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-1371600-107950000787400-737235Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus
Del Remedio, San Pablo City
Province of Laguna
00Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus
Del Remedio, San Pablo City
Province of Laguna
4867292-79756000
“EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TVL K-12 CURRICULUM AND ITS IMPACT TO THE GRADUATES’ EMPLOYABILITY AND THEIR EMPLOYEE- EMPLOYER SATISFACTION”

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of
Graduate Studies and Applied Research
Laguna State Polytechnic University
San Pablo City Campus
Name: MARICEL P. MERCADEJAS
Professor:NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed. D.

Course Description:Graduate Seminar
Panel
Date: Adviser:
Time: Subject Specialist:
Room: Statistician:
Technical Editor:
Dean:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
Chapter
ITHE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction……………………………………………………..

Background of the study……………………………………..

Theoretical Framework……………………………………….

Conceptual Framework……………………………………….

Research Paradigm…………………………………………..

Statement of the Problem…………………………………….

Research Hypothesis…………………………………………
Significance of the Study……………………………………
Scope and Delimitation of the Study………………………
Definition of terms…………………………………………..

IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIESRelated Literature……………………………………………
III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design……………………………………………
Research Instruments………………………………………
Statistical Treatment of Data………………………………
Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
 Given the fact that the Philippines is one of the only three countries in the world (Angola and Djibouti are the other two) and only one in Asia that still had only 10 years in basic education; and this has always been seen as disadvantage for the students who are competing in an increasingly global job (K12 Philippines, October 27, 2015).

K to 12 is an education system under the Department of Education that aims to enhance learners’ basic skills, produce more competent citizens, and prepare graduates for lifelong learning and employment. ” K ” stands for Kindergarten and “12 ” refers to the succeeding 12 years of basic education ( 6 years of elementary education, 4 years of junior high school, and 2 years of senior high school). As Isagani Cruz put it, “The whole point of the entire K to 12 reform is to answer the needs of about 30 million young people (those below 24 years of age) who have not finished Fourth Year High School. Or out-or-school youth of employable age, more than six million are unemployed, primarily because they do not have the skills that employers want. The new system guarantee that the students will be able to master lifelong skills by the time they graduated from the K-12 program, they will be more equipped and ready to enter college, get a job, or start on their own venture.
Background of the Study
K to 12 has been one of the utmost issues in the country ever since it was implemented. Some are in favor yet some of them questioned the capability of the country to adapt to what is generally accepted by the world in terms of educational standards. Philippines have been trying to keep up with what the world have set as standards especially when it comes to the educational sector. We, as a country known to provide valuable manpower to the world has to conform with what is generally accepted by the majority as standards when it comes to a laborer/employee’s educational attainment. Matching to what the world has set shows that the Philippines is continuously getting more and more globally competitive. The K to 12 program is just another step closer to a brighter and more competitive future to all students and professionals alike.
Theoretical framework
Bandura stated in his Social Cognitive Career Theory that an individual’s confidence in her or his ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task determines the willingness and motivation with which the client will pursue a career or education path.

On the other hand, Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription and Compromise states that career choice is a process of elimination or circumscription in which a person eliminates certain occupational choices from further consideration. This is influenced by self-concept development and various development life stages. Compromise is a complex process in which compatibility with one’s interests is often compromised for options that are in line with the need for prestige or external realities such as labor market, gender expectations, or cultural expectations.

In the early1900s Frank Parsons who developed Trait and Factor Theory through the talent-matching approach that later developed into the Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice. It says that individuals and occupations each have unique characteristics and traits. Individuals develop these traits over their lifetime, and the highest satisfaction comes when there is a good match between the characteristics of the individual and the occupation.

Significantly John Krumboltz’ social learning theory shows how individuals make career decisions that emphasizes the importance of behavior (action) and cognitions (knowing or thinking) in making career decisions, teaching clients career decision techniques and how to use them and examines four basic factors to understand why people choose the work they do as well as other occupationally related decisions.

Lastly, the Career Development theory of Donald E. Super focuses on how careers unfold over the life span. Career choice is affected by complex and multi-faceted biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural factors.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of two (2) parts, the Status of the TVL Graduates as to; NC Holder, Employment Status and Profile, and Assessment of the TVL Curriculum as to; Subject Offers. Dependent variable consists of three (3) parts as to Assessment of the Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Employee Satisfaction and Employer Satisfaction.

Figure 1 shows the relationship of independent and dependent variable.

2927985184150I. Assessment of the Technical –Vocational- Livelihood
II. Employee Satisfaction
III. Employer Satisfaction
00I. Assessment of the Technical –Vocational- Livelihood
II. Employee Satisfaction
III. Employer Satisfaction
9525174625I. Status of the TVL Graduates
NC Holder
Employment Status
Profile
II. Assessment of the TVL Curriculum
Subject Offers
00I. Status of the TVL Graduates
NC Holder
Employment Status
Profile
II. Assessment of the TVL Curriculum
Subject Offers
IV DV
25875572823180
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the relationship of Employability status of NC holder graduates batch 2017-2018 to the implementation of the TVL K to 12 curriculum.

Specifically, the study will seek to answer the following questions:
1. What is the status of the TVL Pagbilao National High School graduates in terms of
1.1. NC Holder;
1.2. employment status; and
1.3. profile?
2. What is the perception of the respondents in the assessment of the Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, employee satisfaction and employer satisfaction?
3. What is the perception of the respondents in the assessment of TVL curriculum in terms of
3.1. subject offers?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the implementation of the TVL K-12 curriculum and the employment of the NC holder TVL senior high school graduates?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the implementation of the TVL K-12 curriculum and the employment of the NC holder senior high school graduates.

Significance of the Study
Schools. The information they may get from this study may be used as reference on the implementation of K to 12, along with the issues and concerns the school heads and the teachers encountered on such implementation.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Definition of terms
For the purpose of clarification, the important terms used in this study have been defined.

The following terms are:
K – 12. Letter “K” refers to kindergarten and “12” refers to the additional two (2)
years in the basic education. It is the additional years after fourth years in
secondary schooling.TVL. Refers to Technical-Vocational- Livelihood. It is one of the tracks offered in K- 12 curriculum.

Profile. Refers to the respondent’s age and gender .

Employment Status. Refers to the respondent’s as to employed, underemployed and employed.

Perception. Refers to what is conceived to be true which is subjective. It refers
to the specific perception of the senior high school graduates in regard to the TVL K – 12 program which is implemented by the Department of Education.

Employer Satisfaction.
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the discussion of related literature and studies having direct bearing to the study.

Related Literature
Literature in K-12, more than just text-
LITERATURE-K-12-MORE-JUST-TEXT-408455May 20, 2015
DEPARTMENT of Education (DepEd)-Baguio district head Francis Bringas emphasized in a recent gathering at the University of the Philippines-Baguio that neither the Philippine nor world literature was removed in the new curriculum to give way to the incorporated subjects from college.”Literature was not removed. It was and will be reinforced,” Bringas said.He said the K-12 is not only focused on equipping students with technical knowledge and skills through the four tracks in senior high school, but also prepares them to do “authentic tasks” in life with understanding and realizations to motivate them to do so.”Children always want relevance in the topics that they are taught in school which we have failed to do in the past,” he said.Previously, literature was taken only as part of the study in language. Literary pieces were studied as literary texts — pieces with perfectly used language.But in the new curriculum, literary pieces will be studied to serve as a medium for appreciation of culture and life.In the past, first, second and third year students study Philippine, Afro-Asian and British American based on genre.The objective was to understand the writer’s style, the story and its moral lesson.But in the new curriculum, Bringas said, “The students should be able to demonstrate communicative competence through understanding of Philippine, Afro-Asian, British-American and other countries text types and a deeper appreciation of their culture.”The objective is to study these texts as the students come to a realization of valuing themselves and other people from the characters, learning lessons from the stories’ circumstances, and using these lessons to connect to the world.They should be able to apply the lessons learned in this “authentic tasks” or whatever activities or circumstances they have outside the school. At present, the curriculum for Grades 10, 11 and 12 are still on review for its implementation, but the district head noted the same objectives for students are aimed. Bringas believes the new and more relevant curriculum will not only prepare the students to college but also in life. (Giovanni Joy Fontanilla)
The study is a review of the literature on the basic education (k-12) curriculum specifically the senior high school (SHS) of the Philippines, Japan, and the US. Results of the review show that the SHS curriculum is intended to prepare students to enter into college/university or to work in the industry or be an entrepreneur. The SHS program is the last level in all basic education programs of the countries reviewed. The Philippines has a clearer model with at least four tracks (academics, tech-voc, sports, arts & design) and at least ten strands. Japan has two tracks in academics and tech-voc. The US basic education system varies from state to state, similar to its SHS curriculum. There is no definite track as this is left to individual state and their school districts to decide. There are purely academic, tech-voc and other types of schools. The majority of those who choose academic track are students who plans to proceed to college. There are still a stigma in selecting tech-voc and other courses as this are seen by many as the course for poor performing/problematic students. The enrollment in tech-voc schools in the US is declining despite the surge of demand for skilled workers. In the three countries, the availability of qualified teachers is still an issue. This situation is very real in the Philippines as it started the SHS program in June 2016. Other problems includes the need to construct a huge number of classrooms and facilities. All of these are currently being addressed too by the government.
(PDF) Senior High School Curriculum in the Philippines, USA, and Japan. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318494693_Senior_High_School_Curriculum_in_the_Philippines_USA_and_Japan accessed Oct 03 2018.

(RBECis the product of 16 year’s study and seven years of intensive consultations, Roco said many years ago.)
Chapter 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design, the population and sample, the research instruments and statistical treatment of data
Research Design
This study will use descriptive research with survey questionnaire.

It involves NC holder graduates in Pagbilao National High School Year 2017-2018.

Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use mixed method wherein interview and survey questionnaire will be used to determine the alignment to current employment of the NC holders of Pagbilao National High School.

This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.
2809875258445The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx N
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bigcas, J. (2016). A Mini Critique of K-12 Education Curriculum.
”What is k12”. 27 Oct. 2015.Web. 15 July 2016.http://k12philippines.com/Johnson, C.(2016). Applying Career Development Theory.

Title 2.

“TVL COURSES IN PUBLIC SHS: INPUT TO SUSTAINABILITY AND NEEDS OF LOCAL INDUSTRIES IN PAGBILAO DISTRICT I”
Rationale
Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) Track is one of the four tracks under Senior High School Specialized Subjects. It is separated from the main article because it offers broader choices and also, subjects are already TESDA accredited. By finishing them, one will be given a National Certificate, depending on the level completed. 
Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) is one of the tracks offered in Senior High School. It focuses on technical skills development in any area. Food and Beverage Services is one of the specialized subjects under the TVL career track.

Five common competencies based on the training regulations of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), are covered in the exploratory phase: mensuration and calculation, technical drafting, use of tools and equipment and occupational health and safety. TVL track can make students become more prepared, equipped and armed with job-ready skills for future employment. Not all students will be able to go to college because of financial problems so if they took the SHS TVL track which is not very costly, after 2 years they can acquire certificates that will lead them to seek job than waiting several years to graduate when they took college.

Technical Vocational and Livelihood track invests primarily on skills that can gain requisite COCs (Certificates of Competency) and NCs (National Certifications) which would be essential when looking for better career opportunities in agriculture, electronics, and trade. This is also important when applying abroad where the skills gained would prepare one in the workforce.

In the end, TVL track plays a very important role to preparing our students towards their future career. This track is their ticket to have a better and stable working life.

Theoretical Framework
Learning theories have reshaped themselves from behaviourism to
information processing to constructivism. Recognising that context and culture
influence memory and cognition forced researchers to explain personal meaning
and the nature of reality and its representations (Doolite & Camp, 19999). Consequently social and radical constructivism developed with the following four principles:
Learning is an active process according to which learners construct their own knowledge;
Cognition is an adaptive process;
Meaning making is a subjective process and does not render an accurate representation of reality;
Social, cultural, language , and biological/neurological process influence
Knowing (Yilmaz, 2008)
Constructivism is a way of teaching and learning that intends to maximize student understanding. Like discovery learning, it is situated within meaningful learning in the cognitive school of thought. Constructivism is defined variously as teaching that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information (Woolfolk, 2009); learners’ construction of knowledge as they attempt to make sense of their environment (McCown, 2001); and learning that occurs when learners actively engage in a situation that involves collaboratively formulating questions, explaining phenomenon, addressing complex issues, or resolving problems.

As cited by Buerano (2015) Whilst, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, it states that he learning occurs within a social context. Anything that can be learned by direct experience can also be learned from observation (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013). Teacher can be the most influential model to the learners. Hence, teachers play a fundamental role in motivating and encouraging their learners to achieve high performance in school.

Skinner as cited by Tulio (2010) suggests that the teachers should use techniques that produce meaningful behavior changes. He favored the use of teaching materials, programmed instruction and behavior therapy, for it provide immediate reinforcement and help bridge the gap between the students behavior and more instant conditioned reinforces such promotion in grades.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of one (1) part, the TVL Courses Offered of Public SHS as to; Goals/ Objectives, Content, Availability of Teacher’s Materials, Readiness of the Teachers, and Students Readiness. Dependent variable consists of Students’ Performance, Skills in Measuring and Calculations, Skills in Using Tools and Equipment and Sustainability of the Local Industry.

Figure 1 shows the relationship of independent and dependent variable.

2927985178435Students’
Performance
skills in measuring and calculations
skills in using tools and equipment
Sustainability of the local industry
0Students’
Performance
skills in measuring and calculations
skills in using tools and equipment
Sustainability of the local industry
165370178989TVL courses offered of public SHS
-goals/objectives
-content
-availability of teacher’s materials
-readiness of the teachers
-students readiness
0TVL courses offered of public SHS
-goals/objectives
-content
-availability of teacher’s materials
-readiness of the teachers
-students readiness
IV DV
242506577470
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the TVL courses offered by the public SHS that suits to the needs and sustainability of the local industry in Pagbilao District I.

Specifically, it will answer the following questions:
1. What is the perception of the respondents in the courses offered in public SHS to the needs and sustainability of local industry in Pagbilao District I
1.1. goals/objectives;
1.2. content;
1.3. availability of teacher’s materials;
1.4. readiness of the teachers; and
1.5. students readiness?
2. What is the students’ performance in terms of:
2.1. skills in measuring and calculations;
2.2. skills in using tools and equipment?
3. How will TVL courses sustain the needs of local Industries in Pagbilao District?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the offered TVL courses and the sustainability and needs of local industries in Pagbilao?
Hypotheses
There is no significant relationship on TVL specialized courses and the
sustainability and needs of local industry in Pagbilao District I.

There is no significant relationship on TVL courses offered of public senior high school to the students’ performance.

Research Design
This study will use descriptive research and mixed method with survey questionnaire and interview for data collection.

It involves public Senior High School teachers and students in Pagbilao District I.

Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.
2809875258445The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx N
References:

Senior High School Specialized Subject: Food and Beverage Services

K to 12: Senior High School TLE and TVL Track Curriculum Guides 2017


Title 3.

“ASSESSMENT OF GRADE 8 T.L.E MODULE ON STUDENTS PERFORMANCE OF PAGBILAO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL”

Rationale
The K to 12 Curriculum has as its overarching goal the holistic development of every Filipino learner with 21st century skills who is adequately prepared for work, entrepreneurship, middle level skills development and higher education.

The dominant goal of the K to 12 curriculum, tells that the teaching of TLE plays a very important role in the realization of the overall goal of the curriculum. Whether or not the K to 12 graduate is skilled and ready for work, entrepreneurship and middle skills development depend to a great extent on how effectively you taught.

Technology and Livelihood Education is one of the subjects in the Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum of the Department of Education. Based on its name, it teaches competencies to students that are very useful in livelihood. These learnings can be applied for the students to have another source of income.

According to the Department of Education, the TVL specializations may be taken between Grades 9 to 12. Exploratory Subjects at 40 hours per quarter are taken during Grades 7 to 8. These subjects are horticulture, household services, care giving and handicraft production which are being offered among Grade 8 students.

Learning module is a tool that provides course materials in a logical, sequential, order, guiding students through the content and assessments in the order specified by the instructor.
Theoretical Framework
As express by Koch (2012) before real learning occurs, one needs to make information his own so that it becomes significant and one can use it for his own purposes. These ideas form the basis of a group of learning theories called constructivism. The constructivist approach builds on cognitive and social cognitive theories but goes further by considering how new information becomes meaningful to the learner.
Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions.

It is often seen in contrast to constructivism. Constructivists are more likely to allow for experimentation and exploration in the classroom and place a greater emphasis on the experience of the learner. In contrast to behaviorists, they feel that an understanding of the brain informs teaching.

As cited by Buerano (2015) Whilst, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory, it states that he learning occurs within a social context. Anything that can be learned by direct experience can also be learned from observation (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013). Teacher can be the most influential model to the learners. Hence, teachers play a fundamental role in motivating and encouraging their learners to achieve high performance in school.

Skinner as cited by Tulio (2010) suggests that the teachers should use techniques that produce meaningful behavior changes. He favored the use of teaching materials, programmed instruction and behavior therapy, for it provide immediate reinforcement and help bridge the gap between the students behavior and more instant conditioned reinforces such promotion in grades.

As mentioned by Aquino (2009), Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is composed of five types of needs that motivate people and classified into two categories: deficiency (psychological, safety and security and social needs) and growth needs (esteem and ego and self- actualization needs). Maslow’s theory explained that in order to fulfill dreams in life the five basic human needs must be satisfied first. Failure to meet this needs means lack of qualities for basic psychological adjustment or lack of positive sense of self (a sense that allows us to love, be loved, or feel secured). Similarly, Maslow believed that this positive sense of self is very important in developing optimism for future actions and decisions. Failure to meet needs, produce a very weak foundation of personality (Aquino, 2009). Thus, if a learner’s wants and needs were satisfied, a tendency of performing well in school will be manifested.

Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study focuses on the IV- DV relationship. It consists of the Independent and Dependent Variable. Independent variable consists of one (1) part, the Inquiry-Based Learning variables as to; Grade 8 Module, Goals/Objectives and Content of the Exploratory Courses namely Horticulture, Household Services, Care Giving and Handicraft. Dependent variable consists of Students’ Performance; Skills and Output.

IV DV
17095318525Grade 8 Module
Horticulture
Household Services
Care Giving
Handicraft
goals/objectives
content
0Grade 8 Module
Horticulture
Household Services
Care Giving
Handicraft
goals/objectives
content
292210418526Students’ Performance
Skills
Output
0Students’ Performance
Skills
Output

2424430134620
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to assess the Grade 8 TLE Module on the Students’ Performance of Pagbilao National High School.

Specifically, it will answer the following questions:
1. How effective is the grade 8 module
1.1 goals/objectives;
1.2 content?
2. What is the significance of the students’ performance in terms of
2.1 skills learned in TLE;
2.2 their output?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the grade 8 TLE module and the students’ performance?
Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between the grade 8 TLE module and the students’ performance.

Research Design
The research design to be used in this study is a descriptive survey method in gathering data.

It involves Grade 8 students in Pagbilao National High School .

Statistical Treatment of the Data
This study will use weighted mean method. Weighted mean is the point on the score scales that is equal to the sum of score divided by the total number of scores.
2809875258445The formula for weighted mean: x = ?fx N
References:
http://www.academia.edu/8495139/

Behaviorism


https://www.pressreader.com/philippines/sunstar-pampanga/20170616/281663959996722
Koch, J. (2012). Teach: Student Edition. Wadsworth, USA.

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