programs and club memberships to name just a few. Multi-factor and proximity authentication can and has been embedded into smart cards to increase the security of all services on the card. For example, a smart card can be programmed to only allow a contactless transaction if it is also within range of another device like a uniquely paired mobile phone. This can significantly increase the security of the smart card.
Governments and regional authorities save money because of improved security, better data and reduced processing costs. These savings help reduce public budgets or enhance public services. There are many examples in the UK, many using a common open LASSeO specification.38
Individuals have better security and more convenience with using smart cards that perform multiple services. For example, they only need to replace one card if their wallet is lost or stolen. The data storage on a card can reduce duplication, and even provide emergency medical information.

Meetings of minutes can be used as legal evidence in employment or workplace disputes and so minutes need to be kept undisclosed and confidential unless requested under the Freedom of Information Act

Meetings of minutes can be used as legal evidence in employment or workplace disputes and so minutes need to be kept undisclosed and confidential unless requested under the Freedom of Information Act. With this act, minutes of meetings can be requested and disclosed to the public, however there does need to be suitable public interest to do so. Sometimes, members of the meeting will give their consent for the minutes to be released. As minutes can be referred to or requested to be looked at, keeping them impartial and free of emotive vocabulary surrounding individuals and what they might have said is the best way to ensure they stay as neutral as possible.

The main reason the names of people who proposed and seconded actions within a meeting are recorded is to remind the members of the meetings and to keep the minutes accurate it. It is not always necessary to record who seconded each motion or the numbers of votes it received, however you may wish to note the initials; members can also request that their name is recorded along with their vote. It would be unfair to include someone’s name without their permission because if a case ever required them to testify in court, they may be put under unnecessary pressure. Ultimately, the primary function of minutes is to record whether each motion passed or not.

An individual is distinct from other in almost all respects psychologically and physically

An individual is distinct from other in almost all respects psychologically and physically, and respectively an individual has different qualities that help in the development of one’s personality. A human personality consists of some negative and positive emotions. Negative emotions are basically those which make a person mostly miserable and afraid about certain possibilities or impossibilities. Whereas, positive emotions are lack in attaining negativity which make person more contented and cheerful. These emotions and are also called human qualities which help a human to express what he feels and it also affect physical and mental health. Sense of humor is one of the most important human qualities. Sense of humor is a personality which enable person to say and see the funny side of thing. It also strengthens one’s relationship with its social groups. People with good sense of humor can appreciate and handle situations in a better way than people who lacks sense of humor.

In the fall of 2016

In the fall of 2016, photographer Robert Ormerod turned off the road onto the dried lake bed os the Black Rock Desert in search of a rocket launch. On the horizon he could make out the hazy row of RVs. Those of the attendees of a farmed amature-rocketry convention.Scince 1991 the federal aviation administration has granted the tripoli rocketry association permission to shoot rockets up to 492,000 feet (93 miles) in the air for the event. It’s one of the few times when high-altitude rockets can be safely and legally launched, so 100 to 200 hobbyists gather annually to test their creations. Tripoli calls the event a venue for projects to only be able to launch at the park. In otherwise, do not try this at home.

In my opinion It’s a good idea that Robert ormerod launched a rocket ther. If it wasn’t for him then we would not be able to launch rockets. I like that we have a place to launch rockets. I also hate that we cant be able to launch rockets at home because of the danger. To me it really doesn’t matter that we cant launch a rocket at home, but it would be cool to be able t do that.


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